स्वतंत्रता दिवस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

svatntrata divas
15 agast 1947 svatntrata divas ka avasar
vivaran isi mahanh din ki yad men bharat ke pradhanamntri pratyek varsh lal qile ki prachir par rashtriy dhvaj tirnga phaharakar desh ko sambodhit karate hain.
uddeshy aisa din hai jab ham apane mahanh rashh‍triy netaon aur sh‍vatntrata senaniyon ko apani shraddhanjali dete hain jinh‍honne videshi niyntran se bharat ko azad karane ke lie anek balidan die aur apane jivan nh‍yauchhavar kar die.
pahali bar bharat ke pratham pradhanamntri pndit javahar lal neharoo ne pahali bar 15 agast 1947 ko lal qile par tirnga jhanda phaharaya. usi din se har varsh 15 agast ko svatntrata divas manaya jata hai.
vishesh ayojan rajh‍y sh‍tar par vishesh sh‍vatntrata divas karyakram ayojit kie jate hain, jisamen jhanh‍da phaharane ke ayojan, march pash‍t aur sansh‍kritik ayojan shamil hain. in ayojanon ko rajh‍yon ki rajadhaniyon men ayojit kiya jata hai aur mukhh‍yamntri in karyakramon ki adhh‍yakshata karate hain. chhote paimanon par shaikshik snsh‍thanon, avas snghon, sansh‍kritik kenh‍dron aur rajanitik sngathanon dvara karyakram ayojit kie jate hain.
snbndhit lekh lard ripan, eest indiya kampani, bharatiy kranti divas, gadar parti, bharat ka vibhajan
any janakari rashh‍trapati dvara sh‍vatntrata divas ki poorv sndhh‍ya par rashh‍tr ke nam sndesh prasarit kiya jata hai. isake bad agale din pradhanamntri pratah 7 baje lal qile par jhanda laharate hain aur apane deshavasiyon ko apane desh ki niti par bhashan dete hain.
adyatan‎

sh‍vatntrata divas (angrezi: Independence Day) aisa din hai jab ham apane mahanh rashh‍triy netaon aur sh‍vatntrata senaniyon ko apani shraddhanjali dete hain jinh‍honne videshi niyntran se bharat ko azad karane ke lie anek balidan die aur apane jivan nh‍yauchhavar kar die. 15 agast 1947 ko bharat ke nivasiyon ne lakhon kurbaniyan dekar british shasan se svatantrata prapt ki thi. yah rashtriy parv bharat ke gaurav ka pratik hai. pratyek varsh 15 agast ko sarakari bildingon par tirnga jhanda phaharaya jata hai tatha raushani ki jati hai. pradhanamntri pratah 7 baje lal qile par jhanda laharate hain aur apane deshavasiyon ko apane desh ki niti par bhashan dete hain. hazaron log unaka bhashan sunane ke lie lal qile par jate hain. skoolon men bhi svatntrata divas manaya jata hai aur bachchon men mithaeeyan bhi banti jati hain. 14 agast ko ratri 8 baje rashtrapati apane desh vasiyon ko sandesh dete hain, jisaka rediyo tatha telivizan par prasaran kiya jata hai.
san 1857 ke pratham svatntrata sngram ke mahaygy ka prarambh maharshi dayanand sarasvati ne prarambh kiya aur apane pranon ko bharat mata par mngal pande ne nyauchhavar kiya aur dekhate hi dekhate yah chingari ek mahasngram men badal gayi jisamen jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee, tatya tope, nana saheb, 'sarafaroshi ki tamanna' lie ramaprasad bismil, ashafak, chndrashekhar azad, bhagat sinh, rajaguru, sukhadev adi desh ke lie shahid ho ge. tilak ne svarajy hamara janmasiddh adhikar hai ka sinhanad kiya aur subhash chndr bos ne kaha - tum mujhe khoon do, main tumhen azadi doonga.

