सुमित्रानंदन पंत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sumitranndan pnt
Sumitranandan-Pant.jpg
poora nam sumitranndan pnt
any nam gusaeen datt
janm 20 mee 1900
janm bhoomi kausani, uttarakhand, bharat
mrityu 28 disnbar, 1977
mrityu sthan ilahabad, uttar pradesh, bharat
karm bhoomi ilahabad
karm-kshetr adhyapak, lekhak, kavi
mukhy rachanaen vina, pallav, chidnbara, yugavani, lokayatan, yugapath, svarnakiran, kala aur boodha chand adi
vishay git, kavitaen
bhasha hindi
vidyalay jayanarayan haeeskool, myor sentral kaaulej
puraskar-upadhi gyanapith puraskar, padm bhooshan, sahity akadami puraskar , 'lokayatan' par soviyat laind neharu puraskar
nagarikata bharatiy
andolan rahasyavad v pragativad
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
sumitranndan pnt ki rachanaen

sumitranndan pnt (angrezi: Sumitranandan Pant, janm: 20 mee 1900; mrityu: 28 disnbar, 1977) hindi sahity men chhayavadi yug ke char stnbhon men se ek hain. sumitranndan pnt naye yug ke pravartak ke roop men adhunik hindi sahity men udit hue. sumitranndan pnt aise sahityakaron men gine jate hain, jinaka prakriti chitran samakalin kaviyon men sabase behatarin tha. akarshak vyaktitv ke dhani sumitranndan pnt ke bare men sahityakar rajendr yadav kahate hain ki 'pnt angrezi ke roomani kaviyon jaisi veshabhoosha men rahakar prakriti kendrit sahity likhate the.' janm ke mahaj chhah ghnte ke bhitar unhonne apani man ko kho diya. pnt logon se bahut jald prabhavit ho jate the. pnt ne mahatma gandhi aur karl markh‍s se prabhavit hokar un par rachanaen likh dalin. hindi sahity ke viliyam vardsavarth kahe jane vale is kavi ne mahanayak amitabh bachchan ko ‘amitabh’ nam diya tha. padmabhooshan, gyanapith puraskar aur sahity akadami puraskaron se navaje ja chuke pnt ki rachanaon men samaj ke yatharth ke sath-sath prakriti aur manushy ki satta ke bich takarav bhi hota tha. harivnsh ray ‘bachchan’ aur shri aravindo ke sath unaki zindagi ke achchhe din gujare. adhi sadi se bhi adhik lnbe unake rachanakal men adhunik hindi kavita ka ek poora yug samaya hua hai.[1]

jivan parichay

sumitranndan pnt ka janm 20 mee 1900 men kausani, uttarakhand, bharat men hua tha. janm ke chhah ghnte bad hi man ko kroor mrityu ne chhin liya. shishu ko usaki dadi ne pala posa. shishu ka nam rakha gaya gusaeen datt. gyanapith puraskar se sammanit hindi ke sukumar kavi pnt ki prarnbhik shiksha kausani ganv ke skool men huee, phir vah varanasi a ge aur 'jayanarayan haeeskool' men shiksha paee, isake bad unhonne ilahabad men 'myor sentral kaaulej' men pravesh liya, par intaramidiet ki pariksha men baithane se pahale hi 1921 men asahayog andolan men shamil ho ge.

