उच्चतम न्यायालय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

uchchatam nyayalay, bharat
Supreme Court, India

bharat ka uchchatam nyayalay athava bharat ka sarvochch nyayalay bharat ka shirsh nyayik pradhikaran hai, jise bharatiy snvidhan ke bhag 5, adhyay 4 ke tahat sthapit kiya gaya hai. bharatiy sngh ki adhikatam aur vyapak nyayik adhikarita uchchatam nyayalay ko prapt hain. bharatiy snvidhan ke anusar uchchatam nyayalay ki bhoomika snghiy nyayalay aur bharatiy snvidhan ke snrakshak ki hai. snvidhan ke anuchchhed 124 men uchchatam nyayalay ke gathan ke sambandh men pravadhan kiya gaya hai, jisamen yah kaha gaya hai ki, uchchatam nyayalay men ek mukhy nyayadhish tatha 7 any nyayadhish honge tatha snsad samay-samay par nyayadhishon ki snkhya ka nirdharan kar sakati hai. snsad ne nyayadhishon ki snkhya ko nirdharit karane ke lie 1956 men uchchatam nyayalay (nyayadhishon ki snkhya) adhiniyam, 1956 parit kiya aur nyayadhishon ki snkhya 10 kar di. is adhiniyam men snshodhan karake nyayadhishon ki snkhya men kee bar vriddhi ki gee hai.

gathan

bharat ke ek snprabhu lokatantrik ganarajy banane ke do din bad 28 janavari san 1950 ko bharat ka uchchatam nyayalay astitv men aya. udghatan samaroh ka ayojan snsad bhavan ke narendramandal (chenbar aauf prinsez) bhavan men kiya gaya tha. isase pahale sanh 1937 se 1950 tak chainbar aauf prinses hi bharat ki snghiy adalat ka bhavan tha. azadi ke bad bhi sanh 1958 tak chainbar aauf prinses hi bharat ke uchchatam nyayalay ka bhavan tha, jab tak ki 1958 men uchchatam nyayalay ne apane vartaman tilak marg, nee dilli sthit parisar ka adhigrahan kiya. bharat ke uchchatam nyayalay ne bharatiy adalat pranali ke shirsh par pahunchate hue bharat ki snghiy adalat aur privi kaunsil ki nyayik samiti ko pratisthapit kiya tha. 28 janavari, 1950 ko isake udghatan ke bad, uchchatam nyayalay ne snsad bhavan ke chainbar aauf prinses men apani baithakon ki shuruat ki. uchchatam nyayalay bar esosieshan (es.si.bi.e.) sarvochch nyayalay ki bar hai.

nyayadhishon ki snkhya vriddhi

nyayadhishon ki snkhya men 1960 men 13, 1977 men 17 tatha 1986 men 25 tak ki vriddhi kar di gee. vartaman samay men uchchatam nyayalay men ek mukhy nyayadhish aur 25 any nyayadhish (kul 26 nyayadhish) hain. 21 faravari, 2008 ko kendriy mntrimandal ne ek mahattvapoorn nirnay men uchchatam nyayalay men nyayadhishon ki snkhya 26 se badhakar 31 (mukhy nyayadhish sahit) karane ka nirnay liya. isake lie 22 disambar, 2008 ko lokasabha ke dvara uchchatam nyayalay nyayadhish snkhya vidheyak, 2008 parit kiya gaya hai. is vidheyak men uchchatam nyayalay men nyayadhishon ki adhikatam snkhya mukhy nyayadhish ke atirikt 30 karane ka pravadhan hai. ise vaidhanik roop pradan karane ke lie uchchatam nyayalay (nyayadhishon ki snkhya) adhiniyam, 1956 men snshodhan kiya jaega.