'ahinsa' aur 'asahayog' lekar mahatma gandhi aur gulami ki jnziron ko todane ke lie 'lauh purush' saradar patel jaise mahapurushon ne kamar kas li. 90 varshon ke lambe sngharsh ke bad 15 agast 1947 ko 'bharat ko svatntrata' ka varadan mila. bharat ki azadi ka sngram bal se nahin varanh sath‍y aur ahinsa ke siddhant ke adhar par vijit kiya gaya. itihas men sh‍vatntrata ke sngharsh ka ek anokha aur anootha abhiyan tha jise vishv bhar men prashnsa mili.

itihas

mee 1857 men dilli ke kuchh samachar patron men yah bhavishyavani chhapi ki plasi ke yuddh ke pashchath 23 joon 1757 ee. ko bharat men jo angrezi rajy sthapit hua tha vah 23 joon 1857 ee. tak samapt ho jaega. yah bhavishyavani sare desh men phail gee aur logon men svatntrata prapt karane ke lie josh ki lahar daud gee. isake atirikt 1856 ee. men lard kaining ne samany bharti qanoon pas kiya. jisake anusar bharatiy sainikon ko yah likhakar dena hota tha ki sarakar jahan kahin bhi unhen yuddh karane ke lie bhejegi vah vahin par chale jaenge. isase bharatiy sainikon men asadharan asantosh phail gaya. kampani ki sena men us samay tin lakh sainik the, jinamen se keval panch hazar hi yooropiyan the. baki sab arthath yooropiyan sainikon se 6 gunah bharatiy sainik the.[1]

sipahi kranti

bharat ke amar shahid
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mngal pande
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lakshmibaee
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tatya tope

jab desh men charon or asantosh ka vatavaran tha, to angrezi sarakar ne sainikon ko purani bandookon ke sthan par nee raiphalen dene ka nishchay kiya. in raiphalon ke karatoos men sooar tatha gay ki charbi prayukt ki jati thi aur sainikon ko raiphalon men goli bharane ke lie in karatooson ke sire ko apane danton se katana padata tha. isase hindoo aur musalaman sainik bhadak uthe. unhonne aisa mahasoos kiya ki angrez sarakar unake dharm ko nasht karana chahati hai. isalie jab merath ke sainikon men ye karatoos bante ge to 85 sainikon ne unaka prayog karane se inkar kar diya. is par unhen kathor dand dekar bandigrih men dal diya gaya. sarakar ke is vyavahar par bharatiy sainikon ne 10 mee, 1857 ke din "har–har mahadev, maro phirngi ko" ka nara lagate hue vidroh kar diya.

lard ripan

lard ripan ne bharat men har das varsh men janaganana karane ka niyam banaya aur sanh 1881 men pahali bar ganana karaee, joki ab tak har das sal ke bad ki jati hai. 1882 ee. men lard ripan ne kee sudhar kie. usane myoonisipal bord tatha shiksha men sudhar kiya. vittiy shaktiyon ka vikendrikaran kiya. kendriy soochi men afim, rel, dakaghar, namak taiksatail adi sadhan rakhe ge. prantiy soochi men shiksha, pulis, jel, pres, tatha sarvajanik kary rakhe ge. tisari soochi men bhoomikar, jngal staimp kar adi rakhe ge, in muddon ke dvara prapt ay ko kendriy sarakar tatha prantiy sarakaron men banta gaya. lard ripan ne sare desh men sthaniy bordon ka jal bichha diya aur gair sarakari sadasyon ki snkhya badha di.