kausani men mahakavi ka durlabh chitr

prarambhik jivan

kavi ke bachapan ka nam 'gusaeen datt' tha. sleti chhaton vale pahadi ghar, angan ke samane adoo, khubani ke ped, pakshiyon ka kalarav, sarpil pagadandiyan, banj, buransh v chid ke pedon ki bayar v niche door door tak makhamali kalin si pasari katyoor ghati v usake upar himalay ke uttng shikharon aur dadi se suni kahaniyon v sham ke samay sunayi dene vali arati ki svar lahariyon ne gusaeen datt ko bachapan se hi kavi hriday bana diya tha. kyonki janm ke chh: ghante bad hi inaki man ka nidhan ho gaya tha, isilie prakriti ki yahi ramaniyata inaki man ban gayi. prakriti ke isi mamatamayi chhanv men balak gusaeen datt dhire- dhire yahan ke saundary ko shabdon ke madhyam se kagaz men ukerane laga. pita 'gngadatt' us samay kausani chay bagiche ke mainejar the. unake bhaee snskrit v angrezi ke achchhe janakar the, jo hindi v kumanooni men kavitaen bhi likha karate the. yadakada jab unake bhaee apani patni ko madhur knth se kavitaen sunaya karate to balak gusaeen datt kivad ki ot men chupachap sunata rahata aur usi tarah ke shabdon ki tukabandi kar kavita likhane ka prayas karata. balak gusaeen datt ki praimari tak ki shiksha kausani ke 'varnakyoolar skool' men huee. inake kavita path se mugdh hokar skool insapaiktar ne inhen upahar men ek pustak di thi. gyarah sal ki umr men inhen padha़ee ke liye almoda़ ke 'gavarnament haeeskool' men bhej diya gaya. kausani ke saundary v ekantata ke abhav ki poorti ab nagariy sukh vaibhav se hone lagi. almoda़ ki khas snskriti v vahan ke samaj ne gusaeen datt ko andar tak prabhavit kar diya. sabase pahale unaka dhyan apane nam par gaya. aur unhonne lakshman ke charitr ko adarsh manakar apana nam gusaeen datt se badal kar 'sumitranndan' kar liya. kuchh samay bad nepoliyan ke yuvavastha ke chitr se prabhavit hokar apane lambe v ghungharale bal rakh liye.[2]

sahityik parichay

almoda men tab kee sahityik v sanskritik gatividhiyan hoti rahati thin jisamen pnt aksar bhag lete rahate. svami satyadev ji ke prayason se nagar men ‘shuddh sahity samiti‘ nam se ek pustakalay chalata tha. is pustakalay se pnt ji ko uchch koti ke vidvanon ka sahity padhane ko milata tha. kausani men sahity ke prati pnt ji men jo anurag paida hua vah yahan ke sahityik vatavaran men ab ankurit hone laga. kavita ka prayog ve sage sambandhiyon ko patr likhane men karane lage. shuruati daur men unhonne 'bageshvar ke mele', 'vakilon ke dhanalolup svabhav' v 'tambakoo ka dhuna' jaisi kuchh chhutaput kavitaen likhi. athavin kaksha ke dauran hi unaka parichay prakhyat natakakar govind ballabh pnt, shyamacharan datt pnt, ilachandr joshi v hemachandr joshi se ho gaya tha. almoda se tab hastalikhit patrika ‘sudhakar‘ v ‘almoda akhabar‘ namak patr nikalata tha jisamen ve kavitaen likhate rahate. almoda men pnt ji ke ghar ke thik upar sthit girajaghar ki ghantiyon ki avaz unhen atyadhik sammohit karati thin. aqsar pratyek ravivar ko ve is par ek kavita likhate. ‘giraje ka ghanta‘ shirshak se unaki yah kavita sambhavatah pahali rachana hai-

sumitranndan pnt kavita padhate hue

nabh ki us nili chuppi par ghanta hai ek tnga sundar
jo ghadi ghadi man ke bhitar kuchh kahata rahata baj baj kar

dubale patale v sundar kaya ke karan pnt ji ko skool ke natakon men adhikatar stri patron ka abhinay karane ko milata. 1916 men jab ve jadon ki chhuttiyon men kausani gaye to unhonne ‘har‘ shirshak se 200 prishthon ka 'ek khilauna' upanyas likh dala. jisamen unake kishor man ki kalpana ke nayak nayikaon v any patron ki maujoodagi thi. kavi pnt ka kishor kavi jivan kausani v almoda men hi bita tha. in donon jagahon ka varnan bhi unaki kavitaon men milata hai.[2]

