सिन्धु लिपि  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg sindhu ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- sindhu (bahuvikalpi)
sindhu sabhyata ki utkirn mudra

sindhu ghati ki sabhyata se snbndhit chhote-chhote snketon ke samooh ko sindhu lipi kahate hain. ise sindhu-sarasvati lipi aur hadappa lipi bhi kahate hain. sindhu sabhyata ka udaghatan 1920 ee. ke bad hua. yadi hamare puratattvavetta adhik sachet hote to is sabhyata ki khoj unnisavin shatabdi men hi ho gee hoti. mesone ne 1820 men pahali bar hadappa ke tilon ko pahachana tha. 1865 men briten-bndhuon-jaaun aur viliyam ko lahaur se karachi tak ki rel lain banane ka theka mila. viliyam ne multan-lahaur lain ka nirman kiya aur is lain ki gitti ke lie hadappa ki eeton ka andhadhundh istemal kiya. 'aj relagadiyan sau mil tak aisi patariyon par se guzarati hain, jo ee. poo. tisari sahashatabdi ki bani huee eeton par mazabooti se tiki huee hain. eeton ki is loot ke dauran kee prakar ke puravashesh prapt hue. inamen se adhik akarshak puravasheshon ko mazadooron aur injiniyaron ne rakh liya'.[1]

itihas

hadappa lipi (sindhu lipi) ka sarvadhik purana namoona 1853 ee. men mila tha par spashtatah yah lipi 1923 tak prakash men aee. sindhu lipi men lagabhag 64 mool chihn evn 205 se 400 tak akshar hain jo selakhadi ki ayatakar muharon, tanbe ki gutikaon adi par milate hain. yah lipi chitratmak thi. yah lipi abhi tak gadhi nahin ja saki hai. is lipi men prapt sabase bade lekh men qarib 17 chihn hain. kalibnga ke utkhanan se prapt mitti ke thikaron par utkirn chihn apane parshvavarti dahine chihn ko katate hain. isi adhar par 'brajavasi lal' ne yah nishkarsh nikala hai - 'saindhav lipi dahini or se bayin or ko likhi jati thi.' abhi hal men 'ke.en. varma' evn 'pro. es.ar. rav' ne is lipi ke kuchh chihnon ko padhane ki bat kahi hai. saindhav sabhyata ki kala men muharon ka apana vishisht sthan tha. ab tak qarib 200 muharen prapt ki ja chuki hain. isamen lagabhag 1200 akele mohanajodado se prapt huee hain. ye muhare belanakar, vargakar, ayatakar evn vrittakar roop men mili hain. muharon ka nirman adhikatar selakhadi se hua hai. is paki mitti ki moortiyon ka nirman 'chikoti paddhati' se kiya gaya hai. par kuchh muharen 'kachal mitti', gomed, chart aur mitti ki bani huee bhi prapt huee hain. adhikansh muharon par snkshipt lekh, ek shrringi, sand, bhains, bagh, gaida, hiran, bakari evn hathi ke chitr ukere gaye hain. inamen se sarvadhik akritiyan ek shrringi, sand ki mili hain. lothal or deshalapur se tanbe ki muhare mili hain. mohanajodado se prapt ek trimukhi purush ko ek chauki par padmasan mudra men baithe hue dikhalaya gaya hai. usake sir men sing hai tatha kalaee se kandhe tak usaki donon bhujaen choodiyon se ladi huee hain. usake dahine or ek hathi aur ek bagh tatha baee or ek bhainsa aur ek gaida khade hue hain. chauki ke niche do hiran khade hain. mohanajodado se prapt ek any muhar bhakt ghutane ke bal jhuka hua hai. is bhakt ke pichhe manaviy mukh se yukt ek bakari khadi hai aur niche ki or sat bhakt-gan nrity men magn dikhae ge hain. mohanajodado evn lothal se prapt ek any muhar par 'nav' ka chitr bana mila hai. hadappa silon ka sarvadhik prachalit prakar chaukor hai. mohanajodado, lothal evn kalibnga se rajamudrank mile hain, jinasen yah snket milata hai ki sambhavatah in muharon ka prayog un vastuon ki gantho par muhar lagane men kiya jata tha jinaka bahar ke deshon ko niryat kiya jata tha.

kaningham ki yatra

janaral kaningham (1814-93) ne 1856 men hadappa ki yatra karake vahan se kuchh muharen prapt ki thin, jin par sindhu lipi ke snket utkirn the. kaningham in puravasheshon ke mahattv ko samajh to ge the, kintu ve hadappa ke anveshanon ko age nahin badha sake. unhonne 1875 men in muharon men se kuchh ko prakashit karake hi sntosh kar liya.