mukhyapith

uchchatam nyayalay ki mukhyapith nee dilli men sthit hai, lekin yah nee dilli ke atirikt kisi any sthan par bhi sunavaee kar sakata hai. is any sthan ka nirdharan mukhy nyayadhish rashtrapati ki anumati se kar sakata hai. vidhi evn nyay par snsadiy samiti ke dvara prastut 32vin riport men uchchatam nyayalay ki kshetriy pithen pashchim, dakshin v poorvottar kshetron men sthapit karane ki sifarish ki gayi hai. samiti ne apani riport men kaha hai ki nirdhanon, zarooratamndo ki nyay tak pahunch ko sulabh banane ke lie uchchatam nyayalay ki kshetriy pithen sthapit ki jani chahie. isase aise zarooratamndon ko, jo nirdhanata ke karan dilli tak nahin pahunch pate hain, kam kharch par nyay upalabdh karaya ja sakega. prayog ke taur par aisi pahali pith dakshin men chennee men sthapit karane ki salah samiti ne di hai.

yogyata

uchchatam nyayalay ke nyayadhish ke roop men niyukt hone ke lie kisi bhi vyakti se nimnalikhit yogyataaaun ki apeksha ki jati hai-

  1. vah bharat ka nagarik ho,
  2. vah kisi uchch nyayalay men lagatar kam se kam 10 varsh tak nyayadhish rah chuka ho,
  3. vah uchch nyayalay ya kisi bhi nyayalay men kam se kam 10 varsh se vidhi vyavasay kar raha ho,
  4. vah rashtrapati ki ray se labdhapratishth vidhevetta ho.

mukhy nyayadhish ki niyukti

uchchatam nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish ki niyukti rashtrapati dvara (anuchchhed 124) ki jati hai. snvidhan men uchchatam nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ki niyukti ke sambandh men keval yah pravadhan kiya gaya hai ki rashtrapati uchchtam nyayalay ke aur rajyon ke uchch nyayalayon ke aise nyayadhishon se, jinase paramarsh karana vah avashyak samajhe, paramarsh karane ke pashchath uchchatam nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ki niyukti karega. isase yah pratit hota hai ki snvidhan men uchchatam nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish ki niyukti ke sambandh men alag se koee pravadhan nahin kiya gaya hai. snvidhan ke pravartan ke bad yah pratha angikar ki gayi ki uchchatam nyayalay ke varishthatam nyayadhish ko mukhy nyayadhish ke pad par niyukt kiya jaega. yah pratha 1951 se 1973 tak ki kalavadhi tak svikar ki jati rahi, sivay nyayamoorti eenam, jo lakave ke shikar ho gaye the, ko chhodakar. nyayadhish eenam ke sthan par nyayamoorti pi. vi. gajendr gadakar ko mukhy nyayadhish niyukt kiya gaya tha. lekin 1973 men is pratha ka ullnghan kiya gaya aur uchchatam nyayalay ke 3 varishthatam nyayadhishon (nyayamoorti je. es. shelat, ke. es. hegade tatha e. en. grovar) ki varishthata ka ullndhan karake nyayamoorti ajit nath re ko bharat ka mukhy nyayadhish niyukt kiya gaya. isi tarah 1977 men nyayamoorti ech. ar. khanna ki varishthata ka ullnghan kar nyayamoorti em. ech. beg ko bharat ka mukhy nyayadhish niyukt kiya gaya tha. in mamalon ko chhodakar sadaiv mukhy nyayadhish ki niyukti men varishthata ke siddhant ka palan kiya gaya hai. 6 aktoobar, 1993 ko uchchatam nyayalay dvara diye gaye ek nirnay ke anusar mukhy nyayadhish ki niyukti men varishthata ke siddhant ka palan kiya jana chahie.

any nyayadhishon ki niyukti

mukhy nyayadhish ke atirikt any nyayadhishon ki niyukti rashtrapati ke dvara ki jati hai (anuchchhed 124). rashtrapati nyayadhishon ki niyukti karate samay bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish, uchchatam nyayalay tatha uchch nyayalayon ke aise nyayadhishon se paramarsh karata hai, jinase paramarsh karana vah avashyakat samajhata hai. 6 aktoobar, 1993 ko uchchatam nyayalay ne ek nirnay diya, jisake anusar nyayadhishon ko niyukt karate samay rashtrapati ko mukhy nyayadhish ki ray ko variyata deni chahie aur yadi kisi mamale men mukhy nyayadhish ki ray n mani jaye to isaka karan bataya jana chahie.