svatntrata sngram men yogadan

1921 ke asahayog andolan men unhonne kaaulej chhod diya tha, par desh ke svatntrata sngram ki gnbhirata ke prati unaka dhyan 1930 ke namak satyagrah ke samay se adhik kendrit hone laga, inhin dinon snyogavash unhen kalakankar men gram jivan ke adhik nikat snpark men ane ka avasar mila. us gram jivan ki prishthabhoomi men jo snvedan unake hriday men ankit hone lage, unhen vani dene ka prayatn unhonne yugavani (1938) aur gramya (1940) men kiya. yahan se unaka kavy, yug ka jivan-sngharsh tatha nee chetana ka darpan ban jata hai. svarnakiran tatha usake bad ki rachanaon men unhonne kisi adhyatmik ya darshanik saty ko vani n dekar vyapak manaviy sanskritik tattv ko abhivyakti di, jisamen ann pran, man atma, adi manav-jivan ke sabhi svaron ki chetana ko snyojit karane ka prayatn kiya gaya.

kavy evn sahity ki sadhana

pntaji sngharshon ke ek lnbe daur se guzare, jisake dauran svayn ko kavy evn sahity ki sadhana men lagane ke lie unhonne apani ajivika sunishchit karane ka prayas kiya. bahut pahale hi unhonne yah samajh liya tha ki unake jivan ka lakshy aur kary yadi koee hai, to vah kavy sadhana hi hai. pnt ki bhav-chetana mahakavi rabindranath thakur, mahatma gandhi aur shri arabindo ghosh ki rachanaon se prabhavit huee. sath hi kuchh mitron ne marksavad ke adhyayan ki or bhi unhen pravrit kiya aur usake vibhinn samajik-arthik pakshon ko unhonne gaharaee se dekha v samajha. 1950 men rediyo vibhag se judane se unake jivan men ek or mod aya. sat varsh unhonne 'hindi chif prodyoosar' ke pad par kary kiya aur usake bad sahity salahakar ke roop men karyarat rahe.

yug pravartak kavi

harivnsharay bachchan aur sadi ke mahanayak amitabh bachchan ke sath mahakavi sumitranndan pnt

sumitranndan pnt adhunik hindi sahity ke ek yug pravartak kavi hain. unhonne bhasha ko nikhar aur snskar dene, usaki samarthy ko udghatit karane ke atirikt navin vichar v bhavon ki samriddhi di. pnt sada hi atynt sashakt aur oorjavan kavi rahe hain. sumitranndan pnt ko mukhyat: prakriti ka kavi mana jane laga. lekin pnt vastav men manav-saundary aur adhyatmik chetana ke bhi kushal kavi the.

rachanakal

pnt ka pallav, jyotsana tatha gunjan ka rachanakal kal (1926-33) unaki saundary evn kala-sadhana ka kal raha hai. vah mukhyat: bharatiy sanskritik punarjagaran ki adarshavadita se anupranik the. kintu yugant (1937) tak ate-ate bahirjivan ke khinchav se unake bhavatmak drishtikon men parivartan ae. pantaji ki rachanaon ka kshetr bahuvidh aur bahuayami hai. apaki rachanaon sa snkshipt parichay is prakar hai-

mahakavy

sumitranandan pnt hastalipi 'yad'

'lokayatan' kavi sumitranandan pant ka mahakavy hai. kavi ki vicharadhara aur lok-jivan ke prati usaki pratibaddhata is rachana men abhivyakt huee hai. is par kavi ko 'soviyat roos' tatha uttar pradesh shasan se puraskar prapt hua hai. pnt ji ko apane mata-pita ke prati asim-samman tha. isalie unhonne apane do mahakavyon men se ek mahakavy 'lokayatan' apane poojy pita ko aur doosara mahakavy 'satyakam' apani snehamayi mata ko, jo inhen janm dete hi svarg sidhar geen, samarpit kiya hai.[3] apani man sarasvati devi[4] ko smaran karate hue inhonne apana doosara mahakavy 'satyakam' jin shabdon ke sath unhen samarpit kiya hai, ve drashtavy hain-

mujhe chhod anagadh jag men tum huee agochar,
bhav-deh dhar lautin man ki mamata se bhar !
vina le kar men, shobhit prerana-hns par, 
sadh chetana-tntri rasau vai sah jhnkrit kar
khol hriday men bhavi ke saundary digntar !