anveshan

sindhu sabhyata ke do pramukh sthal mohanajodado aur hadappa ke arambhik anveshan ka shrey do bharatiy puratattvavettaon ko hai. janavari 1921 men dayaram sahani ne hadappa men khudaee arambh ki aur 1922 men rakhaladas banarji ne mohanajodado men khudaee arambh ki. bad men puratattv vibhag ke dayarektar-janaral jaaun marshal (1876-1958) ne yah kam apane hath men le liya. marshal ke netritv men 1931 tak hadappa tatha mohanajodado ki khudaee hoti rahi. is khudaee ka vistrit vivaran marshal ne tin khandon vale ek brihadakar granth “mohenjo-dado end d indas sivilijeshan” (landan, 1931) ke roop men prakashit kiya. hadappa (mantagomari zila, pakistan) aur mohanajodado (sindh, pakistan) ke prakash men ane ke bad sindhu sabhyata ke any anek sthal bhi dhire-dhire samane ae. vartaman shatabdi ke tisare dashak men aaurel stain (1862-1943) ne baloochistan men anek tilon ki khoj ki. sindhu sabhyata ke anveshan men bharatiy puratattvavettaon ne bhi mahattvapoorn yogadan diya hai. 1927 aur 1931 ke bich nanigopal majoomadar (1893-1938) ne hadappa aur mohanajodado ke bich ke pradesh ki chhanabin ki aur kirathar pahadiyon men khudaee karate samay hi dakuon ke hathon unaki mrityu huee. mohanajodado ki khudaee men bharatiy puravid madhosvaroop vats tatha kashinath dikshit marshal ke sahayogi the. 1925 men dikshit ne sindhu sabhyata ke do aur sthal lohumjo-dadon tatha lumujonejo khoje. arnest maike ke netritv men 1935-1936 men sindh ke navabashah zile ke chanhu-dado namak sthan par khudaee huee. is sthan se sindhu sabhyata ke uttarakal ki mahattvapoorn samagri prapt huee. 1945 men maaurtimar hvilar ne hadappa ki pun: vidhivat khudaee arambh ki. is khudaee men bahut si nee chizen milin, jinamen hadappa ka parakota vishesh mahattv ka hai.

bharat vibhajan

1947 men bharat vibhajan ke karan mohanajodado, hadappa tatha sindhu sabhyata ke any anek sthal bharatiy puratattvavettaon ke hathon se nikal ge. kintu sindhu sabhyata keval sindhu pradesh men hi simit nahin thi. bharatiy puravidon ne vartaman bharat men lagabhag 200 aise sthan khoj nikale hain, jo sindhu sabhyata ke hain. 1950-1953 men rajasthan ki ghagghar (prachin drishadvati) nadi ke kachhar men sindhu sabhyata ke lagabhag tis sthalon ka pata chala hai. ambala zile ke ropad sthan ke najadik bhi hadappa snskriti ke puravashesh prapt hue hain. kathiyavad (gujarat rajy) men bhi sindhu sabhyata ke anek sthal mile hain. gujarat ke bhavanagar zile men sthit padari ke bartan ke thikaron par hadappaee lipi prapt huee hai, sath hi tin vishisht chitrit bhand v tanbe ki kalatmak vastuen prapt huee hain.

lothal se prapt sindhu muhar

1935 men surendranagar ke pas rngapur ke tilon ki khudaee arambh huee thi. 1950 ke bad ki khudaee men rngapur ke samip ke ek tile se hadappa snskriti ke puravashesh mile hain. utsahit hokar puravidon ne any tilon ko bhi khodana shuroo kiya. kee sthanon par sindhu snskriti ke avashesh mile. inamen pramukh hain-sabaramati aur bhagava nadiyon ke bich, arab sagar se 16 kilomitar door, lothal. mitti par sindhu lipi ki muharon ke aise chhape bhi lothal se mile hain, jo anyatr kahin nahin mile the. kal-nirdharan ki “karban-14 vidhi” janchan se gyat hua hai ki lothal men 2200 se 1700 ee. poo. tak basti rahi. lothal ki khudaee men eeton ki bani huee 218 mitar lambi aur 37 mitar chaudi chaturbhujakar ek godi (daaukayard) bhi mili hai. is godi ko ek nahar dvara bhagava nadi se joda gaya tha. aisa jan padata hai ki samudri jahaz ya naukaen bhagava nadi men ati thin. mesopotamiya ki ek utkirn mudra bhi lothal se mili hai. in pramanon se yah prakat hota hai ki samudri marg se bhi sumer-bebilon aur sindhu pradesh ke bich gahare vyapari sambandh the.

khoj

san 1947 ke bad bharat men sindhu sabhyata ke jo kee sthal khoje ge, unamen pramukh hain-rajasthan men ghagghar ke tat par sthit kalibnga. yahan hadappa aur poorv-hadappa kal ke avashesh mile hain. hadappa ki tarah yahan bhi parakote se ghira hua ek ooncha durg tha. parantu yahan ki sabase mahattvapoorn khoj hai-hal se jota gaya ek khet, jo pramanit karata hai ki sindhujan hal ka prayog karate the. sindhu sabhyata ke ek any sthal banavali (hisar zila, hariyana) se mitti ka bane hal ka ek khilauna bhi mila hai. parantu yahan se sindhu lipi ki muharen nahin milin. isi tarah, zile ke kunal sthan se poorv-hadappa kal ki muharen to mili hain, parantu un par lipi-snket ukere hue nahin hain.

