संसद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat men snsadatmak shasan pranali svikar ki gee hai. at: snsad ki sarvichchata bharatiy shasan ki pramukh visheshata hai. snsad ko vidhayika athava vyavasthapika nam se bhi jana jata hai.

gathan

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 79 ke anusar sngh ke lie ek snsad hogi, jo rashtrapati aur do sadanon se mil kar banegi. uchch sadan rajyasabha tatha nimn sadan lokasabha kahalati hai. is prakar snsad-

  1. rashtrapati,
  2. rajyasabha,
  3. lokasabha se milakar gathit hai.

rashtrapati snsad ka abhinn bhag hai. ise snsad ka abhinn bhag isalie mana jata hai kyonki isaki anumati ke bina rajyasabha tatha lokasabha dvara parit koee bhi vhdheyak adhiniyam ka roop nahin lega. kuchh aise vidheyak bhi hain, jinhen rashtrapati ki anumati ke bina lokasabha men pesh nahin kiya ja sakata. rashtrapati ko rajyasabha tatha lokasabha men pesh nahin kiya ja sakata. rashtrapati ko rajyasabha tatha lokasabha ka satr bulane, satravasan karane aur lokasabha ko vighatit karane ka adhikar hai.

yogyata

  1. vah bharat ka nagarik ho.
  2. vah nirvachan ayog dvara is nimitt pradhikrit kisi vyakti ke samaksh tisari anusoochi men diye gaye praroop ke anusar shapath leta hai ya pratigyan karata hai aur us par hastakshar karata hai.
  3. use rajyasabha ki dasha men 30 varsh se kam tatha lokasabha ki sthiti men 25 varsh se kam ayu ka nahin hona chahie.
  4. usake pas aisi koee any arhata ho, jo ki snsad dvara banayi gayi kisi vidhi dvara vihit ki gayi hai. snsad ne lok pratinidhitv adhaniyam, 1951 banakar nimnalikhit arhata niyat ki hai-

rajyasabha ki sadasyata

rajyasabha men kisi rajy ya sngh rajyakshetr ke pratinidhi ke roop men vah vyakti chuna jaega, jo us rajy ya rajyakshetr ke snsadiy nirvachan kshetr ka nirvachak ho. lekin is pravadhan ki bhavana ka rajanitik dalon ke netaon dvara ullnghan kiya jata raha hai, kyonki kisi rajy/sngh rajyakshetr se rajyasabha ka pratinidhi chune jane ke lie rajanitik dal ke sadasy us rajy ya sngh rajyakshetr ke kisi snsadiy nirvachan kshetr ke nirvachak ban jate hain, jabaki ve usase pahale us rajy ya sngh rajyakshetr ke kisi bhi nirvachan kshetr ke nirvachak nahin hote. aise netaon bhrashtachar ka doshi mana jana chahie tatha inhen sadaiv ke lie snsad ki sadasyata ke ayogy kar dena chahie. nivartaman chunav ayukt ti. en. sheshan ne is sambandh men qadam uthaye the. rajyasabha snsad ka uchch sadan hai, isamen sadasyon ki kul adhikatam snkhya 250 ho sakati hai.

lokasabha ki sadasyata

lokasabha ki sadasyata ke lie yah arhata nishchit ki gayi hai ki anusoochit jati tatha anusoochit janajati ke lie arakshit sthan ki dasha men chunav men khade hone vale vyakti ke lie usi jati ya janajati ka hona chahie tatha sikkim rajy ke sthan/sthanon ki sthiti men chunav men khade hone vale vyaktiyon ko sikkim ka nirvachak hona chahie.

ayogyata

anuchchhed 102 ke anusar koee vyakti snsad ke kisi sadan ka sadasy chune jane ke lie aur sadasy hone ke lie nimnalikhit adhar par ayogy hoga-