kavy-sngrah

'vina', 'pallav' tatha 'gunjan' chhayavadi shaili men saundary aur prem ki prastuti hai. 'yugant', yugavani' tatha 'gramya' men pantaji ke pragativadi aur yatharthaparak bhavon ka prakashan hua hai. 'svarn-kiran', 'svarn-dhooli', 'yugapath', 'uttara', 'atima', tatha 'rajat-rashmi' sngrahon men aravind-darshan ka prabhav parilakshit hota hai. inake atirikt 'kala aur boodha chand' tatha 'chidambara' bhi apaki sammanit rachanaen hain. pantaji ki antardrishti tatha snvedanashilata ne jahan unake bhav-paksh ko gaharaee aur vividhata pradan ki hain, vahin unaki kalpana-prabalata aur abhivyakti-kaushal ne unake kala-paksh ko snvara hai.

rachanaen

sumitranndan pnt

chidnbara 1958 ka prakashan hai. isamen yugavani (1937-38) se atima (1948) tak kavi ki 10 kritiyon se chuni huee 196 kavitaen snkalit hain. ek lnbi atmakathatmak kavita atmika bhi isamen sammilit hai, jo vani (1957) se li gee hai. chidnbara pnt ki kavy chetana ke dvitiy utthan ki parichayak hai. pramukh rachanaen is prakar hai:-

kavitaen
kavitaen
kahaniyan
  • panch kahaniyan (1938)
upanyas
  • har (1960),
atmakathatmak snsmaran
  • sath varsh : ek rekhankan (1963).

sahityik visheshataen

chhayavad ko mukhyatah ‘prerana ka kavy’ manane vale is komal-pran kavi ne 'har' namak upanyas ke lekhan se apani rachana-yatra arnbh ki thi, jo ‘muktabh’ ke pranayan tak jari rahi. mukhyatah kavi-roop men prasiddh hone ke alava ye 'pratham koti ke alochak, vicharak aur gadyakar' the. inhonne muktak, lnbi kavita, gady-natika, pady-natika, rediyo-roopak, ekanki, upanyas, kahani ityadi jaisi vibhinn vidhaon men apani rachanaen prastut ki hain aur lokayatan tatha satyakam jaise vrihad mahakavy bhi likhe hain. vidhaon ki vividhata ki drishti se inake dvara snpadit 'roopabh patrika' (sanh 1938 eesvi) ki snpadakiy tippaniyan aur madhujval ki bhavanuvadashrit kavitaen bhi kam mahattvapoorn nahin hain. ashay yah ki vibhinn vidhaon men upalabdh inake vipul sahity ko ek natidirgh rachana-snchayan men prastut karana kathin kary hai. rachanaon ki vipulata ke sath hi yah bhi lakshy karane yogy hai ki prakriti aur nari–saundary se rachanarnbh karanevale pnt ji manav, samany jan aur samagr manavata ki kalyan-kamana se sadaiv jude rahe. inaki manyata thi ki ‘ane vala manav nishchiy hi n poorv ka hoga, n pashchim ka.’ ye sarvabhaum manushyata ke vishvasi the. adhyatm, antashchetana, prem, samadikh sncharan ityadi jaisa snkalpanaon se bhavakul pnt ke lekhan-chintan ka kendr-bindu hamesha ‘lok’ paksh hi raha, jo lokayatan ke namakaran se bhi snketit hota hai. pnt-kavy ka tritiy charan, jo ‘navin sagun’ ke nam se charchit hai aur jise ham shubhaishana-sadichchha ka svasti-kavy kah sakate hain, isi ‘lok’ ke mngal par kendrit hai.[3]

sumitranandan pnt hastalipi 'nakshatr'