1999 men uchchatam nyayalay ki 9 sadasyiy snvidhan pith ne sarvasammati se yah abhinirdharit kiya hai ki uchchatam nyayalay aur uchch nyayalayon ke nyayadhishon ki niyukti aur sthanantaran ke mamale men 1993 ke nirnay men pratipadan paramarsh prakriya ka palan kiye bina mukhy nyayadhish dvara ki gee sifarishon ko manane ke lie karyapalika badhy nahin hai. is prakar snvidhan pith ne yah abhinirdharit kiya hai ki uchchatam nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ke mamale men mukhy nyayadhish ko uchchatam nyayalay ke 4 varishthatam nyayadhishon ke samooh kaaulejiyam se paramarsh karake hi rashtrapati ko apani sifarish bhejani chahie. 1993 ke nirnay men keval 2 varishthatam nyayadhishon se paramarsh karane ki badhyata thi. yah abhinirdharit kiya gaya hai ki uchch nyayalayon men nyayadhishon ki niyukti ke mamale men uchchatam nyayalay ke keval 2 varishthatam nyayadhishon ki salah lena avashyak hai. kintu sthanantaran ke mamale men uchchatam nyayalay ke 4 varishthatam nyayadhishon se paramarsh karana anivary hai. sath hi sambandhit uchch nyayalayon, jisase sthanantaran kiya gaya hai aur jisako sthanantaran kiya gaya hai, un mukhy nyayadhishon se paramarsh karana bhi anivary hai.

karyakari mukhy nyayadhish ki niyukti

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 126 men karyakari mukhy nyayadhish ko niyukt karane ke sambandh men pravadhan kiya gaya hai, jisake anusar jab kabhi bhi mukhy nyayadhish ka pad rikt ho ya mukhy nyayadhish apane kartavyon ka palan karane men asamarth ho ya mukhy nyayadhish ko snsad ke dvara parit samavedan par rashtrapati dvara usake pad se hata diya gaya ho, usane svayn tyagapatr de diya ho, to rashtrapati uchchatam nyayalay ke nyayadhishon men se kisi bhi nyayadhish ko mukhy nyayadhish ke kartavyon ka palan karane ke lie niyukt kar sakata hai.

tadarth nyayadhishon ki niyukti

mukhy nyayadhish rashtrapati ki poorv sahamati se uchchatam nyayalay men nyayadhish ke roop men niyukt kiye jane ki yogyata rakhane vale kisi uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhish ko sambaddh uchch nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish se paramarsh karake tab tadarth nyayadhish ke roop men niyukt kar sakata hai, jab uchchatam nyayalay ke satr ko ayojit karane ya chaloo rakhane ke lie nyayadhishon ki avashyakata ho (anuchchhed 127). is prakar niyukt kiye gaye nyayadhish ko uchchatam nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ki sabhi adhikarita, shaktiyan aur visheshadhikar tab tak prapt honge, jab tak vah uchchatam nyayalay ke nyayadhish ke roop men kary karata hai.

shapath grahan

uchchatam nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ko rashtrapati unake pad ki shapath grahan karata hai (anuchchhed 124(6). nyayadhish nimnalikhit ke lie shapath grahan karata hai–

  1. vidhi dvara sthapit bharat ke snvidhan ke prati sachchi shraddha aur nishtha rakhane ke lie,
  2. bharat ki prabhuta tatha akhandata ko akshunn rakhane ke lie,
  3. samyakh prakar se shraddhapoorvak tatha apani poori yogyata, gyan aur vivek se apane pad ke kartavyon ka bhay ya pakshapat, anurag ya dvesh bina palan karane ke lie tatha
  4. snvidhan evn vidhiyon ki maryada banae rakhane ke lie.

kary avadhi

anuchchhed 124(2) ke anusar, uchchatam nyayalay ka nyayadhish 65 varsh ki ayu poori karane tak apane pad par bana rahata hai, yadi vah rashtrapati dvara asamarthata ya kadachar se apane pad se n hata diya jae. rashtrapati asamarthata ya kadachar ke adhar par nyayadhish ko hatane ka adesh tab parit karata hai, jab snsad do tihaee bahumat se aisa karane ka prastav arthath mahabhiyog parit kare.