dhaulavira

idhar ke varshon men dhaulavira (kachchh, gujarat) men ek vikasit hadappa snskriti ka udaghatan hua hai. is sindhu nagar ko parakote ke bhitar ek vishisht ayojan aur vinyas ke anusar basaya gaya tha. yahan ki ek advitiy upalabdhi hai-sindhu lipi ke das bade chihnon se bana hua lekh. durg ke uttari dvar ke pas zamin par pade hue is lekh ka pratyek akshar 37 sentimitar ooncha hai. sphatik ke tukadon se nirmit ye akshar tin mitar lambe lakadi ke ek takhte par jode ge the. anuman hai ki yah lekh nagar ke pravesh dvar ke oopar 'namapatt' ki tarah laga hua tha.

utkhanan

azadi ke bad sindhu sabhyata ke aur bhi kee sthalon par utkhanan kary hua. inamen mukhy hain-surakotada (kachchh), manda (jammoo), bhagavanapura (kurukshetr zila), hulas (saharanapur zila, uttar pradesh), mitathal (hariyana) adi. sindhu sabhyata ke logon ki arambhik bastiyan baloochistan men dekhane ko milati hain. bad men sindhu ke kachhar men hadappa tatha mohanajodado jaise poorn vikasit nagar prakat hote hain. kalantar men in logon ne gnga-yamuna ke doab men bhi apani bastiyan basaee.

avashesh

1958 men dilli se 45 kilomitar uttar-poorv ki or, yamuna ki ek sahayak nadi ke kinare, alamagir namak sthan par hadappa snskriti ke avashesh mile hain, par alamagir hadappa ke logon ki poorv ki or ki antim sima nahin hai. hadappa ki tarah ke mridabhand gnga ke kinare bulandashahar tatha saharanapur zilon men bhi mile hain. dakshin ke pathar men bhi kuchh sthalon par sindhu sabhyata ke chihn prapt hue hain. is tarah mohanajodado tatha hadappa ke pakistan men chale jane ke bad bhi bharatiy puravidon ke phavadon ke lie aisa vishal bharatiy kshetr vidyaman hai, jisamen sindhu sabhyata ke avashesh prapt hue hain aur age bhi prapt ho sakate hain.

kal nirdharan

misr tatha sumer ki prachin sabhyataon ki tarah sindhu sabhyata ka kal-nirdharan sambhav nahin hai. misr tatha sumer ki pragaitihasik sabhyataon ke kal-nirdharan men vahan mili lekhan-samagri kafi sahayak siddh huee hai. kintu sindhu lipi ke abhi tak n padhe jane ke karan sindhu sabhyata ke kal-nirdharan men any vidhiyon ki sharan leni padati hai. sindhu sabhyata ki kuchh utkirn muharen mesopotamiya ki khudaee men bhi mili hain. ye muharen vahan khudaee ke jin staron men mili hain, un staron ka kal puravidon ko gyat hai. in mesopotamiyaee sthalon ki puratatvik khojabin se prakat hota hai ki in muharon ke vahan pahunchane ka samay 2300 ee.poo. ke as-pas raha hoga. is tatha any anumanon ke adhar par puravid is parinam par pahunche hain ki sindhu sabhyata 2600 se 2000 ee. poo. tak apane charamotkarsh par thi.

sindhu lipi ki muharen

sindhu sabhyata ke vibhinn sthalon se ab tak 3000 se adhik utkirn mudraen ya muharen prapt huee hain. selakhadi, chini mitti tatha hathidant ki bani in muharon par pashu, pakshi tatha manav ki akritiyon ke sath sindhu lipi ke snket utkirn hain. puravidon ke lie yah ek paheli hai ki ye muharen, in par utkirn pratikon sahit, kis uddeshy se banaee gee thin. mesopotamiya se bhi belan (silindar) ke akar ki muharen mili hain, parantu vahan kalashon ya bhandon par mitti ke phalakon ki sil lagane ke lie in muharon ka istemal hota tha. sindhu sabhyata ki muharon ka bhi upayog sil lagane ke lie hi hota tha, aisa nishchit roop se nahin kaha ja sakata. lothal ki mitti par in ankit muharon ki chhapen mili hain, kintu vaisi chhapen any kisi bhi sthan ki mitti par nahin mili hain. anek puravidon ne in muharon ki kalpana sikke, tavij, tred-mark adi ke roop men ki hai.

