संगीत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

lok git kalakar, dilli

sngit manaviy lay evn talabaddh abhivyakti hai. bharatiy sngit apani madhurata, layabaddhata tatha vividhata ke lie jana jata hai. vartaman bharatiy sngit ka jo roop drishtigat hota hai, vah adhunik yug ki prastuti nahin hai, balki yah bharatiy itihas ke prarambh ke sath hi juda hua hai. vaidik kal men hi bharatiy sngit ke bij pad chuke the. samaved un vaidik richaon ka sngrah matr hai, jo gey hain. prachin kal se hi eeshvar aradhana hetu bhajanon ke prayog ki parampara rahi hai. yahan tak ki ygyadi ke avasar par bhi samoohagan hote the. dhyan dene ki bat hai ki prachin kal ki any kalaon ke saman hi bharatiy kala bhi dharm se prabhavit thi. vastav men bharatiy sngit ki utpatti dharmik prerana se hi huee hai. parantu dhire-dhire yah dharm ko todakar laukik jivan se snbandhit hoti gee aur isi ke sath nrity kala, vady tatha giton ke naye-naye roopon ka avishkar hota gaya. kalantar men naty bhi sngit ka ek hissa ban gaya. samay ke sath sngit ki vibhinn dharaen vikasit hoti gee, naye-naye rag, naye-naye vady yntr aur naye-naye kalakar utpann hote gaye. bharatiy sngit jagat anek mahanh vibhootiyon ke yogadanon ke parinamasvaroop hi itana vishal roop dharan kar saka hai.

sngit kya hai?

is prashn ka uttar bharatiy sngitakaron ne vividh roop se dene ka prayas kiya hai. 'sngit ratnakar' ke anusar gitn vady tatha nrity trayn sagitamuchyate - arthath git, vady aur nrity - in tinon ka samuchchay hi sngit hai. parantu bharatiy sngit ka adhyayan karane par yah abhas hota hai ki in tinon men git ki hi pradhanata rahi hai tatha vady aur nrity git ke anugami rahe hain. ek any paribhasha ke anusar, samyakh prakaren yadh giyate tatsngitamh - arthath samyakh prakar se jise gaya ja sake vahi sngit hai. any shabdon men svar, tal, shuddh, acharan, hav-bhav aur shuddh mudra ke gey vishay hi sngit hai. vastav men svar aur lay hi sngit ka arthath git, vady aur nrity ka adhar hai.

sngit ki paribhasha

sngit vah lalit kala hai, jisamen svar aur lay ke dvara ham apane bhavon ko prakat karate hain. lalit kala ki shreni men 5 kalaen ati hain–sngit, kavita, chitrakala, moortikala aur vastukala men manav bhavanaon ko vyakt to karate hain, parantu pratyek men usaka madhyam badala karata hai. agar rng, painsil, kagaz adi ke dvara bhavon ko vyakt karate hain to chitrakala ki rachana hoti hai. isi prakar yadi svar-lay ke dvara apane bhavon ko prakat karate hain to sngit ki rachana hoti hai.

kivadanti

lalit kalaon men sngit ko sarvashreshth mana gaya hai. is prakar sngit samast kalaon men sarvashreshth hua. sngit ka sambandh devi-devataon se bhi joda gaya hai. kivadanti hai ki sarvapratham brahma ne sarasvati devi ko aur sarasvati ne narad ko sngit ki shiksha di. isake bad narad ne bharat ko aur bharat ne natyashastr dvara jan sadharan men sngit ka prachar kiya. sngit ki

utpatti men is prakar ki mukhy 7 kivndantiyan prasiddh hain. prachin kal men in kivndantiyon ka mahatv shayad raha bhi ho, kintu aj ke vaigyanik yug men inaka vishesh mahatv nahin hai.

parichay

'sngit' shabd 'git' shabd men 'samh' upasarg lagakar bana hai. 'samh' yani 'sahit' aur 'git' yani 'gan'. 'gan ke sahit' arthath angabhoot kriyaon (nrity) v vadan ke sath kiya hua kary 'sngit' kahalata hai.

nrittn vadyanugn proktn vadyn gitanuvarti ch.
ato gitn pradhanatvadatradabhidhiyate..[1]

bharatiy sngit

prachin kal men bharatiy sngit ke do roop prachalit hue-1. margi tatha 2. deshi. kalantar men margi sngit lupt hota gaya. sath hi deshi sngit do roopon men vikasit hua- (i) shastriy sngit tatha (ii) lok sngit.