lard karzan

1905 se 1919 ke bich men rashtriy andolan ugravadiyon ke hath men raha. ugravadiyon ke pramukh neta bal, lal, pal (bal gngadhar tilak, lala lajapat ray aur vipin chandr pal) the. lala lajapat ray ne udaravadiyon ki niti par asantusht hokar kaha tha ki hamen bis lagatar andolan karane ke bad bhi roti ke badale patthar mile. ham angrezon ke age ab aur adhik samay tak bhikh nahin mangenge aur n hi unake samane gidagidayenge. dakshin aphrika men to bharatiyon ki halat bahut shochaniy thi. rngabhed ki drishti ke karan unhen ghrina ki drishti se dekha jata tha. unhen aspatalon tatha hotalon men pravesh karane ki anumati nahin thi. bachche uchch snsthaon men shiksha prapt nahin kar sakate the. rajistreshan ekt (1907) ke tahat bharatiyon ko aparadhiyon ke tarah daftaron men apane nam likhavane padate the aur apani anguliyon ki chhap deni padati thi. lard karzan ki daman niti (1898 se 1905) ne bharatiyon par anek atyachar kie the. usane apane bhashan men bharatiyon ko bahut hi apamanajanak shabd kahe the aur karyakushalata ke nam par kalakatta karporeshan aphisayal sikret ekt, indiyan yoonivarsati ekt, kee aise qadam uthae jinaka uddeshy bharatiy ekata ko durbal karana tatha bharatiy bhavanaon ka gala ghontana tha. 1907 ee. men bngal bhng sambandhi ghoshana hote hi garam dal sakriy ho gaya. unhonne disambar 1907 men bngal ke gavarnar ki gadi par bam phainkane ka prayatn kiya. phir dhaka ke majistret par goli chalaee. parantu vah bach nikala. mujaffapur bam phatane se kainedi tatha usaki putri ki mrityu ho gee. pnjab aur maharashtr men bhi is tarah ki ghatanaen hone lagin.[1]

gadar parti ki sthapana

sanh 1913 men amerika men basane vale bharatiyon ne gadar parti ki sthapana ki. is parti ke pramukh neta sohanasinh bhakana, lala haradayal, baba basakha sinh, pn. kashiram aur udhamasinh the. is parti ke hazaron bharatavasi amerika se bharat ae. unhonne lahaur, firojapur, ambala, merath, agara adi sainik chhavaniyon men sainikon ko vidroh karane ki prerana di aur 25 pharavari 1915 ko gadar ka din rakha. lekin kupal sinh ke vishvasaghat ne is yojana ko asaphal kar diya. gadar parti ki tarah indo jarman mishan ne bhi tarki aur kabul ka sahayog prapt karake bharat ko svatntr karane ki yojana banaee aur asthayi bharat sarakar ki sthapana ki, jisake rashtrapati raja mahendr pratap aur pradhan mntri barakat allah the. lekin paristhiti anukool n hone ke karan ye deshabhakt bhi saphal nahin ho sake. saubhagy se dakshin aphrika men bharatavasiyon ko mahatma gandhi ke roop men ek aisa neta mila jisane sab bharatavasiyon ko sngathit kiya. unhonne satyagrah andolan chalaya aur bharatiyon par lagae ge qanoon rok die.

gandhi ji ke andolan

bambee prant men jitendranath ne 61 din bhookh hadatal karake apane pran tyag die. gandhi ne namak qanoon todane ke lie dandi march kiya. qanoon todane par angrezon ne gandhi ji ko giraftar kar liya. lekin desh men andolan zor pakad gaya, isalie gandhi ji ko riha kar diya gaya. angrezon ne tin bar landan men gol mej kanfrens bulaee, lekin gandhiji har bar nirash hi vapas laute. 3 sitambar 1939 ko dvitiy vishv yuddh chhid gaya. 8 agast 1942 ko kangres adhiveshan bambee men hua. usamen "bharat chhodo" prastav pas hua. pndit motilal neharoo tatha pndit javahar lal neharoo ne bhi svatntrata ke lie bahut kam kiya. angrez sarakar ne daman niti ka sahara liya. is bich netaji subhash chandr bos ne bharat se bahar rahakar bharat ko svatntr karane ka prayatn kiya. unaka vichar tha ki dvitiy vishvayuddh ka labh uthana chahie. unhonne azad hind fauj ki sthapana ki. aur "dilli chalo" ka nara diya. lekin netaji kisi durghatana men mare ge, isalie yah andolan bhi asaphal ho gaya. tatpashchath 18 pharavari 1946 ko bambee men sainik vidroh uth khade hue. sainikon ne apani bairakon se nikalakar angrez sainikon par dhava bol diya aur panch din tak angrezi sainikon ko maut ke ghat utarate rahe. ant men angrezon ko yah bat spasht ho gee ki ab ve bharat ko adhik samay tak apana gulam banakar nahin rakh sakate.