manyataen

sindhu lipi ke bare men bhi puralipividon ne nana prakar ki kalpanaen prastut ki hain. sabase pahale 1925 men el.e. vadel ne is lipi ko padhane ka prayas kiya tha. unaki manyata thi ki sumeri log tatha vaidik ary ek hi vnsh ke the. unhonne sindhu lipi ko sumeri lekhon ke adhar par padhane ka prayas kiya aur is lipi men kuchh vaidik devataon ko bhi khoj nikala. vadel ka anukaran karate hue da. prananath ne sindhu snskriti ko ary snskriti to mana, parantu usaki bhasha ko unhonne ady-snskrit ya ady-prakrit ka nam diya. unhonne kafi bad ki brahmi lipi ke dhvanimanon ko sindhu lipi ke snketon par lagoo karane ka prayatn kiya. da. prananath ka yah bhi sujhav tha ki tantrik pratikon ke adhar par sindhu lipi ke snketon ka adhyayan kiya jana chahie. is sujhav ka anukaran karate hue shnkarannd tatha beni madhav barua ne sindhu lipi ko padhane ka yatn kiya. in donon sajjanon ne is lipi ko varnamalatmak hi mana. mumbee ke sent jeviyars kaaulej ke bharat-puravid fadar heras ne kalpana ki ki sindhu sabhyata ke log dravid jati ke the, isilie unaki bhasha bhi dravid parivar ki-prak-tamil-honi chahie. prasiddh misr-puravid flindars petri ne misri lipi ke samy ke adhar par sindhu lipi men keval bhavachitron ki hi kalpana ki. petri ka mat tha ki sindhu sabhyata ki in muharon par keval afasaron ki padaviyan ankit hain.

hrozni ke anusar

pratham mahayuddh ke jamane men prasiddh puralipivid hrozni ne hitti kalikshar lipi ka udaghatan kiya tha. usake bad unhonne snsar ki bahut-si puralipiyon ko padhane ki koshit ki thi, jinamen krit ki lipi ko padhane ki asaphal koshish bhi shamil hai. hrozni ne 1939 men sindhu lipi ke bare men bhi ek nibandh prakashit kiya. unaki manyata thi ki sindhu sabhyata ke log prak-hitti the arthat bharat-yooropiy bhasha-parivar ke the. isilie unhonne sindhu lipi men hitti bhasha ko khojane ka prayatn kiya.

meriggi ke anusar

itali ke prasiddh puravid meriggi ne petro ki is keval bhavachitron vali manyata ko asvikar karake, sindhu lipi ko bhavachitron aur dhvani-snketon se yukt ek mishrit yojana mana. unhonne kuchh snketon ko bhavachitr mana aur kuchh snketon ko dhvani snket. unhonne isake bad sindhu lipi ke anty-prayatnon ka adhyayan karake usamen vibhakti-snketon ki bhi khoj ki. jab meraggi ne apani is yojana ke anusar sindhu lipi ko padhane ki koshish ki, to unhen in lekhon men krishi se sambandhit baton ki hi pradhanata dikhaee di.

de-hevesi ke anusar

1934 men de-hevesi ne ek adabhut kalpana ki. unhonne sindhu lipi ko eestar dvip ki lipi ke sath jodane ka prayatn kiya aur snketon ka samy darasane ke lie in donon lipiyon men se 48 snketon ki ek talika bhi prakashit ki. sarasari drishti se koee bhi is talika ko dekhega, to vishvas kar baithega ki sindhu lipi aur eestar dvip ki lipi men adabhut samy hai. parantu gaharaee se vichar karane par yah samy ek bhulava matr jan padata hai. ek to hevesi ne in do lipiyon ke keval 48 snketon men hi samanata darasaee hai aur bhi zor-jabari se, jabaki sindhu lipi men snketon ki snkhya isase ath guna adhik hai.
doosare, ham janate hain ki eestar dvip ki lipi ek hazar sal se adhik puratan nahin ho sakati hai, jabaki sindhu lipi lagabhag sadhe char hazar sal purani hai. tisare, eestar dvip (prashant mahasagar) aur sindhu pradesh ke bich itani adhik doori hai ki kisi bhi prakar yah kalpana nahin ki ja sakati hai ki sindhu sabhyata ke nivasi itani door apani is lipi ko le ge honge. atah dikkal ke is mahat antar par vichar karen, to hevesi ki yah manyata kori kalpanik udan hi jan padati hai.

sindhu lipi ki kathinaee

sindhu lipi ka aisa koee lekh ab tak nahin mila hai, jisamen 26 se adhik snket hon. muharon par lipi-snketon ke sath pashu-pakshiyon ki jo akritiyan utkirn hain, unake adhyayan se gyat hota hai ki sindhu lipi daeen or baeen or ko likhi jati thi. yah bhi pata chalata hai ki jahan lipi-snket do pnktiyon men hain, vahan par ‘byustraphidan’ paddhati se unhen likha gaya hai, yani pahali pnkti daeen or se baeen or ko likhi gee hai, aur doosari pnkti baeen or se daeen or ko. gyat hota hai ki sindhu lipi men lagabhag 400 snketon ka prayog hota tha, kintu ek hi snket ke vividh roopon ko chhod diya jae to in snketon ki snkhya lagabhag 250 rah jati hai. ab yah ek spasht bat hai ki, itane adhik snketon vali lipi varnamalatmak to nahin ho sakati. yah bhi spasht hai ki chitralipi ya bhavachitratmak lipi ke lie itane snket paryapt nahin hain.