  1. yadi vah bharat sarakar ke kisi rajy sarakar ke adhin koee labh ka pad dharan karata hai, lekin yadi snsad ne vidhi dvara kisi pad ko dharan karane ki chhoot di hai, to us pad ko dharan karane vala vyakti snsad ki sadasyata ke lie ayogy nahin hoga.
  2. yadi vah saksham nyayalay ke dvara vikritachitt ghoshit kar diya gaya hai.
  3. yadi vah amukt divaliya hai.
  4. yadi vah bharat ka nagarik nahin hai ya usane kisi videshi rajy ki nagarikata svechchha se arjit kar li hai ya yadi vah kisi videshi rajy ke prati nishtha dharan karata hai.
  5. yadi vah dal badal qanoon (snvidhan ki dasavin anusoochi) ke adhin snsad ki sadasyata ke lie ayogy thaharaya gaya hai.
  6. yadi vah snsad dvara banayi gayi kisi vidhi ke adhin ayogy ghoshit kar diya gaya hai, snsad ne 1951 men lok pratinidhitv adhinayam, 1951 banakar nimnalikhit vyaktiyon ko snsad ki sadasyata ke lie ayogy ghoshit kiya hai–
    1. jo bhrasht acharan ka doshi thaharaya gaya ho,
    2. jo kuchh aparadhon ke lie saksham nyayalay dvara doshi nirnit kiya gaya ho,
    3. jo vyakti bharat sarakar ya kisi rajy ki sarakar ke adhin pad dharan karate hue bhrashtachar ke karan ya rajy ke prati abhakti ke karan padachyut kar diya gaya ho,
    4. jo sarakar ke sath apane vyapar ya karobar ke anukram men sarakar ko mal pradan karane ke lie ya sarakar dvara kiye jane vale kisi kary ke lie snvida liya ho,
    5. jo vyakti kisi aisi kampani ya nigam ka (sahakari sosaiti se bhinn), jisaki poonji men sarakar ka 25% ya adhik hissa hai, prabandh abhikarta ya sachiv hai,
    6. jo vyakti apane chunav vyay ka lekha dakhil karane men asaphal raha hai.
    7. disambar, 1988 men janapratinidhi adhiniyam, 1951 men snshodhan kar atnkavadi gatividhi, taskari, jamakhori, munaphakhori, khady padarthon evn davaon men milavat karane vale, phera ka ullnghan tatha mahilaon ke viruddh aparadh karane vale vyaktiyon ko snsad ya rajy ke vidhanamandal ka chunav ladane ke lie ayogy ghoshit kar diya gaya hai.

prashn ka vinishchay

jab snsad sadasyon ki ayogyata se sambandhit prashn utpann hota hai to usaka vinishchay rashtrapati ke dvara kiya jata hai. is sambandh men rashtrapati ka narniy antim mana jata hai tatha is nirnay ke viruddh nyayalay men yachika ya apil dakhil nahin ki ja sakati. rashtrapati snsad sadasyon ki ayogyata se sambandhit prashn ka nirnay karate samay chunav ayog ki ray leta hai aur usi ke anusar kary karata hai. lekin snsad sadasy ke dal badal ke adhar par snsad ki sadasyata ke lie ayogyata ka nirnay lokasabha ya rajyasabha ke sabhapati, jaisi bhi sthiti ho, dvara kiya jata hai.

snsad sadasyon ke lie achar snhita

25 navambar, 2001 ko snpann sarvadaliy rashtriy sammen men snsad evn vidhanasabhaon ki maryada banaye rakhane tatha in sadanon men anushasanahinata ko rokane ke uddeshy se ek achar snhita ka nirman kiya gaya hai. is achar snhita ke pramukh bindu nimnavath hain–