sh‍vatntrata ki rah

20vin shatabh‍di men bharatiy rashh‍triy kangres aur anh‍y rajanitik sngathanon ne mahatma gandhi ke netrith‍v men ek deshavh‍yapi andolan chalaya. mahath‍ma gandhi ne hinsapoorn sngharsh ke viparit 'savinay avgya ahinsa andolan' ko sashakh‍t samarthan diya. unake dvara virodh pradarshan ke lie march, prarthana sabhaen, videshi vash‍tuon ka bahishh‍kar aur bharatiy vash‍tuon ko proth‍sahan dena adi achook hathiyar the. in raston ko bharatiy janata ne samarthan diya aur sh‍thaniy abhiyan 'rashh‍triy andolan' men badal ge. inamen se kuchh mukhh‍y ayojan - 'asahayog andolan', 'dandi march', 'nagarik avgya abhiyan' aur 'bharat chhodo andolan' the. shighr hi yah sh‍pashh‍t ho gaya ki bharat ab upaniveshavadi shaktiyon ke niyntran men nahin rahega aur british shasakon ne bharatiy netaon ki mang ko man liya. yah nirnay liya gaya ki yah adhikar bharat ko saunp diya jae aur 15 agash‍t 1947 ko bharat ko yah adhikar saunp diya gaya.

bharatavarsh ka vibhajan

15 agast 1947 ko bharatavarsh hindustan tatha pakistan do hisson men bntakar svatntr ho gaya. pndit javahar lal neharoo ne 15 agast 1947 ko lal qile par tirnga jhanda phaharaya. usi din se har varsh 15 agast ko svatntrata divas manaya jata hai. sarakari bildingon par tirnga jhanda phaharaya jata hai tatha raushani ki jati hai. pradhanamntri pratah 7 baje lal qile par jhanda laharate hain aur apane deshavasiyon ko apane desh ki niti par bhashan dete hain. hazaron log unaka bhashan sunane ke lie lal qile par jate hain. skoolon men bhi svatntrata divas manaya jata hai aur bachchon men mithaeeyan bhi banti jati hain. 14 agast ko ratri 8 baje rashtrapati apane desh vasiyon ko sandesh dete hain, jisaka rediyo tatha telivizan par prasaran kiya jata hai.[1]

svatntr bharat ki ghoshana

15 agast 1947 svatntrata divas par javaharalal neharoo, laaurd maunt baitan aur edavina

14 agash‍t 1947 ko rat ko 11.00 baje snghatak sabha dvara bharat ki sh‍vatntrata ko manane ki ek baithak arnbh huee, jisamen adhikar pradan kie ja rahe the. jaise hi ghadi men rat ke 12.00 baje bharat ko azadi mil gee aur bharat ek sh‍vatntr desh ban gaya. tath‍kalin sh‍vatntr bharat ke pratham pradhanamntri pndit javaharalal neharoo ne apana prasiddh bhashan 'niyati ke sath bhent' diya.

'“jaise hi madhh‍y ratri huee, aur jab duniya so rahi thi, bharat jag raha hoga aur apani azadi ki or badhega. ek aisa pal ata hai jo itihas men durlabh hai, jab ham purane yug se ne yug ki or jate hain. . . kh‍ya ham is avasar ka labh uthane ke lie paryaph‍t bahadur aur buddhiman hain aur ham bhavishh‍y ki chunauti ko sh‍vikar karane ke lie taiyar hain?”' - pndit javaharalal neharoo

isake bad tirnga jhanh‍da phaharaya gaya aur lal qile ki prachir se rashtriy gan gaya gaya.