sumeri lipi

sumeri lipi ke adhyayan se gyat hota hai ki arambh men usamen lagabhag 2000 snketon ka prayog hota tha aur kalantar men yah snkhya keval 900 rah gee. snketon ki snkhya men kami hote jana lipi ke vikas ko vyakt karata hai. (chini lipi in niyam ka apavad hai.) sindhu lipi ke bare men aur ek mahattvapoorn bat yah hai ki sindhu sabhyata ke lagabhag ek hazar varshon ke dirgh-jivan kal men bhi isake snketon ke svaroopon men koee vishesh parivartan dekhane men nahin ata. sindhu sabhyata ke any puravasheshon ke nirikshan se bhi yah bat siddh hoti hai ki 2600 ee. poo. ke as-pas jis sabhyata ke hamen darshan hote hain, vah apane vikas ke utkarsh par pahunch chuki thi aur agale ek hazar varshon tak usamen koee vishesh parivartan dekhane ko nahin milata. sindhu lipi ka sthayi svaroop bhi isi tathy ki or ishara karata hai ki, sindhu sabhyata lagabhag ek hazar varshon tak vaisi-ki-vaisi bani rahi hai.

lipi-anveshan

sindhu lipi ki bhanti hi usaki bhasha bhi agyat hi hai. aisi sthiti men lipi-anveshan ke lie koee dvaibhashik lekh hi sahayak siddh ho sakata hai. kintu abhi tak is tarah ka koee ka dvaibhashik lekh prapt nahin hua hai. sindhu sabhyata aur sumeri sabhyata ke gahare vyaparik sambandh the. sindhu lipi ki muharen mesopotamiya men mili hain aur mesopotamiya ki muharen sindhu pradesh men. isalie hamen asha rakhani chahie ki kisi din bharat ya irak men koee aisa dvaibhashik lekh prapt ho jayega, jisamen sindhu lipi tatha kilakshar lipi men ek hi bat ankit ki gee ho.

sindhu lipi ke dosh

oopar sindhu lipi ke bare men jitani bhi parikalpanaon ka ullekh kiya hai, unake doshon ko asani se samajha ja sakata hai. in parikalpanaon ki doshapoornata isi se spasht hai ki in puralipividon men se kisi ko is lipi ka udaghatan karane men anshik saphalata bhi nahin mili hai. kuchh puravidon ne is lipi ki antarik rachana ka tatha isake snketon ka yantrik vishleshan karane ka bhi prayatn kiya hai. gad, sidani smith, langadan aur hntar inamen pramukh hain. gad ne sindhu lipi men prachin bharopiy bhasha ki kalpana ki hai aur isake tin snketon ko ‘shabd’ ke arth men padhane ka prayatn kiya hai. hntar ne sindhu lipi tatha brahmi lipi men kuchh samy khojane ki koshish ki. gad tatha hntar donon hi sindhu lipi ko aksharatmak manate hain. isake viparit, sidani smith ne kisi bhi bhasha ka sahara n lete hue isake snketon ka yantrik vishleshan karane ka prayatn kiya hai. unhonne apana adhyayan is lipi ke nirdharak-snketon, poorv-sarg tatha anty-sarg snketon ko tay karane tak hi simit rakha.
kuchh puravidon ne sindhu lipi ke snketon ki tulana bad ke ahat (pnchamark) sikkon par pae jane vale chihnon ke sath karane ki bhi koshish ki hai. mauryakal ke sohagaura tamrapatr par paye ge snket sindhu lipi ke avashesh mane ge hain. parantu is parikalpana ke lie abhi tak koee thos adhar prapt nahin hua hai. is prakar ke kuchh pratik-chihn to aj bhi dekhe ja sakate hain. isilie is manyata ke bare men nishchit roop se kuchh nahin kaha ja sakata.

sudhanshu kumar ray ke anusar

sindhu lipi ke udaghatan ke ek-do davedar pray har sal samane ate hain. 1968 men sudhanshu kumar ray ke anveshan ki samacharapatron men khoob charcha rahi. unhonne apane anveshan ke bare men do pustikaen bhi prakashit ki hain. sudhanshu kumar ray sindhu men ady-snskrit bhasha ke darshan karate hain. unake matanusar, sindhu lipi ajakal ki devanagari lipi jaisi varnamalatmak hai. unhonne is lipi ke 48 varnaksharon ki khoj ki hai. sath hi, snyuktakshar tatha svar-matraon ko bhi khoj nikala hai. ve sindhu lipi men kuchh nirdharak snket evn bhavachitron ke bhi darshan karate hain. ray ka mat hai ki sindhu lipi ki muharon ka istemal vyakaran ke niyam sikhane ke lie hota tha. ve kahate hain, "mohanajodado" nishchay hi snsar ka pratham vishvavidyalay-nagar tha aur usaka vishal snanagar, dhany-kothar adi usake chhatravas se sambandhit the." samajh men nahin ata ki yadi ray ne sachamuch hi sindhu lipi ke rahasy ka udaghatan kar liya tha, to unhonne apane adhyayan ko kisi shastriy patrika men kyon nahin prakashit kiya?