  • shastriy sngit shastron par adharit tatha vidvanon v kalakaron ke adhyayan v sadhana ka pratiphal tha. yah atynt niyamabaddh tatha shreshth sngit tha.
  • lok sngit kal aur sthan ke anuroop prakriti ke svachchhand vatavaran men svabhavik roop se palata hua vikasit hota raha, atah yah adhik vividhatapoorn tatha halka-phulka v chittakarshak hai.

sngit ki utpatti

bharatiy sngit ki utpatti vedon se mani jati hai. vadon ka mool mntr hai - 'Om' (oamh) . (oamh) shabd men tin akshar a, u tatha mh sammilit hain, jo kramashah brahma arthath srishtikarta, vishnu arthath jagath palak aur mahesh arthath snharak ki shaktiyon ke dyotak hain. in tinon aksharon ko rigved, samaved tatha yajurved se liya gaya hai. sngit ke sat svar shadaj (sa), rishabh (r), gandhar (ga) adi vastav men oon (oamh) ya onkar ke hi arntavibhag hain. sath hi svar tatha shabd ki utpatti bhi oon ke garbh se hi huee hai. mukh se uchcharit shabd hi sngit men nad ka roop dharan kar leta hai. is prakar 'oon' ko hi sngit ka jagat mana jata hai. isilie kaha jata hai ki jo sadhak 'oon' ki sadhana karane men samarth hota hai, vahi sngit ko yatharth roop men grahan kar sakata hai. yadi darshanik drishti se isaka goodharth nikala jay, to isaka tatpary yahi hai ki oon arthath sampoorn srishti ka ek ansh hamari atma men nihit hai aur sngit usi atma ki avaz hai, antah sngit ki utpatti hridayagat bhavon men hi mani jati hai.

vady vadak chitr
pramukh vady yntr evn kalakar
sitar pndit ravishnkar, nikhil bainarji, vilayat khan, bnde hasan, shahid paravej, umashnkar mishr, buddhadity mukharji adi. Sitar.jpg
tabala alla rakkha khan, gudee maharaj, (pn. samata prasad) zakir husain, latif khan, kishan maharaj, fayyar khan, sukhavindar sinh adi. Tabla.jpg
bansuri pannalal ghosh, hari prasad chaurasiya, vi. kunjamani, en. nila, rajendr prasanna, rajendr kulakarni adi. Bansuri.jpg
sarod amazad ali khan, ali akabar khan, alauddin khan, vishvajit ray chaudhari, zarin daroovala, buddhadev das gupta, mukesh sharma adi. Sarod.jpg
vayalin daau. en. rajan, vishnu govind jog, el. subrahmanyamh, sngita rajan, kunakkadi vaidyanathan, ti. en. krishnanh adi. Violin.jpg
vina es. balachndran, kalyan krishn bhagavatar, badarooddin dagar, vi. doresvami ayngar adi. Veena.jpg
shahanaee bismilla khan, dayashnkar jagannath, ali ahamad husain khan adi. Shehnai.jpg
sntoor shivakumar sharma, bhajan sopari adi. Santoor.jpg
pakhavaj gopal das, ustad rahaman khan, chhatrapati sinh, thakur lakshman sinh adi. Pakawaj.jpg
rudravina asad ali khan, ustad sadik ali khan adi. Rudra-Veena.jpg
mridng paladhar raghu, thakur bhikam sinh, daau. jagadish sinh adi. Mridangam.jpg

sngit ke roop

pratyek kala ke mukhy do roop hote hain-kriya aur shastr. kriya ke antargat usaki sadhana vidhi aur shastr ke antargat usaka itihas, paribhashik shabdon ki vyakhya adi ati hai. sngit ke bhi do roop hain-

kriyatmak roop

sngit ka kriyatmak roop vah hai, jise ham kanon dvara sunate hain athava netron dvara dekhate hain. doosare shabdon men kriyatmak sngit men gana, bajana aur nachana ata hai. gayan aur vadan ko ham sunate hain aur nrity ko dekhate hain. kriyatmak roop men rag, git ke prakar, alap-tan, saragam, jhala, rela, tukada, amad, gat, mind adi ki sadhana ati hai. sngit ka yah paksh bahut hi mahattvapoorn hai.