ayojan

sh‍vatntrata divas samip ate hi charon or khushiyan phail jati hai. sabhi pramukh shasakiy bhavanon ko roshani se sajaya jata hai. tirnga jhanh‍da gharon tatha anh‍y bhavanon par phaharaya jata hai. sh‍vatntrata divas, 15 agash‍t ek rashh‍triy avakash hai, is din ka avakash prath‍yek nagarik ko bahadur sh‍vatntrata senaniyon dvara kie ge balidan ko yad karake manana chahie. sh‍vatntrata divas ke ek saph‍tah pahale se hi vishesh pratiyogitaon aur karyakramon ke ayojan dvara desh bhakti ki bhavana ko proth‍sahan diya jata hai. rediyo sh‍teshanon aur telivizan chainalon par is vishay se snbndhit karyakram prasarit kie jate hain. shahidon ki kahaniyon ke bare men philh‍men dikhaee jati hai aur rashh‍triy bhavana se snbndhit kahaniyan aur riport prakashit ki jati hain.

svatntrata ki poorv sndhya

rashh‍trapati dvara sh‍vatntrata divas ki poorv sndhh‍ya par rashh‍tr ke nam sndesh prasarit kiya jata hai. isake bad agale din lal qile se tirnga jhanh‍da phaharaya jata hai. rajh‍y sh‍tar par vishesh sh‍vatntrata divas karyakram ayojit kie jate hain, jisamen jhanh‍da phaharane ke ayojan, march pash‍t aur sansh‍kritik ayojan shamil hain. in ayojanon ko rajh‍yon ki rajadhaniyon men ayojit kiya jata hai aur mukhh‍yamntri in karyakramon ki adhh‍yakshata karate hain. chhote paimanon par shaikshik snsh‍thanon, avas snghon, sansh‍kritik kenh‍dron aur rajanitik sngathanon dvara karyakram ayojit kie jate hain.

sh‍vatntrata divas ka pratik patng

svatntrata divas ke din lal qile par tirnga jhanh‍da laharaya jata hai

sh‍vatntrata divas ka ek aur pratik patng udane ka khel hai. akash men dher sari patngen dikhaee deti hain jo log apani apani chhaton se uda kar bharat ki sh‍vatntrata ka samaroh manate hain. alag alag prakar, akar aur rngon ki patngon tatha tirnge bazar men upalabh‍dh hain. is din patng udakar apane sngharsh ke kaushalon ka pradarshan kiya jata hai.

prabhatapheri

skoolon aur snsthaon dvara prat: hi prabhatapheri nikali jati hain jinamen bachche, yuvak aur boodhe deshabhakti ke gane gate hain aur un viron ki yad men nukkd natak aur prashasti gan karate hain.

deshabhakti ka pradarshan

bharat ek samriddh sansh‍kritik virasat vala desh hai aur yah duniya ka sabase bada lokatntr hai. yahan ke nagarik desh ko aur adhik oonchaiyon tak le jane ki vachanabaddhata rakhate hain jahan tak isake snsh‍thapakon ne ise pahunchane ki kalh‍pana ki. jaise hi asaman men tirnga laharata hai, prath‍yek nagarik desh ki shan ko badhane ke lie kathin parishram karane ka vachan deta hai aur bharat ko ek aisa rashh‍tr banane ka lakshh‍y poora karane ka pran leta hai jo manaviy moolh‍yon ke lie sadaiv atal hai.