pashupati-mudra

vi.en. krishnarav bharatiy puratattv-sarvekshan men takaniki sahayak ke pad par rahe hain. sudhanshu kumar ray ki tarah ve bhi sindhu lipi men vaidik snskrit bhasha ke darshan karate hain. unaka anveshan prasiddh ‘pashupati-mudra’ se arambh hota hai. is mudra ke bich men ek yogi ya shiv ki akriti hai. oopar lipi-snket hain aur daen-baen v niche pashu-akritiyan utkirn hain. niche baeen or ka kona toota hua hai. krishnarav bhi yah svikar karate hain ki sindhu lipi daeen aur baeen or likhi gee hai. atah is tathakathit ‘pashupati mudra’ men ve unhin pashu-akritiyon par vichar karana chahate hain, jinaka munh baeen or ko hai. sher ko, jisaka munh daeen or hai, ve koee mahattv nahin dete. isi tarah yogi ke asan ke niche bani bakare ya hiran ki akriti ko bhi ve mahattv nahin dete. is akriti ke baeen or, khandit bhag men, ek aur pashu-akriti rahi hai. unake anusar daeen or ke pashu hain-mahish (bhains), khadg (gainda). oopar ke kone men manushy (nar) ki akriti hai. baeen or shadri (hathi) aur punah manushy ki akriti hai. krishnarav ka kahana hai ki mudra men oopar utkirn panch lipi-snket in panch pashuon ke snskrit namon ke adyakshar hain; jaise, mahish (m), khadg (kh), nar (na), shadri (sh) aur nar (n). adyaksharon se ‘makhanashan’ shabd banata hai, jo krishnarav ke anusar ‘indr’ ka dyotak hai.

lipi-snket

ek any mudra men yogi ki isi prakar ki akriti hai aur isake oopar panch lipi-snket hain. is mudra-lekh ko padhate hue krishnarav daeen or ke do snketon ko chhod dete hain aur shesh tinon snketon ko ‘eeshan’ (rudr) padhate hain. is mudra men koee pashu-akriti nahin hai. isilie krishnarav ne yahan adyakshar-siddhant ka sahara nahin liya hai. ek hi tarah ki akriti ek mudra men makhanashan (indr) aur doosari mudra men eeshan (rudr) kaise ho sakati hai? zahir hai ki unake anveshan men gadabad hai. krishnarav ne sindhu lipi ko padhane ke lie prachin misr ki lipi, sumeri lipi, rooni lipi adi ke snketon ke manon ka sahara liya hai. yoorop ki rooni lipi kisi bhi halat men do hazar sal se adhik prachin nahin hai. isake viparit, sindhu sabhyata ka ant 1500 ee. poo. ke pahale hi ho gaya tha. aisi halat men age ki ek lipi ke snket manon ko sindhu lipi par kaise lagoo kiya ja sakata hai. krishnarav ne sindhu lipi men kuchh videshi shasakon ke nam bhi khoje hain. ek or ve isamen misr ke pratham shasak man (menes ya naramer, 3200 ee. poo.) ka nam khojate hain, to doosari or raja soloman (ee. poo. dasavin shatabdi) ka. sabhi baton par vichar karane se gyat hota hai ki krishnarav ne dikkal ki simaon ka bilkul bhi khyal nahin rakha aur unaka yah anveshan pusht nahin hai.

daau. fatahasinh ke anusar

doosare davedar hain, rajasthan prachyavidya pratishthan, jodhapur ke nideshak da. fatahasinh. pratishthan ki shodh-patrika ‘svaha’ men unhonne apana arambhik anveshan prakashit kiya hai. fatahasinh sindhu sabhyata ko ary sabhyata manate hain aur sindhu lipi men vaidik bhasha evn "brahman granthon aur upanishadon ke pratik" khojate hain. sindhu lipi men vaidik bhasha khojane ke prayas se koee saiddhantik virodh nahin hai, par sindhu sabhyata ke upalabdh puratattvavashesh isi tathy ki or ishara karate hain ki sindhu sabhyata vaidik sabhyata se bhinn thi aur vaidik sahity ke adhyeta achchhi tarah janate hain ki rigved ke yatudharm men aur kalantar men rachit brahman granthon tatha upanishadon ke dharm men bada antar hai. ham yah svikar karate hain ki brahman aur upanishadon men aryon ki snskriti aur deshaj snskriti ka samanvay hua hai. par brahmanon aur upanishadon ke pratik adhyatmavad aur rahasy ka jama pahane hue hain. inake viparit, rigved-kalin dharm-karm utana adhyatmavadi aur rahasyamay nahin tha. atah rigved ko chhodakar bad ke brahmanon aur upanishadon ke pratikon ko sindhu lipi par aropit karana, apani adhyatmikata ka parichay dene ke alava aur kuchh nahin hai.

aksharatmak v bhavachitratmak lipi

da. fatahasinh ne sindhu lipi men aksharatmak v bhavachitratmak lipi-tray aur lipi-chatushtay ke snket khoje hain. unaka kahana hai ki sindhu lekh char prakar ki lipiyon men likhe ge hain. unaka anuman hai ki inamen se tin lipiyan daeen or baeen or ko likhi gee hain aur chauthi sambhavatah baeen or se daeen or ko.

