स्वतंत्रता दिवस का इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

svatntrata divas ka itihas
15 agast 1947 svatntrata divas ka avasar
vivaran isi mahanh din ki yad men bharat ke pradhanamntri pratyek varsh lal qile ki prachir par rashtriy dhvaj tirnga phaharakar desh ko sambodhit karate hain.
uddeshy aisa din hai jab ham apane mahanh rashh‍triy netaon aur sh‍vatntrata senaniyon ko apani shraddhanjali dete hain jinh‍honne videshi niyntran se bharat ko azad karane ke lie anek balidan die aur apane jivan nh‍yauchhavar kar die.
pahali bar bharat ke pratham pradhanamntri pndit javahar lal neharoo ne pahali bar 15 agast 1947 ko lal qile par tirnga jhanda phaharaya. usi din se har varsh 15 agast ko svatntrata divas manaya jata hai.
vishesh ayojan rajh‍y sh‍tar par vishesh sh‍vatntrata divas karyakram ayojit kie jate hain, jisamen jhanh‍da phaharane ke ayojan, march pash‍t aur sansh‍kritik ayojan shamil hain. in ayojanon ko rajh‍yon ki rajadhaniyon men ayojit kiya jata hai aur mukhh‍yamntri in karyakramon ki adhh‍yakshata karate hain. chhote paimanon par shaikshik snsh‍thanon, avas snghon, sansh‍kritik kenh‍dron aur rajanitik sngathanon dvara karyakram ayojit kie jate hain.
snbndhit lekh lard ripan, eest indiya kampani, bharatiy kranti divas, gadar parti, bharat ka vibhajan
any janakari rashh‍trapati dvara sh‍vatntrata divas ki poorv sndhh‍ya par rashh‍tr ke nam sndesh prasarit kiya jata hai. isake bad agale din pradhanamntri pratah 7 baje lal qile par jhanda laharate hain aur apane deshavasiyon ko apane desh ki niti par bhashan dete hain.
adyatan‎

mee 1857 men dilli ke kuchh samachar patron men yah bhavishyavani chhapi ki plasi ke yuddh ke pashchath 23 joon 1757 ee. ko bharat men jo angrezi rajy sthapit hua tha vah 23 joon 1857 ee. tak samapt ho jaega. yah bhavishyavani sare desh men phail gee aur logon men svatntrata prapt karane ke lie josh ki lahar daud gee. isake atirikt 1856 ee. men lard kaining ne samany bharti qanoon pas kiya. jisake anusar bharatiy sainikon ko yah likhakar dena hota tha ki sarakar jahan kahin bhi unhen yuddh karane ke lie bhejegi vah vahin par chale jaenge. isase bharatiy sainikon men asadharan asantosh phail gaya. kampani ki sena men us samay tin lakh sainik the, jinamen se keval panch hazar hi yooropiyan the. baki sab arthath yooropiyan sainikon se 6 gunah bharatiy sainik the.[1]

sipahi kranti

bharat ke amar shahid
Mangal Panday.jpg
mngal pande
Rani-Laxmibai-2.jpg
lakshmibaee
Tatya-Tope.jpg
tatya tope

jab desh men charon or asantosh ka vatavaran tha, to angrezi sarakar ne sainikon ko purani bandookon ke sthan par nee raiphalen dene ka nishchay kiya. in raiphalon ke karatoos men sooar tatha gay ki charbi prayukt ki jati thi aur sainikon ko raiphalon men goli bharane ke lie in karatooson ke sire ko apane danton se katana padata tha. isase hindoo aur musalaman sainik bhadak uthe. unhonne aisa mahasoos kiya ki angrez sarakar unake dharm ko nasht karana chahati hai. isalie jab merath ke sainikon men ye karatoos bante ge to 85 sainikon ne unaka prayog karane se inkar kar diya. is par unhen kathor dand dekar bandigrih men dal diya gaya. sarakar ke is vyavahar par bharatiy sainikon ne 10 mee, 1857 ke din "har–har mahadev, maro phirngi ko" ka nara lagate hue vidroh kar diya.