isake atirikt nyayadhish 65 varsh ki ayu poori karane ke pahale kisi bhi samay rashtrapati ko apana tyagapatr de sakata hai. rashtrapati dvara tyagapatr svikar karane ke pahale vah apana tyagapatr vapas le sakata hai. ab tak 1967 men mukhy nyayadhish ke. subbarav rashtrapati ka chunav ladane ke lie, tatha 1984 men nyayamoorti baharul islam ne lokasabha ka chunav ladane ke lie tyagapatr diya tha.

vetan tatha bhatta

1950 men jab snvidhan ko lagoo kiya gaya tha, tab mukhy nyayadhish ka vetan 5,000 rupaye tatha any nyayadhishon ka vetan 4,000 rupaye tha, jise bad men badhakar mukhy nyayadhish ko 33,000 rupaye tatha any nyayadhishon ko 30,000 rupaye pratimah kar diya gaya tha. isake atirikt mukhy nyayadhish 1250 rupaye tatha any nyayadhishon ko 750 rupaye masik kharch tatha 1,000 rupaye pratimah bijali yatra kharch, rahane ke lie kiraya vihin sarakari bngala, kar tatha 150 litar petrol pratimah milata hai. 15 janavari, 2009 ko kendr sarakar dvara jari adhisoochana ke anusar mukhy nyayadhish ka vetan 33,000 rupaye se badhakar 1,00,000 rupaye pratimah tatha any nyayadhishon ka vetan 26,000 rupaye se badhakar 90,000 rupaye pratimah kar diya gaya hai. yah vetanaman 1 janavari, 2006 se prabhavi kiya gaya hai. isake lie disambar, 2008 men uchch nyayalay v uchchatam nyayalay (nyayadhish) vetan evn seva shart snshodhan vidheyak, 2008 parit kiya gaya hai. isase poorv 12 sitambar, 2008 ko nyayadhishon ke vetan evn bhatte men tin guna vriddhi ki sifarish ki gee thi. bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish ke dvara gathit tin nyayadhishon ke painal men uchchatam nyayalay ke nyayadhish nyayamoorti ashok bhan aur nyayamoorti alatamas kabir tatha madras uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhish nyayamoorti e. pi. sinh shamil the. uchchatam nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ke visheshadhikaron aur vetan bhatton men unaki niyukti ke pashchath koee aisa parivartan nahin kiya jaega, jo unake lie alabhakari ho (anuchchhed 125). inaka samast vetan evn bhatte snchit nidhi par bharit hote hain.

sampatti ki svaichchhik ghoshana

uchchatam nyayalay v uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ko apani sampatti ka byaura sarvajanik karane sambandhi koee snvaidhanik pravadhan nahin hai. isake viparit agast, 2009 men uchchatam nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ne svechchha se apani sampatti ka byaura sarvajanik karane ka nirnay liya. isase poorv 1997 se prabhavi ek prastav ke tahat uchchatam nyayalay ke sabhi nyayadhish apani sampatti ka byaura mukhy nyayadhish ko saunpate rahe hain, jise sarvajanik nahin kiya jata hai.

abhilekh nyayalay

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 129 ke anusar, bharat ka sarvochch nyayalay ek abhilekh nyayalay hai. samanyat: abhilekh nyayalay se ashay us uchch nyayalay se hai, jisake nirnay sada ke lie lekhabaddh hote hain aur jisake abhilekhon ka pramanit mooly hota hai. bharat ke sarvochch nyayalay ko abhilekh nyayalay ki sabhi shaktiyan prapt hain, jinamen avamanana ke lie dand bhi sammilit hai.

nyayalay ka kshetradhikar

uchchatam nyayalay ko nimnalikhit mamalon men kshetradhikar prapt hain–

prarambhik kshetradhikar

uchchatam nyayalay ke prarambhik kshetradhikar ke antargat aise mamale ate hain, jinaki sunavaee karane ka adhikar kisi uchch nyayalay athava adhinasth nyayalayon ko nahin hota hai (anuchchhed 131). uchchatam nyayalay ko nimnalikhit mamalon men prarambhik kshetradhikar prapt hain–

  1. bharat sngh tatha ek ya ek se adhik rajyon ke madhy utpann vivadon men,
  2. bharat sngh tatha koee ek rajy ya anek rajyon aur ek ya ek se adhik rajyon ke bich vivadon men,
  3. do ya do se adhik rajyon ke bich aise vivad men, jisamen unake vaidhanik adhikaron ka prashn nihit ho.