snganak

tisare davedar hain, finalaind ke char vaigyanik-asko parapola, pi. alto, simo parapola aur es. koskenniemi. inamen ek bharatavid, doosara asiri puravid, tisara bhashavid aur chautha ganitgy hai. inhonne snganak (kampyootar) ki sahayata se sindhu lipi ke lekhon ka vishleshan kiya hai. shabdon ke arambh aur ant men ane vale vyakaranatmak pratyayon ki barnmabarata gyat karane ke lie hi snganak ki sahayata li gee hai. roosi puravid bhi snganak ki sahayata se sindhu lipi ke anveshan men jute hue hain. unhonne snganak ki madad se hi may lipi ka udaghatan kiya tha. inglaind ke maikel ventris ne isi prakar antarik vishleshan karake krit ki raikhik-b lipi ka udaghatan kiya tha. bhasha agyat hone par puralipi ke anveshan ka yahi tariqa sarvottam hai.

prak-dravid bhasha

roosi aur fini vaigyanik ke anusar sindhu lipi men prak-dravid bhasha ke darshan hote hain. fini vaigyanik ne apane anveshan men kuchh snketon ke arth jan lie hain. inamen se kuchh yahan die ja rahe hain-

  • sambandh karak
  • sampradan karak, ekavachan
  • kartta karak, bahuvachan
  • sambandh karak, bahuvachan
  • sampradan, bahuvachan
  • raja
  • adami
  • stri, knghi
  • tara
  • chhah tare (krittika nakshatr)
  • mandir, rajamahal

in fini vaigyanikon ki vidhi vaigyanik hai, isamen sandeh nahin. parantu inake adhyayan men bhi kamiyan hain. prak-dravid bhasha ke vyakaran ke bare men inaki janakari poornat yatharth nahin hai. inake adhyayan ki yah shuruat matr hai.

lothal ka utkhanan kary

lothal ke utkhanan kary ka netritv karane vale prasiddh puratattvavetta daau. shikaripur rnganath rav ne bhi sindhu lipi ke bare men apana anveshan prakashit kiya hai.

maulik chihn

rav ka mat hai ki arambhik hadappa snskriti (2500-1900 ee. poo.) ki sindhu lipi men 390 chihn the, jinamen lagabhag 40 maulik chihn the. kintu paravarti hadappa snskriti (1900-1600 ee. poo.) ki sindhu lipi men sirf 20 maulik chihn rah ge the. isaka arth yah hua ki paravarti sindhu lipi varnamalatmak ban chuki thi.

yah kaise hua?

yah kaise hua? rav ka kahana hai ki yah pashchim eshiya ki semetik lipi ke prabhav se hua. unhonne kanani aur finishiyan jaisi uttari semetik lipiyon ke snketon men aur paravarti sindhu lipi ke snketon men samy bhi khoja hai. itana hi nahin, unhonne semetik ‘vynjanamala’ ke dhvanimanon ki sahayata se hi paravarti sindhu lipi ke 20 chihnon ki ‘varnamala’ ko padhane ka prayatn kiya hai. rav ka kahana hai ki paravarti sindhu lipi ki ‘varnamala’ men 14 ya 15 vynjanakshar hain aur 5 svarakshar. ham janate hain ki semetik lipiyon men svarakshar nahin the. lekin yoonaniyon ne uttari semetik lipi ke adhar par apani bhasha ke lie jab nee lipi banaee, to usamen unhonne svaron ke lie chihn bana lie the. rav ka adhyayan yadi sahi hai to hamen kahana padega ki paravarti hadappa snskriti ke logon ne bhi aisa hi kiya tha.

is ‘sindhu varnamala’ ki bhasha kya thi?

is ‘sindhu varnamala’ ki bhasha kya thi? apane adhyayan se rav is parinam par pahunche hain ki sindhu logon ki bhasha bharat-yooropiy parivar ki tatha bharat-eerani varg ki thi. sath hi ve yah janakari bhi dete hain ki jo 360 shabd unhonne khojen hain, unamen 30 shabd bharat-yooropiy bhasha ke nahin hain.

parinam

rav is parinam par pahunche hain ki sindhu lipi ki bhasha vedon ki prachin snskrit bhasha se kafi milati hai. unhonne kuchh muharon par ‘raja’ ke lie ‘pal’, ‘palak’, ‘tr’ adi shabdon ki khoj bhi ki hai. rav ne ‘sindhu varnamala’ ka semetik lipiyon ke sath samy darasane ke lie jo talika di hai, usamen unhonne brahmi lipi ke kuchh akshar die hain. atah lagata hai ki brahmi varnamala paravarti ‘sindhu varnamala’ se bani thi. par ve yah bhi svikar karate hain ki sindhu lipi daeen or se baeen or ko likhi jati thi. snkshep men, yah hai es.ar. rav ka adhyayan. lekin gaharaee se dekhen to, isamen kee nyoonataen hain. isilie hamen manana padata hai ki sindhu lipi abhi bhi agyat bani huee hai.

mudralekhon ki bhasha

sindhu lipi ke udaghatan ke ne davedar daau. natavar jha ki manyata hai ki sindhu mudralekhon ki bhasha vaidik snskrit hai aur lipi poorv-brahmi. ve kahate hain ki adhikansh sindhu muharon men poorvavarti vaidik shabdon ko, pramukhatah rigved ke shabdon ko, prastut kiya gaya hai. itana hi nahin, daau. natavar jha ka mat hai ki sindhu lekhon men kshetramiti se sambandhit shulvasootron aur pramukh upanishadon ke vishayon ka bhi prastutikaran dekhane ko milata hai.