shastr paksh

shastr paksh men sngit sambandhi vishayon ka adhyayan karate hain. isake do prakar hain–kriyatmak shastr aur shuddh shastr. kriyatmak shastr men kriyatmak sngit ka adhyayan ata hai, jaise ragon ka parichay, git ki svar-lipi likhana, tan-alap, milate-julate ragon ki tulana, tukada, rela adi. is shastr se kriyatmak sngit men badi sahayata milati hai. shuddh shastr men sngit, nad, jati, aroh-avaroh, svar, lay, matra, tal, khali adi ki paribhasha, sngit ka itihas adi ka adhyayan ata hai.

sngit paddhatiyan

bharatavarsh men mukhy roop se do prakar ka sngit prachar men hai, jinhen sngit ki paddhati kahate hain. unake nam hain–uttari athava hindustani sngit paddhati aur dakshini athava karnatak sngit paddhati.  

uttari sngit paddhati

uttari sngit paddhati ko hindustani sngit paddhati bhi kahate hain. yah paddhati uttari hindustan men–bngal, bihar, udisa, uttar pradesh, hariyana, pnjab, gujarat, jammoo-kashmir tatha maharashtr pranton men prachalit hain.  

dakshini sngit paddhati

dakshini sngit paddhati ko karnatak sngit paddhati bhi kahate hain. yah tamilanadu, maisoor, andhr pradesh adi dakshin ke pradeshon men prachalit hain. ye donon paddhatiyan alag hote hue bhi inamen bahut kuchh samanataain hai.  

sngit ke prakar

bharatiy sngit ke mukhy do prakar hain–shastriy sngit aur bhav sngit. shastriy sngit use kahate hain, jisamen niyamit shastr hota hai aur jisamen kuchh vishisht (khas) niyamon ka palan karana avashyak hota hai. udaharanarth, shastriy sngit men rag ke niyamon ka palan karana padata hai, n karane se rag hani hoti hai. isake atirikt lay-tal ki sima men rahana padata hai, git ka kaun sa prakar ham ga rahe hain, usaka nirvah bhi usi prakar se hona chahie, ityadi-ityadi. bhav sngit men shastriy sngit ke saman n koee bandhan hota hai aur n usaka niyamit shastr hi hota hai. bhav sngit ka mukhy aur ekamatr uddeshy kanon ko achchha lagana hai, at: usamen koee bandhan nahin rahata-chahe koee bhi svar prayog kiya jae, chahe jis tal men gaya jae v alap, tan, saragam, adi kuchh bhi prayog kiya jae athava n prayog kiya jae. bhav sngit ka mukhy uddeshy rnjakata hai. rnjakata ke lie hi kahin-kahin shastriy sngit ka sahara bhi liya jata hai. bhav sngit ko sugam sngit kahate hain. bhav sngit ko mukhy tin bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai-

  • chitrapat sngit
  • lok sngit
  • bhajan-git

chitrapat sngit

vyapak arth men jis kisi git ka prayog chitrapat (sinema) men hua ho, use chitrapat sngit kahate hain. baijoo bavara ka aj gavat man mero tatha jhanak-jhanak payal baje ka 'giradhar gopal' donon ki shaili shastriy hote hue bhi ye chitrapat git hain, kyonki inaka prayog chitrapat men ho chuka hai.

sadharan filmi giton ki kuchh niji visheshataen hoti hain, jo ki is prakar hain–

  • s:- bhavanukool git aur akarshak rachana
  • re:- vibhinn vadyon ka prayog
  • g:- shrringar ras ke hridayasparshi shabd
  • m:- surile aur akarshak knthon ke dvara gaya jana
  • p:- dhvani baddh (rikard) karane ke poorv thik prakar se janchana

jin giton men ye visheshataen hon aur jinaka prayog chitrapat men hua ho, ve filmi git kahalate hain. inhin sab visheshataon ke karan sadharan janata filmi giton ki or adhik akarshit hoti hai.  

lok git

yah graminon ka git hai. in giton men saikadon varshon se chale aye riti-rivazon ki jhanki milati hai. isake antargat shadi ke git, vibhinn snskaron par gaye jane vale git, chaiti, kajari, alha, biraha, baool, mahiya, bhatiyali, manjhi adi lok git ate hain. inaka svaroop saral, bhav chhute guye, kuchh svaron ke andar simit tatha lay pradhan hote hain. in giton ko sunate hi sadharan vyakti tali dene lagate hain. isaliye lok giton ke sath dholak bajaye jati hai.  