  • prashnakal ke dauran sadan men shanti banaye rakhana.
  • sadan ke bich men ane se bachane ki koshish ki jaye.
  • yadi koee sadasy kisi sarakari dastavez, kagaz ya riport ke kisi gopaniy mudde par havala dena chahata ho to unhen pahale isaki soochana adhyaksh ko deni chahie, taki vah is par uchit faisala kar sake.
  • pratyek sadasy ko apani sampatti ki ghoshana karani chahie ya kisi mamale se yadi vah sambaddh hai to par charcha se pahale unhen sadan ko yah batana chahie.
  • rashtrapati ya rajyapal ke abhibhashan ke samay sadan men ekajutata, samman aur maryada ka parichay den.
  • yadi kisi ka vyaktigat hit sarvajanik hit ke ade ata hai to use sarvajanik hit ko tarajih deni chahie.
  • sadasyon ko apane kartavyon ka sadaiv dhyan rakhana chahie.
  • koee sadasy jab kisi masale par bol raha ho to any sadasyon ko shor-sharaba karake usaki bat men vyavadhan paida nahin karana chahie. kisi sadasy ke bolane ke samay tokataki karane se any sadasyon ko bachane ka prayas karana chahie.
  • sadan men kisi tarah ki narebazi nahin ki jani chahie.
  • virodh vyakt karane ke lie sadan men koee dastavez phada nahin jana chahie.
  • snsad vidhanamandalon athava kendrashasit pradeshon ki vidhan sabhaon ke bhitar ya usake parisar men kahin par bhi satyagrah athava dharane par nahin baithana chahie.
  • sadanon men selyoolar fon athava pejar lekar nahin jana chahie.
  • bina spikar ko notis diye kisi ke khilaf kisi tarah ka arop athava usaki pratishtha ko dhoomil karane vali koee bat nahin kahi jani chahie.
  • charcha ke dauran aise kisi mamale athava tathy ziqr nahin karana chahie, jo ki nyayalay men lambit ho.
  • pith ki bina poorv anumati ke sadasyon ko sadan men koee bayan nahin padhana chahie.
  • spikar ki vyasastha par n to koee saval uthaya jana chahie aur n hi kisi tarah ki tippani ki jani chahie.
  • adhyaksh dvara anumati diye jane ke poorv sadasyon ko kisi masale par nahin bolana chahie.
  • sadan ki kisi bhi samiti ke sakshyon ko kisi sadasy athava any vyakti dvara tab tak nahin chhapa jana chahie, jab tak ve sadan men pesh n kar diye gaye hon.
  • sadan ki samitiyon ko kisi mamale ke tathyon ko janane ke lie tab tak yatra par nahin jana chahie, jab tak ki vah behad zaroori n ho.
  • sthaniy adhikariyon se charcha se poorv to aise toor qatee nahin ayojit kie jaen.
  • kisi sngathan se sambaddh sadasy usake lie sarakar ke sath kisi tarah ka vyapar n karen.
  • sadasy ko upalabdh karae ge sarakari avas ko yah kiraye adi par n dekar usase kisi tarah ka arthik labh varjit n karen.
  • aise kisi mamale men jisamen sadasy ke hit paroksh ya pratyaksh roop se jude hon kisi sarakari adhikari athava mntri par dabav dalane ka prayas n kiya jae.
  • sadasyon ko apane kisi rishtedar, parichit ki naukari ya vyaparik suvidha ke lie kisi sarakari adhikari ko patr nahin likhana chahie tatha pratyaksh ya paroksh roop men ruchi nahin leni chahie.
  • sadan men kisi prakar ka baij lagakar n jaen.
  • kisi bhi tarah ka hathiyar lekar sadan men n jaen.
  • sadan men koee jhanda, nishan ya isi tarah ki any vastu ka pradarshan n karen.

aisa koee litarechar, prashnavali, paracha pres vigypti snsad ya vidhanamnndal ke parisar men vitarit nahin karen, jisaka sadan ke kamakaz se matalab n ho. is achar snhita ka ullnghan karane par sambandhit sadasy ke khilaf dandatmak karravaee ki ja sakati hai. isamen usako dant-phatakar, ninda, sadan se bahar karana adi sambhav hai, isake alava usaka sadan se svat: hi nilamban bhi sambhav hai.