prarambhik kshetradhikar ke antargat uchchatam nyayalay usi vivad ko nirnay ke lie svikar karega, jisamen kisi tathy ya vidhi ka prashn shamil hai.

samavarti prarambhik kshetradhikar

mooladhikaron ko pravartit karane ke lie uchchatam nyayalay ke pas samavarti prarambhik kshetradhikar hain. in adhikaron ko lagoo karane ke lie snvidhan ke anuchchhed 32 ke adhin uchchatam nyayalay bndi pratyakshikaran, paramadesh, pratishedh, adhikar prichchha tatha utpreshan rit jari kar sakata hai.

apiliy kshetradhikar

desh ka sabase bada apiliy nyayalay uchchatam nyayalay hai. ise bharat ke sabhi uchch nyayalay ke nirnayon ke viruddh apil sunane ka adhikar hai (anuchchhed 132). uchchatam nyayalay men nimnilikhit mamalon men apil ki ja sakati hai-
(1) snvaidhanik mamale – snvaidhanik mamalon men uchch nyayalayon ke nirnay, dikri tatha antim adesh ke viruddh uchchatam nyayalay men tabhi apil ki ja sakati hai, jab snvidhan ki vyakhya se sambandhit vidhi ke kisi mahattvapoorn prashn par anek uchch nyayalayon ne bhinn-bhinn nirnay diye hon aur uchchatam nyayalay ne apana nirnay diya ho. snvaidhanik mamalon men ki gayi apil ki sunavaee ke lie snvaidhanik pith ka gathan kiya jata hai, jisamen kam se kam 5 nyayadhish shamil kiye jate hain. snvaidhanik mamalon men apil tab ki ja sakati hai, jab–

  • uchch nyayalay yah pramanapatr de de, ki mamalon men vidhi ka bahut jatil prashn nihit hai, jisake lie snvidhan ki vyakhya avashyak hai.
  • uchch nyayalay pramanapatr n de, tab uchchatam nyayalay is sambandh men svayn apil karane ki agya de sakata hai.

(2) divani mamale – snvidhan ke anuchchhed 133 ke anusar bharat ke rajy kshetr men sthit kisi uchch nyayalay ke nirnay ke viruddh uchchatam nyayalay men tab apil ki ja sakati hai, jab uchchatam nyayalay yah pramanit kar de ki–

  • mamalon men vidhi ya sarvajanik mahatv ka koee sarabhoot prashn shamil hai, tatha
  • mamale ka nirnay uchchatam nyayalay dvara kiya jana avashyak hai.

(3) aparadhik mamale – kisi uchch nyayalay dvara aparadhik athava faujadari mamale men diye gaye nirnay ke viruddh apil ki ja sakati hai (anuchchhed 134), yadi–

  • uchch nyayalay ne apil men kisi abhiyukt ki dosh mukti ke adesh ko parivartit karake use mrityu dandadesh diya hai,
  • kisi uchch nyayalay ne apane kshetradhikar ke antargat kisi adhinasth nyayalay men lambit vad ko parikshan ke lie apane pas antarit kar liya hai aur abhiyukt ko doshasiddh karake mrityudand diya hai.
  • uchch nyayalay pramanit kar deta hai, ki mamala uchchatam nyayalay men apil kiye jane yogy hai.

(4) vishesh ijajat se apil – jab uchchatam nyayalay apane vivek se kisi uchch nyayalay ya nyayik adhikaran ke nirnay ke viruddh apil karane ki ijazat de, tab uchchatam nyayalay men apil ki ja sakati hai (anuchchhed 136). yah upabndh sashastr balon vale kisi qanoon dvara ya kisi nyayalay ya nyayik adhikaran dvara diye gaye kisi nirnay, dikri ya adesh dvara lagoo nahin hota.