lal qile par tirnga phaharane vale pradhanamntri

lal qile par tirnga phaharane vale pradhanamntri

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jashn-e-ajadi ke silasile men lal kile ki prachir se sabase jyada 17 bar tirnga laharane ka avasar pratham pradhanamntri pndit javaharalal neharoo ko mila, vahin unaki putri indira gandhi ne bhi rashtriy rajadhani sthit satrahavin shatabdi ki is dharohar par 16 bar rashtradhvaj phaharaya. neharoo ne ajadi ke bad sabase pahale 15 agast, 1947 ko lal kile par jhnda phaharaya aur apana bahucharchit snbodhan diya. neharoo ji 27 mee, 1964 tak pradhanamntri pad par rahe. is avadhi ke dauran unhonne lagatar 17 svatntrata divas par dhvajarohan kiya. ajad bharat ke itihas men gulajari lal nnda aur chndrashekhar aise neta rahe jo pradhanamntri to bane, lekin unhen svatntrata divas par tirnga phaharane ka ek bhi bar mauka nahin mil saka. neharoo ke nidhan ke bad 27 mee, 1964 ko nnda pradhanamntri bane, lekin us varsh 15 agast ane se pahale hi 9 joon, 1964 ko vah pad se hat ge aur unaki jagah lal bahadur shastri pradhanamntri bane. nnda 11 se 24 janavari, 1966 ke bich bhi pradhanamntri pad par rahe. isi tarah chndrashekhar 10 navnbar, 1990 ko pradhanamntri, bane lekin 1991 ke svatntrata divas se pahale hi us varsh 21 joon ko pad se hat ge. lal bahadur shastri ke nidhan ke bad nnda kuchh din pradhanamntri pad par rahe, lekin bad men 24 janavari, 1966 ko neharoo ki putri indira gandhi ne satta ki bagador snbhali. neharoo ke bad sabase adhik bar jis pradhanamntri ne lal kile par tirnga phaharaya, vah indira hi rahin. indira 1966 se lekar 24 march, 1977 tak aur phir 14 janavari, 1980 se lekar 31 aktoobar, 1984 tak pradhanamntri pad par rahin. bataur pradhanamntri apane pahale karyakal men unhonne 11 bar aur doosare karyakal men panch bar lal kile par jhnda phaharaya. svatntrata divas par sabase kam bar rashtradhvaj phaharane ka mauka chaudhari charan sinh-28 julaee, 1979 se 14 janavari, 1980; vishvanath pratap sinh-2 disnbar, 1989 se 10 navnbar, 1990; ech. di. devagauda-1 joon, 1996 se 21 aprail, 1997 aur indr kumar gujaral-21 aprail, 1997 se lekar 28 navnbar, 1997 ko mila. in sabhi poorv pradhanamntriyon ne ek-ek bar 15 agast ko lal kile se rashtradhvaj phaharaya.

9 joon, 1964 se lekar 11 janavari, 1966 tak pradhanamntri rahe lal bahadur shastri aur 24 march, 1977 se lekar 28 julaee, 1979 tak pradhanamntri rahe moraraji desaee ko do- do bar yah samman hasil hua. svatntrata divas par panch ya usase adhik bar tirnga phaharane ka mauka neharoo aur indira gandhi ke alava rajiv gandhi, pi. vi. narasinh rav, atal bihari vajapeyi aur pradhanamntri manamohan sinh ko mila hai. rajiv 31 aktoobar, 1984 se lekar ek disnbar, 1989 tak aur narasinh rav 21 joon, 1991 se 10 mee, 1996 tak pradhanamntri rahe. donon ko panch-panch bar dhvaj phaharane ka mauka mila. rashtriy janatantrik gathabndhan ki sarakar ka netritv kar chuke atal bihari vajapeyi jab 19 march, 1998 se lekar 22 mee, 2004 ke bich pradhanamntri rahe to unhonne kul chhah bar lal kile ki prachir se tirnga phaharaya. isase pahale vah ek joon 1996, ko bhi pradhanamntri bane, lekin 21 aprail, 1997 ko hi unhen pad se hatana pada tha. varsh 2004 ke am chunav men rajag ki har ke bad snprag satta men aya aur manamohan sinh ne 22 mee, 2004 ko pradhanamntri pad ki shapath li. unhen chh: bar tirnga phaharane ka saubhagy mila.[2]

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 gupta, ved prakash “bharatiy svatntrata sngram ka snkshipt itihas”, bharatiy utsav aur parv, 112.
  2. tirnga:kisane laharaya, kitani bar (hindi) webdunia.com. abhigaman tithi: 06 agast, 2016.

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