satr, sthagan, satravasan tatha vighatan

rashtrapati anuchchhed 85 ke tahat snsad ke donon sadanon ka satr bula sakata hai, donon sadanon ka satravasan kar sakata hai tatha lokasabha ka vighatan kar sakata hai. snvidhan ke dvara rashtrapati par yah kartavy adhiropit kiya gaya hai ki vah snsad ke donon sadanon ko aise antaral par ahoot karega ki ek satr ki antim baithak aur usake bad ki pahali baithak ke lie niyat tithi ke bich chhah mas ka antaral nahin hona chahie. isaka parinam yah hai ki snsad ki baithak varsh men kam se kam do bar honi chahie aur donon baithakon ke bich chhah mas se adhik ka samay nahin hona chahie. donon baithakon ke bich ke samay ko 'dirghavakash' kaha jata hai. snsad ke varsh men samanyat: tin satr ayojit kie jate hain–

  1. bajat
  2. varsha satr aur
  3. shit satr.

pratyek varsh snsad ka pratham adhiveshan faravari ke tisare saptah men bajat satr se arambh hota hai. is satr ke prarambh hone ke pahale din donon sadanon ki snyukt baithak ayojit hoti hai, jisamen rashtrapati ka abhibhashan hota hai. is satr men bajatiy prastavon ko parit kiya jata hai. snsad ya varsha satr julaee ke tisare saptah men ayojit hota hai. is satr men mukhyat: vidharthi kary sampann kiye jate hain. shit satr navambar ke doosare ya tisare saptah men arambh hota hai.

sadan ka sthagan

kabhi-kabhi kuchh atyavashy aur vishesh karanon se sadan ki baithak sthagit karane ki avashyakata pad jati hai. snsad ke donon sadanon ka sthagan lokasabha adhyaksh (niyam 15) tatha rajyasabha ke sabhapati (niyam 12) dvara kiya jata hai. yah kuchh ghnte, din ya saptah ki avadhi ka ho sakata hai. avashyakata padane par sadan ko baithak ke bich men hi sthagit kiya ja sakata hai. isake alava sadan kisi mrit vyakti ke prati samman prakat karane ke lie, ganapoorti n hone par, sadan ke bhitar kary snchalan men avyavastha adi ke karan sthagit kiya ja sakata hai.

snsad sadasyon dvara sthan ki rikti

bharatiy snvidhan men tatha snsad dvara nirmit lok pratinidhitv adhiniyam, 1951 ke dvara snsad sadasyon dvara sthan ki rikti ke sambandh men nimnalikhit pravadhan kiye gaye hain-

  1. koee vyakti snsad ke donon sadanon ka tatha snsad ke kisi sadan aur kisi rajy ke vidhanamandalon men se kisi ka sadasy ek sath nahin ho sakata hai.
  2. yadi koee vyakti sadan ke donon sadanon ke lie chuna jata hai aur donon sadanon men se kisi men bhi apana sthan grahan nahin kiya hai, to vah apane chune jane ki tithi se 10 din ke andar ayog ke sachiv ko likhit soochana dega, ki vah kis sadan ka sadasy bana rahana chahata hai. jis sadan ka vah sadasy bana rahana chahata hai, usake atirikt doosare sadan ka usaka sthan rikt ho jaega. yadi vyakti chunav ayog ke sachiv ko aisi soochana nahin deta, to usaka rajyasabha ka sthan svat: hi 10 din ke bad samapt ho jaega.
  3. yadi koee vyakti snsad ke kisi sadan ka pahale sadasy hai aur vah doosare sadan ke lie chuna jata hai to usake chunav ki tithi ke din usaki us sadan ki sadasyata samapt ho jaegi, jisaka vah pahale sadasy tha.
  4. yadi koee vyakti snsad ke donon sadanon men se kisi men ya rajy ke vidhanamandal men se kisi ke lie ek sthan se adhik sthan ke lie nirvachit ho jata hai to use ek sthan ko chhodakar any sthanon se 14 din ke andar tyagapatr de dena chahie. yadi vah aisa nahin karata hai to usake sabhi sthan svat: hi samapt ho jaenge.
  5. yadi rashtrapati use chunav ayog ki salah se snsad ki sadasyata ke lie ayogy thaharata hai to usaka sthan rikt ho jata hai.
  6. vah lokasabha ke mamale men lokasabhadhyaksh ko athava rajyasabha ke mamale men uparashtrapati ko tyagapatr dekar apana sthan rikt kar sakata hai.
  7. yadi vah dal badal qanoon ke adhin lokasabha ke mamale men lokasabhadhyaksh dvara ya rajyasabha ke mamale men uparashtrapati dvara ayogy thaharaya jata hai to usaka sthan rikt ho jata hai.