prakriti-premi kavi

'uchchhas' se lekar 'gunjan' tak ki kavita ka sampoorn bhavapat kavi ki saundary-chetana ka kal hai. saundary-srishti ke unake prayatn ke mukhy upadan hain- prakriti, prem aur atm-udbodhan. almoda ki prakritik sushama ne unhen bachapan se hi apani or akrisht kiya. aisa pratit hota hai jaise man ki mamata se rahit unake jivan men mano prakriti hi unaki man ho. uttar pradesh ke almoda ke parvatiy anchal ki god men pale badhe pnt ji svayn yah svikar karate hain ki us manoram vatavaran ka inake vyaktitv par gnbhir prabhav pada. kavi ya kalakar kahan se prerana grahan karata hai is bare men apane vichar vyakt karate hue pnt ji kahate hain, snbhavat: prerana ke srot bhitar n hokar adhikatar bahar hi rahate hain. apani kavy yatra men pant ji sadaiv saundary ko khojate najar ate hen. shabd, shilp, bhav aur bhasha ke dvara kavi pnt prakriti aur prem ke upadanon se ek atynt sookshy aur hridayakari saundary ki srishti karate hain, kintu unake shabd keval prakriti-varnan ke ang n hokar ek doosare arth ki gahari vynjana se snyojit hain. unaki rachanaon men chhayavad evn rahasyavad ka samavesh bhi hai. sath hi sheli, kits, tenisan adi angrezi kaviyon ka prabhav bhi hai. mere mook kavi ko bahar lane ka sarvadhik shrey meri janmabhoomi ke us naisargik saundary ko hai jisaki god men palakar main bada hua jisane chhutapan se hi mujhe apane roopahale ekant men ekagr tanmayata ke rashmidolan men jhulaya, rijhaya tatha komal kanth van-pakhiyon ne sath bolana kuhukan sikhaya. pntaji ko janm ke uparant hi matri-viyog sahana pada.[5]

bhav paksh

pantaji ke bhav-paksh ka ek pramukh tattv unaka manohari prakriti chitran hai. kausani ki saundaryamayi prakritik chhata ke bich pantaji ne apani bal-kalpanaon ko roopayit kiya tha. prakriti ke prati unaka sahaj akarshan unaki rachanaon ke bahut bade bhag ko prabhavit kie hue hai. prakriti ke vividh ayamon aur bhngimaon ko ham pant ke kavy men roopankit dekhate hain. vah manavi-krita saheli hai, bhavoddipika hai, abhivyakti ka alamban hai aur alnkrita prakriti-vadhoo bhi hai. isake atirikt prakriti kavi pant ke lie upadeshika aur darshanik chintan ka adhar bhi bani hai. kavi pant ko samanyataya komal-kant bhavanaon aur saundary ka kavi samajha jata hai kintu jivan ke yatharthon se samana hone par kavi men jivan ke prati yatharthaparak aur darshanik drishtikon ka vikas hota gaya hai. sarvapratham pant marksavadi vicharadhara se prabhavit hue, jisaka prabhav unaki 'yugant', 'yugavani' adi rachanaon men parilakshit hota hai. gandhivad se bhi ap prabhavit dikhate hain. 'lokayatan' men yah prabhav vidyaman hai. maharshi aravind ki vicharadhara ka bhi ap par gahara prabhav pada. 'git-vihag' rachana isaka udaharan hai. saundary aur ullas ke kavi pant ko jivan ka nirashamay viroop-paksh bhi bhogana pada aur isaki pratikriya 'parivartan' namak rachana men drishtigat hoti hai-

rajakiy sngrahalay kausani men sthapit mahakavi ki moorti
akhil yauvan ke rng ubhar haddiyon ke hilate knkal,
kholata idhar janm lochan moondati udhar mrityu kshan-kshan.

pantaji ke kavy men manavatavadi drishti ko bhi sammanit sthan prapt hai. vah manaviy pratishtha aur manav-jati ke bhavi vikas men dridh vishvas rakhate hain. 'drumon ki chhaya' aur 'prakriti ki maya' ko chhodakar jo pant 'bala ke bal-jal' men 'lochan ulajhane' ko prastut nahin the, vahi manav ko vidhata ki sundaratam kriti svikar karate hain-

sundar hai vihag suman sundar, manav tum sabase sundaratam.
vah chahate hain ki desh, jati aur vargon men vibhajit manushy ki keval ek hi pahachan ho - manav.