tatpashchath unhonne jel ko todakar apane sathiyon ko riha karava liya aur nagar men rahane vale angrez nar–nariyon ka vadh kar diya. agale din ve bahut badi snkhya men dilli ki or chal pade aur mugal samrat bahadurashah ki jay ka nara lagate hue dilli men dakhil hue. bahadurashah ne vidroh ka netritv apane hathon men le liya aur sarakari imaraton par mugal dhvaj laharaya gaya. dilli men rahane vale angrezon ka vadh kar diya gaya aur unaki sampatti loot li gee. isi bich lakhanoo, aligadh, kanapur, banaras, roohelakhand adi kee sthanon men bhi vidroh uth khade hue aur in dishaon se bhi bharatiy sainik dilli pahunch ge. us samay angrezi sena dilli men nahin thi. isalie bharatiy sainikon ne asani se dilli par adhikar jama liya. vidrohiyon ne 200 angrezon ko goli se uda diya.

is vidroh men jin netaon ne apani–apani deshabhakti tatha virata ka parichay diya, unamen shahid mngal pande, nana sahab, jhansi ki rani, tatya tope, kunvar sinh, ajim ulla khan aur samrat bahadurashah ke nam ullekhaniy hain. nana sahab ne kanapur men vidroh ka netritv kiya aur angrez senapati vhilar ko parajit karake durg ko apane qabze men le liya. lakhanoo men bhi kee dinon tak vidroh chalata raha aur chif kamishnar sar henari lotas ko maut ke ghat utar diya. banaras, ilahabad, bareli tatha shahajahanpur men bhi kafi halachal rahi aur hazaron logon ka raktapat hua. madhy bharat men plasi tatha gvaliyar vidroh ke pramukh kendr bane rahe. jhansi ki maharani lakshmibaee tatha unake sainikon ne sthaniy durg men angrezon ka dat kar muqabala kiya. kalpi tatha gvaliyar men bhi bhaynkar yuddh lade ge. tatya tope tatha any kuchh viron ne bhi is vidroh men badh–chadh kar bhag liya. parantu jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee svatntrata ke is pratham sngram men viragati ko prapt huee. isase bharatiy vidrohiyon ka sahas toot gaya aur madhy bharat par angrezon ka qabza ho gaya.[1]

gurilla yuddh pranali

bihar men kunvarasinh ne angrezon ke viruddh vidroh ka netritv kiya aur 80 varsh ki umr men bhi shatruon se ladate rahe. unhonne gurilla yuddh pranali ko apanaya aur apane bhaee amarasinh tatha mitr nishanasinh ke sahayog se angrez senapati ko haraya. unhonne apani rajadhani jagadishapur ko punah prapt kiya. unaki mrityu ke pashchath unake bhaee ne sngharsh jari rakha. gavarnar janaral kaining ne vidroh ko dabane ke lie bambee, madras, pnjab aur bharatiy riyasaton se sahayata mangi aur hindoo musalamanon men phoot dalavane ke lie aphavahen phailaeen tatha guptachar vibhag ki vyavastha ki. tatpashchath haidarabad, gvaliyar, patiyala, nabha, jind, nepal adi kee riyasaton se sahayata milane par tin angrez senapatiyon henari, baranaee tatha nikalasan ne dilli ko charon taraf se gher liya parantu tin mas tak dilli ko apane adhikar men nahin le sake. ant men janaral nikalasan ne ek ghamasan yuddh ke pashchath dilli par vijay prapt kar li. is prakar phir se dilli par angrezon ka adhikar ho gaya. mugal samrat bahadurashah zafar ko bandi banakar rngoon (ab yangoon) bhej diya gaya, jahan par unaki mrityu ho gee. yadyapi bharatiyon ka yah prayatn saphal nahin hua, to bhi sanh 1857 ka yah vidroh ek vyapak vidroh tha, jisamen bharatiy janata ke sabhi vargon ne bhag liya. yah ek rashtriy vidroh tha, jisaka uddeshy svatntrata prapt karana tha.[1]