shapath grahan

snsad sadasyon ko apana sthan grahan karane ke poorv rashtrapati athava usake dvara niyukt kisi vyakti ke samaksh shapath grahan karana padata hai. bina shapath grahan kiye koee bhi vyakti snsad ka sadasy nahin ban sakata. yadi kisi vyakti ne snsad sadasy ke roop men shapath nahin grahan ki hai ya snsad ki sadasyata ke lie ayogy ghoshit kiya gaya hai ya snsad se nishkasit kar diya gaya hai, to vah snsad ki karravaee men bhag nahin le sakata hai aur yadi vah snsad ki karravaee men bhag leta hai to vah pratyek din ke lie, jab vah snsad ki karravaee men bhag leta hai, 500 rupaye ke jurmane ka dayi hoga.

vetan aur bhatte

snsad sadasyon ke vetan aur bhatton ke sambandh men vidhi nirman ka adhikar snsad ko diya gaya hai. snsad ne is adhikar ka prayog karake snsad sadasy vetan, bhatta aur penshan adhiniyam, 1954 parit kiya hai. isamen ab tak kee bar snshodhan kiye ja chuke hain. agast, 2006 men snsad dvara ek bar pun: sansadon ke vetan, bhatte aur penshan men snshodhan se sambandhit vidheyak ko parit kiya gaya. vartaman samay men (2006) snsad sadasy ko milane vala vetan, bhatta tatha any suvidhaen nimnalikhit prakar se h-