44ven snvidhan snshodhan dvara yah abhinirdharit kiya gaya hai ki uchchatam nyayalay dvara apil ke lie vishesh anumati dene ke adhikar ko ab snvidhan ke anuchchhed 136 dvara niyamit kiya jaega. ab saman prakriti ke vad ko kisi paksh ya vyakti dvara uchchatam nyayalay men upasthit kiya ja sakata hai. isase poorv mahanyayavadi ke avedan par hi uchchatam nyayalay karyavahi kar sakata hai. jab uchchatam nyayalay mahanyayavadi ya kisi paksh ke avedan se sntusht hai ki kisi vad ya vadon men ek hi qanoon antarnihit hai aur vah kisi uchch nyayalay ya uchch nyayalayon men vicharadhin hai, to use apane yahan mngakar un par nirnay kar sakata hai.

paramarshadatri kshetradhikar

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 143 ke tahat rashtrapati ko yah adhikar hai, ki jab use yah pratit ho ki vidhi ya tathy ka koee aisa prashn utpann ho gaya hai ya utpann hone ki sambhana hai, jo ki aisi prakriti ya aise vyapak mahatv ka hai ki us par uchchatam nyayalay ki ray prapt karana avashyak hai, to vah us prashn par uchchatam nyayalay ki ray mang sakata hai. uchchatam nyayalay mamale ki sunavaee karake us par apani ray rashtrapati ko de sakata hai. yahan par yah ullekhaniy hai ki uchchatam nyayalay n to rashtrapati ko ray dene ke lie badhy hai aur n hi rashtrapati uchchatam nyayalay dvara di gee ray ko manane ke lie badhy hai. rashtrapati nimnalikhat mamalon men ab tak uchchatam nyayalay ki ray mang chuke hain–

  1. 1951 men 'in d delhi laj ekt' ke mamale men,
  2. 1952 men 'in d si kastams ekt' ke mamale men,
  3. 1956 men 'in d beroobari' ke mamale men,
  4. 1958 men 'in d keral ejukeshan' ke mamale men,
  5. 1965 men keshav sinh ke mamale men,
  6. 1974 men 'in d presidensiyal pol' ke mamale men,
  7. 1978 men 'in d speshal kort ripharens' ke mamale men,
  8. 1991 men 'in d maitar aph kaveri vatar dispyoots tribyoonal' ke mamale men,
  9. 1993 men 'in d ramajanm bhoomi-babari masjid vivad' ke mamale men,
  10. 1998 men nyayadhishon ki niyukti ke mamale men.

ukt mamalon men se pratham 8 men uchchtam nyayalay ne rashtrapati ko apana paramarsh diya hai. par 24 aktoobar, 1994 ko ramajanm bhoomi-babari masjid ke mamale men mukhy nyayadhish em. en. vainkatachalaiya ki adhyakshata vali uchchtam nyayalay ki panch sadasyiy snvidhan pith ne rashtrapati dvara mangi gayi ray ka koee jabav dene se inkar kar diya.

punarvilokan kshetradhikar

uchchatam nyayalay ko snsad ya vidhan mandalon dvara parit kisi adhiniyam tatha karyapalika dvara diye gaye kisi adesh ki vaidhanikata ka punarvilokan karane ka adhikar hai (anuchchhed 137).

antaran ka kshetradhikar

uchchatam nyayalay ko nimn adhikar bhi pradan kiye ge hain-

  1. vah uchch nyayalayon men lambit mamalon ko apane yahan antarit kar sakata hai.
  2. vah kisi uchch nyayalay men lambit mamalon ko doosare uchch nyayalay men antarit kar sakata hai.

janahit yachika

bharat men lokahit athava janahit yachika (vad) ko prarambh karane ka shrey nyayamoorti pi. en. bhagavati aur nyayamoorti vi. ar. krishn ayyar ka raha hai. isake prayog ki shuruat 1970 ke uttarardh se huee thi. janahit yachika men jivan ki moolabhoot avashyakataen, shoshan, paryavaran, balashram, striyon ka shoshan adi vishayon par nyayalay ko kisi bhi vyakti ya snstha dvara soochit karane par nyayalay svayn usaki janch karakar ya vastusthiti ko dekhakar janahit men nirnay deta hai. is prakar ke vad uchch nyayalay tatha sarvochch nyayalay men hi prastut kiye ja sakate hain. nichali adalaton ko aise vadon par vichar karane ka adhikar prapt nahin hai.


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