bhajan-git adi

isamen shastriy sngit ki tarah bandhan nahin rahata. jin giton men eeshvar ka gunagan ya unase prarthana ki jati hai, unhen bhajan aur jin kavitaon ko svar-tal baddh karake gate hain, unhen git kahate hain. rag-tal niyamon se svatntr, akarshak rachanayen, bhavanukool shabdon dvara git rachana adi inaki visheshataen hoti hain. adhikatar ye dadara aur kaharava tal men hote hain. inamen aur chitrapat giton men mukhy antar yah hai ki inaki tulana men chitrapat giton ki rachana bahut chalati-phirati aur shabd saste dhng ke hote hain.

sngit ke vividh ang

sngit se sambndhit kuchh moolabhoot tathyon ko janakar hi sngit ki barikiyon ko samajha ja sakata hai. dhvani, svar, lay, tal adi isake antargat ate hain.

svar

dhvaniyon men ham pray: do bhed rakhate hain, jinamen se ek ko 'svar' aur doosare ko 'kolahal' ya 'rav' kahate hain. kuchh log batachit ki dhvani ko bhi ek bhed manate hain. sadharanat: jab koee dhvani niyamit aur avart-kampanon se milakar utpann hoti hai, to use 'svar' kahate hain. isake viparit jab kampann aniyamit tatha pechide ya mishrit hon to us dhvani ko 'kolahal' kahate hain. bolachal ki bhasha ki dhvani ko svar aur kolahal ke bich ki shreni men rakha jata hai. snkshep men yah samajhie ki niyamit andolan snkhyavali dhvani 'svar' kahalati hai. yahi dhvani sngit ke kam men ati hai, jo kanon ka madhur lagati hai tatha chitt ko prasannh karati hai. is dhvani ko sngit ki bhasha men 'nad' kahate hain. is adhar par sngitopayogi nad 'svar' kahalata hai. bharatiy sngitgyon ne ek svar (dhvani) se usase duguni dhvani tak ke kshetr men aise sngitopayogi nad baees mane hain, jinhen 'shrutiyan' kaha gaya hai. dhvani ki prarambhik avastha 'shruti' aur usaka anuranatmak (gunjit) 'svar' kahalata hai.

shuddh svar

jab sa, re, g, m, p, dh, ni svaron men shrutiyon ka kram 4, 3, 4, 4, 3, 2, rahata hai to un svaron ko shuddh svar kahate hain.

shuddh tivr svar

sa, re, g, m, p, dh, ni shuddh svar kahe jate hain. inamen sa aur p to achal svar mane ge hain, kyonki ye apani jagah par qayam rahate hain. baki panch svaron ke do-do roop kar die ge hain, kyonki ye apani jagah par se hatate hain, isalie inhen komal v tivr namon se pukarate hain. inhen vikrit svar bhi kaha jata hai.

saptak

kramanusar sat shuddh svaron ke samooh ko saptak kahate hain. saton svaron ke nam kramash: sa, re, g, m, p, dh aur ni hain. isamen pratyek svar ki andolan snkhya apane pichhale svar se adhik hoti hai. doosare shabdon men sa se jaise-jaise age badhate jate hain, svaron ki andolan snkhya badhati jati hai. re ki andolan snkhya sa se, g, ki, re, se, v, m, ki, g, se adhik hoti hai. isi prakar p, dh aur ni ki andolan snkhya apane pichhale svaron se zyada hoti hai.

that

saptak ke 12 svaron men se 7 kramanusar mukhy svaron ke us samuday ko that kahate hain, jisase rag utpann hote hai. svarasaptak, mel, that, athava that ek hi arthavachak hain. prachin snskrit granthon men mel shabd hi prayog kiya gaya hai. abhinav rag mnjari men kaha gaya hai– mel svar samooh: syadrag vynjan shaktiman, arthath svaron ke us samooh ko mel ya that kahate hain, jisamen rag utpann karane ki shakti ho.

rag

kam se kam panch aur adhik se adhik sat svaron ki vah sundar rachana jo kanon ko achchhi lage rag kahalati hai. ajakal rag-gayan hi prachar men hai. abhinav rag-mnjari men rag ki paribhasha is prakar di gee hai–

yoayn dhvani-visheshastu svar-varn-vibhooshit:.
rnjako janachittanan s rag kathito budhai:..

arthath

svar aur varn se vibhooshit dhvani, jo manushyon ka manornjan kare, rag kahalata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

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  1. sngit ratnakar 1|24-25

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