  1. pratyek snsad sadasy ko prati mah 16,000 rupaye vetan nirdharit hai.
  2. pratyek snsad sadasy ko athava usaki samitiyon ki baithak ke dauran dainik bhatta 1000 rupaye tatha niji karyalay ke vyay hetu 23,000 rupaye (masik) diye jane ka pravadhan hai.
  3. sansadon ko nirvachan kshetr men jane ke lie 20,000 rupaye bhatta (masik) diya jata hai.
  4. snsad satr men bhag lene hetu pratyek snsad sadasy ko apane nivas sthan (grih) se ate evn lautate samay relave ke pratham vatanukoolit shreni ka kiraya prapt hota hai. yah suvidha sansad ki patni ya pati ko bhi sulabh hoti hai.
  5. snsad ke kary hetu yatra karane par sansadon ko 13 rupaye prati kilomitar ki yatra bhatta dey hai.
  6. pratyek snsad sadasy ko prati varsh 32 bar havaee yatra ki suvidha upalabdh hai. sath hi apani patni athava kisi bhi ek vyakti ke sath desh men kahin par bhi vatanukoolit pratham shreni ki muft rel yatra karane ki suvidha prapt hai.
  7. pratyek snsad sadasy ko 50,000 yoonit tak ni:shulk vidyut pradan ki jati hai.
  8. pratyek snsad ko do telifon milate hain, jisamen se ek ko dilli men tatha doosara ve nivas sthan ya nirvachan kshetr men le sakate hain. in telifonon se 1 lakh 20 hazar tak ki kaauls ki ja sakati hain.
  9. har sansad ko dilli ke paaush kshetr men nyoonatam kiraye par shanadar avas milata hai.
  10. kendr tatha rajy ke chikitsalayon men use ni:shulk ilaj ki suvidha hoti hai.
  11. pratyek sansad ko 30,000 rupaye tak ka muft pharnichar upalabdh karaya jata hai.
  12. pratyek sansad ko kendriy vidyalay men har varsh do namankan karavane ka bhi adhikar hai.
  13. apane visheshadhikar ka prayog kar pratyek sansad prativarsh 100 telifon aur 160 elapiji kanekshan dila sakata hai.
  14. vahan kharidane ke lie pratyek sansad ko bina byaz rin suvidha upalabdh hoti hai.
  15. sansad ka pad samapt hone ke bad vah ek vyakti ko sath lekar poore jivan kal men vatanukoolit dvitiy shreni ki muft rel yatra kar sakata hai.
  16. yadi snsad sadasy ki mrityu ho jati hai, to havaee jahaz, rel ya samudri jahaz ke dvara usake shav ko vahan par bheja jata hai, jahan par usake sambandhi chahate hain.
  17. snsad dvara agast, 2006 men sansadon ke vetan, bhatte evn penshan adhiniyam, 1954 men snshodhan karate hue sabhi poorv sansadon ko 8000 rupaye pratimah nyoonatam penshan prapt hone tatha karyashil sansad ke nidhan ki sthiti men parivar ko 1500 rupaye pratimah penshan upalabdh karane ka pravadhan kiya gaya hai. ab tak yah vyavastha thi ki do bar lokasabha chunav jitane ya kam se kam 4 varsh tak sansad rahane par hi poorv sansad penshan ka adhikari hota tha. is prakar jab snsad sadasy padamukt ho jata tha to unhen 2500 rupaye pratimah penshan milati thi. sath hi 1000 rupaye pratimah parivarik penshan prapt tha. sansadon ka varshik paikej 25 lakh rupaye ka hota tha.

uparyukt suvidhaon ke alava pratyek sansad apane kshetr men 2 karod rupaye ka vikas kary karava sakata hai.

vetan tatha bhatte

  • vetan - 16,000 rupaye pratimah
  • dainik bhatta - 1000 rupaye
  • snsadiy kshetr bhatta - 20,000 rupaye
  • karyalay bhatta - 23,000 rupaye (3000 rupaye steshanari, 1000 rupaye chitthi-patri aur shesh karyalay ke kharch hetu)
  • snsadiy kshetr bhatta - 13 rupaye prati kilomitar.

sadanon men ganapoorti

snsad ke sadanon ki karravaee prarambh karane ke lie ganapoorti avashyak hai. ganapoorti ke lie sadan ke kul sadasyon ke dasaven bhag (1/10) ka sadan men upasthit rahana avashyak hai. is prakar vartaman men rajyasabha aur lokasabha men ganapoorti kramash: 25 aur 55 sadasyon se hoti hai. yadi kisi samay snsad ke kisi sadan ki ganapoorti nahin hoti, to adhyaksh ya sabhapati tab tak ke lie sadan ki karravaee ko sthagit kar sakata hai, jab tak sadan ki ganapoorti n ho jae.

snsad ka snyukt adhiveshan

snvidhan ke anusar snsad ka snyukt adhiveshan nimnalikhit sthiti men bulaya jata hai-