nighantu shabd sngrah

daau. natavar jha ko apani is parikalpana ke lie prerana mili yask dvara snkalit nighantu namak vaidik shabd-sngrah se aur un shabdon par likhe ge unake nirukt namak bhashy se. yask eesa poorv qarib panch-chhah sau sal pahale hue. kuchh panditon ka mat hai ki nighantu namak vaidik shabd-sngrah yask ne svayn taiyar kiya tha, aur kuchh any panditon ka mat hai ki unhen yah parampara se prapt hua. lagata hai ki nighantu kisi ek vyakti ki kriti nahin hai.

yask

mahabharat ke shantiparv men mokshaparv ke 342 ven adhyay ke do shlokon men yask ka ullekh hai aur kaha gaya hai ki unhonne patalalok men nasht hue niruktashastr ko punah prapt kiya. kuchh bad ke do shlokon men bataya gaya hai ki ‘vrish’ ka arth dharm hai aur prajapati-kashyap ne mujhe (vasudev ko) ‘vrishakapi’ kaha hai. nirukt ke adhyetaon ko mahabharat ke un ullekhon ki kafi pahale se janakari rahi hai. ‘vrishakapi’ shabd nighantu men bhi milata hai. isilie kuchh pandit parinam par pahunche ki prajapati-kashyap nighantu ke praneta hain. nighantu v nirukt ke daau. lakshmanasaroop jaise gambhir adhyeta is yukti ko svikar nahin karate. magar daau. natavar jha ka mat hai ki "yask ne apane nirukt ke nirman ke lie kashyap prajapati dvara nirmit nighantu namak kosh ko adhar banaya tha." is sandarbh men ek maje ki bat yah hai ki yask-snhita jo 14 niruktakar hue hain, unamen vedamntron ko arthahin batane vale kauts ka to nam hai, kintu prajapati-kashyap ka nahin hai. bavajood isake, daau. natavar jha ne sirf mahabharat ke uparyukt shlokon ko gaddamadd karake apana mat banaya ki prajapati-kashyap ka vaidik shabd-sngrah sindhu lekhon men prastut hua hai, aur choonki unake anusar yask ne ‘patalalok’ ya zamin ke bhitar dabe (yani sindhu sabhyata ke sthalon men dabe) is shabd-sngrah ka uddhar kiya, isilie sindhu lekhon ko yask ke nighantu v nirukt ke adhar par padha ja sakata hai.

vynjanamalatmak

daau. natavar jha ke matanusar sindhu lipi pramukhatah vynjanamalatmak hai. isamen keval tin hi svar-varn hain aur shabd ke arambh ke sabhi aksharon ko keval ek hi snket (U) se vyakt kiya gaya hai. mudraon ko unhonne baeen or se daeen or ko padha, to kuchh ko daeen or se baeen or ko aur kuchh ko donon or se.

vaidik sabhyata ka ang

daau. natavar jha ne apane is prayas men sindhu sabhyata ki upalabdh puratattvik samagri par aur isake nirdharit kalakram par tanik bhi dhyan nahin diya. ve bina kisi adhar ke sindhu sabhyata ke utkarsh kal ko eesa ke panch hazar sal pahale rakhate hain aur vaidik kal ko usake bhi kafi pichhe le jate hain. unaka uddeshy hai yen-ken-prakaren yah siddh karana ki sindhu sabhyata vaidik sabhyata ka hi ek paravarti ang hai. aisi niradhar manyataen vedon ke prati hamari andhabhakti ko to badhava de sakati hain, parantu prak-aitihasik kal ki sindhu sabhyata par koee naya prakash nahin dalati. airavatham mahadevan ne singhu lekhon ka sngrah prakashit kiya hai. unaki manyata hai ki sindhu muharon men unake svamiyon ke nam ankit hain. ve in lekhon men dravid parivar ki bhasha khoji jane ki ummid rakhate hain.

vyakaranatmak vishleshan

sindhu lipi men koee dravid bhasha khojata hai, koee vaidik bhasha. yah bat bhi nazarandaj nahin karani chahie ki sindhu lipi men in donon ke alava koee tisari bhasha nihit ho sakati hai. isilie is lipi ke anveshan ka sarvottam tariqa yahi hai ki krit ki raikhik-b lipi ki tarah isaka adhyayan isake atirikt vyakaranatmak vishleshan se arambh kiya jae.

sumer ke sath sambandh

sumer ke sath sindhu sabhyata ke gahare sambandh the. yadi koee dvaibhashik lekh prapt ho gaya hota to is lipi ke udaghatan men asani hoti. lagata hai ki kisi dvaibhashik lekh ke prapt hone par hi ab is lipi ka rahasyodaghatan ho paega. kintu tab tak isake antarik vishleshan ke prayas jari rahane chahie.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. stuart pigaaut, 'prihistaaurik indiya', prishth 14

snbndhit lekh

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