"isilie 1857 ke vidroh ko svatntrata ka pratham svatntrata sngram kaha jata hai."

eest indiya kampani ka khatma

1857 ke vidroh ne angrezon ke shasan prabandh ki trutiyon ka bhanda phod diya. isalie vidroh ke shighr pashchath hi inglaind ke raja ne eest indiya kampani ko khatm karake bharatiy rajy ki bagador apane hath men sambhal li. sanh 1880 ee men galaidaston inglaind ka pradhanamntri bana. usane lard ripan ko bharat ka gavarnar janaral niyukt kiya. yadyapi 1857 se 1880 tak kaining, meo, laitin adi kee gavarnar janaral bharat men shasan karate rahe, parantu jo samman lard ripan ko prapt hua vah inamen se kisi ko bhi prapt nahin hua. usane bharatiyon ki unnati tatha kalyan ke lie jo kary kie unaka udaharan milana kathin hai. use apane kee prashasanik karyon ke lie apane deshavasiyon ke virodh ka samana karana pada, parantu usane unaki tanik bhi paravah nahin ki.[1]

lard ripan

lard ripan ne bharat men har das varsh men janaganana karane ka niyam banaya aur sanh 1881 men pahali bar ganana karaee, joki ab tak har das sal ke bad ki jati hai. 1882 ee. men lard ripan ne kee sudhar kie. usane myoonisipal bord tatha shiksha men sudhar kiya. vittiy shaktiyon ka vikendrikaran kiya. kendriy soochi men afim, rel, dakaghar, namak taiksatail adi sadhan rakhe ge. prantiy soochi men shiksha, pulis, jel, pres, tatha sarvajanik kary rakhe ge. tisari soochi men bhoomikar, jngal staimp kar adi rakhe ge, in muddon ke dvara prapt ay ko kendriy sarakar tatha prantiy sarakaron men banta gaya. lard ripan ne sare desh men sthaniy bordon ka jal bichha diya aur gair sarakari sadasyon ki snkhya badha di.
lard ripan ke ane se pahale lard littan ne varnakular pres ekt pas kiya tha. is ekt ke dvara bharatiy bhashaon men chhapane vale akhabaron par kathor pratibandh laga die the. bharatiy janata ne is ekt ko 'gala ghontoo ekt' kaha tha. lard ripan ne is ekt ko khatm kar diya aur bharatiy bhashaon men chhapane vale akhabaron ko poori svatntrata pradan kar di. ab ve bhi angrezi bhashaon men chhapane vale akhabaron ke barabar ho ge. lard ripan ne shiksha men sudhar lane ke lie 21 sadasyon ka ek kamishan niyukt kiya. jisaka adhyaksh dabloo hantar tha. is kamishan ki sifarishon par shiksha men bahut hi unnati huee. isake atirikt lard ripan ne mukt vyapar ko protsahan diya aur videshon se bharat men ane vali vastuon par dyooti khatm kar di. usane phaiktriyon men kam karane vale bachchon ke hit men niyam banae. lard ripan ne sanh 1883 ee. men bharatiy kaunsil men alabart bil pesh kiya. is bil ke anusar bharatiy jajon tatha saishan jajon ko angrezon ke muqadamen sunane tatha usaka nirnay dene ka adhikar diya gaya. isase sare angrez lard ke viruddh ho ge, parantu bharatiyon ne lard ripan ki prashnsa ki. isase angrezon aur bharatiyon men than gee. angrezon ne bharatiy jajon ko kaloote baboo kahakar unaka apaman kiya. bharatiyon ne bhi kalakatta ke taun haaul men angrezon ko munhatod jabav diya. shri lal mohan ghosh ne angrezon ko do kodi ke afasar kahakar unaki khoob hnsi udaee.