  1. lokasabha ke lie pratyek sadharan nirvachan ke bad pratham satr ke ambh men, isamen rashtrapati apana abhibhashan deta hai.
  2. pratyek varsh ke pratham satr ke arambh men, usamen bhi rashtrapati apana abhibhashan deta hai.
  3. yadi snsad ke donon sadanon ke bich dhan vidheyak ko chhodakar any kisi vidheyak (jisamen vitt vidheyak sammalit hai) ko parit karane ko lekar gatirodh utpann ho gaya ho. snvidhan ke anuchchhed 108 ke tahat snsad ke donon sadanon ke bich asahamati ka hal dhndhane ke lie donon sadanon ki snyukt baithak ka upabndh hai. yah asahamati is prakar ho sakati hai-
  • yadi snsad ka ek sadan kisi vidheyak ko parit karake doosare sadan ko bhejata hai aur yadi doosara sadan us vidheyak ko asvikar kar deta hai,
  • doosare sadan dvara vidheyak men kiye gaye snshodhan se pahala sadan asahamat hai, ya
  • doosara sadan vidheyak ko 6 mas tak apane pas rok rakhata hai, to rashtrapati donon sadanon ke snyukt baithak ko bula sakata hai.

snvaidhanik pravadhanon ke anusar rashtrapati donon sadanon ke bich asahamati hone par usaki snyukt baithak ahoot karane ke apane ashay ki adhisoochana deta hai. yadi vidheyak lokasabha ka vighatan hone ke karan vyapagat ho gaya hai, to rashtrapati dvara aisi adhisoochana nahin nikali jaegi. kintu yadi rashtrapati ne snyukt baithak karane ke apane ashay ki adhisoochana jari kar di hai to lokasabha ke pashchatavarti vighatan se snyukt baithak men koee badha nahin aegi. aisi snyukt baithak ki adhyakshata lokasabha adhyaksh karata hai.

anuchchhed 118(4) ke anusar lokasabha ke adhyaksh ki anupasthiti men vah vyakti pithasin hoga jo rashtrapati dvara banayi gayi prakriya ke niyamon dvara avadharit ho. yah niyam rajyasabha ke sabhapati aur lokasabha ke adhyaksh ke paramarsh se banaye jayenge. upabndh ke anusar, "snyukt baithak men lokasabha adhyaksh ki anupasthiti men ke dauran lokasabha ka upadhyaksh ya yadi vah bhi anupasthit hai to rajyasabha ka upasabhapati ya yadi vah bhi anupasthit hai to aisa any vyakti pithasin (adhyaksh) hoga jo us baithak men upasthit sadasyon ke dvara avadharit kiya jaye."


lokasabha ka adhyaksh jo ki snyukt baithak ya pithasin hota hai, hi snyukt baithak ki prakriya aise roop, bhedon tatha parivartanon ke sath lagoo karata hai jaisa vah avashyak athava uchit samajhata hai. lokasabha ka mahasachiv pratyek snyukt baithak ki karravaee ka sampoorn dastavez taiyar karata hai tatha use yathashighr aise roop men tatha aisi niti se prakashit karata hai jaisa ki adhyaksh samay-samay par nirdesh deta hai.

snsad ke snyukt adhiveshan ke lie ganapoorti donon sadanon ke sadasyon ki kul snkhya ka 1/10 bhag hoti hai. anuchchhed 108 dvara vihit snyukt baithak ki prakriya keval samany vidhayan tak hi simit hai, snvidhan snshodhan ke sambandh men yah lagoo nahin hoti. dhyatavy hai ki snvidhan snshodhan (anuchchhed 368) vidheyak ko pratyek sadan dvara alag-alag vishesh bahumat se parit kiya jana avashyak hota hai.

desh ke snsadiy itihas men ab tak keval tir bar kisi vivadit vidheyak ko parit karavane ke lie snsad ka snyukt adhiveshan ahoot kiya gaya hai. pahali bar snyukt adhiveshan 1961 men pratham pradhanamntri pn. javahar lal neharoo ke kal men dahej virodhi adhiniyam ko parit karane ke lie tatha doosari bar pradhanamntri moraraji desaee ke karyakal men 1978 men baiking seva ayog vidheyak par vichar karane hetu ahoot kiya gaya tha. tisari bar snsad ka snyukt adhiveshan 26 march, 2002 ko bahucharchit evn bahuvivadit atnkavad virodhi vidheyak, 2002 parit karane ke uddeshy se ahoot kiya gaya.