bhasha-shaili

kavi pant ka bhasha par asadharan adhikar hai. bhav aur vishay ke anukool marmik shabdavali unaki lekhani se sahaj pravahit hoti hai. yadyapi pant ki bhasha ka ek vishisht star hai phir bhi vah vishayanusar parivartit hoti hai. pantaji ke kavy men ekadhik shailiyon ka prayog hua hai. prakriti-chitran men bhavatmak, alnkarik tatha drishy vidhayani shaili ka prayog hua hai. vichar-pradhan tatha darshanik vishayon ki shaili vicharatmak evn vishleshanatmak bhi ho gee hai. isake atirikt pratik-shaili ka prayog bhi hua hai. sajiv bimb-vidhan tatha dhvanyatmakata bhi apaki rachana-shaili ki visheshataen hain.

alnkaran

pantaji ne paramparagat evn navin, donon hi prakar ke alnkaron ka bhavyata se prayog kiya hai. bimbon ki maulikata tatha upamanon ki marmikata hridayaharini hai. roopak, upama, sangaroopak, manavikaran, visheshan-viparyay tatha dhvanyarth-vynjana ka akarshak prayog apane kiya hai.

chhnd

pantaji ne paramparagat chhandon ke sath-sath navin chhndon ki bhi rachana ki hai. apane geyata aur dhvani-prabhav par hi bal diya hai, matraon aur varnon ke kram tatha snkhya par nahin. prakriti ke chitere tatha chhayavadi kavi ke roop men pantaji ka sthan nishchay hi vishisht hai. hindi ki lalityapoorn aur snskarit khadi boli bhi pantaji ki den hai. pantaji vishv-sahity men bhi apana sthan bana ge hain.

puraskar

mahakavi ki smritiyon ko snjota rajakiy sngrahalay

sumitranndan pnt ko padm bhooshan (1961) aur gyanapith puraskar (1968) se sammanit kiya gaya. kala aur boodha chand ke lie sahity akadami puraskar, lokayatan par 'soviyat laind neharu puraskar' evn 'chidnbara' par inhen 'bharatiy gyanapith puraskar' prapt hua.

sngrahalay

uttarakhnd rajy ke kausani men mahakavi pnt ki janm sthali ko sarakari taur par adhigrahit kar unake nam par ek rajakiy sngrahalay banaya gaya hai, jisaki dekharekh ek sthaniy vyakti karata hai. is sthal ke pravesh dvar se lage bhavan ki chhat par mahakavi ki moorti sthapit hai. varsh 1990 men sthapit is moorti ka anavaran vayovriddh sahityakar tatha itihasavetta pndit nityannd mishr dvara unake janm divas 20 mee ko kiya gaya tha. mahakavi sumitranndan pnt ka paitrak gram yahan se kuchh hi doori par hai; parantu vah aj bhi anajana tatha tiraskrit hai. sngrahalay men mahakavi dvara upayog men layi gayi dainik vastuen yatha shaaul, dipak, pustakon ki alamari tatha mahakavi ko samarpit kuchh samman-patr, pustaken tatha hastalipi surakshit hain.

mrityu

kausani chay bagan ke vyavasthapak ke parivar men janme mahakavi sumitranndan pnt ki mrityu 28 disambar, 1977 ko ilahabad, uttar pradesh men huee.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sumitranndan pnt : prakriti ke sukomal kavi (hindi) vebaduniya hindi. abhigaman tithi: 13 sitambar, 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 tivari, chndrashekhar. kausani ke kavi pnt (hindi) hilavani. abhigaman tithi: 13 sitambar, 2013.
  3. 3.0 3.1 sumitranandan pnt rachana snchayan (hindi) bharatiy sahity sngrah. abhigaman tithi: 13 sitambar, 2013.
  4. pihar ka pukaroo nam 'saruli'
  5. viyogi hoga pahala kavi... (hindi) deshabndhu. abhigaman tithi: 13 sitambar, 2013.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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