prayog ki jane vali bhasha

snsad ki karravaee angrezi ya hindi men hogi, lekin lokasabha adhyaksh ya rajyasabha ka sabhapati kisi sadasy ko usaki matribhasha men bolane ki anumati de sakata hai.

kary evn shaktiya

yadyapi snsad prabhusatta sampann nahin hai, lekin use nimnalikhit kary evn shaktiyan snvidhan dvara pradan ki gee hain-

vidhi nirman ki shakti

snsad ko satavin anusoochi ke sngh soochi tatha samavarti soochi men antarvit vishayon par vidhi nirman ka poorn adhikar hai, lekin use nimnalikhit sthitiyon men rajy soochi men shamil kiye gaye vishayon par bhi vidhi nirman ka adhikar hai–

  1. jab rashtriy apat ya rajy men apat sthiti pravartan men ho (anuchchhed 250).
  2. jab do ya do se adhik rajy ke vidhanamandal prastav parit karake snsad se vidhi nirman, ka anurodh karen (anuchchhed 252).
  3. jab rajyasabha do tihaee bahumat se prastav parit karake snsad se vidhi nirman ka anurodh kare (anuchchhed 249).

vittiy shakti

snsad ko sngh ke vitt par poorn adhikar hai. prakkalan samiti tatha lok lekha samiti ka gathan snsad dvara kiya jata hai tatha bharat ki snchit nidhi par snsad ka poorn niyatrnn rahata hai. snsad dvara nirmit vidhi ke pravadhanon ke anusar hi bharat ki snchit nidhi se dhan nikala ja sakata hai. snsad ko akasmik nidhi ko bhi sthapit karane ka adhikar hai. snsad ke samaksh varshik bajat pesh kiya jata hai, jisamen varsh ke prakkalit praptiyon tatha vyayon ka vivaran hota hai. usake atirikt snsad ko viniyog vidheyak, anupoorak, atirikt ya adhik anudan, lekhanudan, pratyanudan tatha apavadanudan ke sambandh men paryapt shakti hai. karadhan prastavon ko pravartit karane hetu snsad ko vitt vidheyak parit karane ki shakti hai.

karyapalika sambandhi shakti

snsad sadasyon men se hi sattapaksh ke sadasyon se mntri parishad ka gathan kiya jata hai. snsad sadasy kee prastavon ke madhyam se mntriparishad par niyntran rakhate hain tatha mntriparishad ko snsad (visheshakar lokasabha) ke prati uttaradayi banaye rakhate hain.

rajyon se sambandhit shakti

snsad rajyon ke simaon tatha namon men parivartan kar sakati hai, naye rajyon ka gathan kar sakati hai, rajyon ka vibhajan kar sakati hai tatha kee rajyon ko milakar ek rajy bana sakati hai. sath hi kisi vidyaman rajy ko kisi vidyaman rajy men mila sakati hai.

snvidhan snshodhan ki shakti

snsad ko snvidhan men snshodhan karane ka adhikar hai, lekin snsad ko yah adhikar asimit nahin hain, kyonki snsad snvidhan snshodhan dvara snvidhan ke mool dhanche ko parivartit nahin kar sakati hai.

nirvachan sambandhi kary

snsad ke nirvachit sadasy rashtrapati ke nirvachan men bhag lete hain tatha snsad uparashtrapati ko nirvachit karati hai.

mahabhiyog ki shakti

anuchchhed 61 ke anusar snsad ko rashtrapati tatha uchchatam nyayalay evn uchch nyayalayon ke nyadhishon ko mahabhiyog prakriya ke dvara padamukt karane ka bhi adhikar hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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