1883 ke alabart bil ne bharatiyon men jatiyan svabhiman ko bahut prabal kiya aur unhen sngathit hone ki prerana di aur rajanitik chetana ka vikas hua. jisake parinamasvaroop british indiya esosieshan, indiya lig, indiyan esosieshan, poona sarvajanik sabha kee prantiy snsthaen banin. in snsthaon ne shighr hi bharat men ek deshavyapi snstha banane ka vichar kiya. is bich indiyan sivil sarvis ke ritayard sadasy mi. e. o. hyoom ne kalakatta vishvavidyalay ke snatakon ke nam ek khula patr likha, jisamen unhonne bharatavasiyon ko apane naitik, samajik tatha rajanitik punarutthan ke lie ek sngh banane ki prerana di. hyoom ke is patr ka bharatavasiyon ne svagat kiya aur sanh 1884 ee. men indiyan neshanal yooniyan ki sthapana huee aur agale varsh sanh 1885 ee. men is snstha ka bambee men adhiveshan hua. us adhiveshan men dada bhaee noroji ke paramarsh par is snstha ka nam indiyan neshalan kangres rakha gaya. yah snstha 1905 tak udaravadi netaon ki dekh–rekh men kam karati rahi. gopal krishn gokhale, dada bhaee noroji, firojashah mehata, surendranath banarji, pndit madan mohan malaviy is snstha ke pramukh neta the.

san 1905 ee men kangres ka adhiveshan banaras men hua. bngal vibhajan ke karan vatavaran badal chuka tha. isalie lokamany tilak tatha unake samarthakon ne angrezon ke viruddh ugr niti apanane ka sujhav diya. udaravadi is sujhav se sahamat nahin hue. jisase kangres men do gut ban ge. 1906 ee men kalakatta ke adhiveshan men donon guton men bal pariksha huee. parantu dada bhaee noroji ke upasthit hone ke karan is phoot ko rok liya gaya. kangres ka 1907 ee. men 'soorat adhiveshan' hua. is adhiveshan men donon dalon men jhagada ho gaya aur shighr hi isane dnge ka roop dharan kar liya. isase kangres ke do dal ban ge- garam dal aur naram dal. [1]

lard karzan

1905 se 1919 ke bich men rashtriy andolan ugravadiyon ke hath men raha. ugravadiyon ke pramukh neta bal, lal, pal (bal gngadhar tilak, lala lajapat ray aur vipin chandr pal) the. lala lajapat ray ne udaravadiyon ki niti par asantusht hokar kaha tha ki hamen bis lagatar andolan karane ke bad bhi roti ke badale patthar mile. ham angrezon ke age ab aur adhik samay tak bhikh nahin mangenge aur n hi unake samane gidagidayenge. dakshin aphrika men to bharatiyon ki halat bahut shochaniy thi. rngabhed ki drishti ke karan unhen ghrina ki drishti se dekha jata tha. unhen aspatalon tatha hotalon men pravesh karane ki anumati nahin thi. bachche uchch snsthaon men shiksha prapt nahin kar sakate the. rajistreshan ekt (1907) ke tahat bharatiyon ko aparadhiyon ke tarah daftaron men apane nam likhavane padate the aur apani anguliyon ki chhap deni padati thi. lard karzan ki daman niti (1898 se 1905) ne bharatiyon par anek atyachar kie the. usane apane bhashan men bharatiyon ko bahut hi apamanajanak shabd kahe the aur karyakushalata ke nam par kalakatta karporeshan aphisayal sikret ekt, indiyan yoonivarsati ekt, kee aise qadam uthae jinaka uddeshy bharatiy ekata ko durbal karana tatha bharatiy bhavanaon ka gala ghontana tha. 1907 ee. men bngal bhng sambandhi ghoshana hote hi garam dal sakriy ho gaya. unhonne disambar 1907 men bngal ke gavarnar ki gadi par bam phainkane ka prayatn kiya. phir dhaka ke majistret par goli chalaee. parantu vah bach nikala. mujaffapur bam phatane se kainedi tatha usaki putri ki mrityu ho gee. pnjab aur maharashtr men bhi is tarah ki ghatanaen hone lagin.[1]

gadar parti ki sthapana

sanh 1913 men amerika men basane vale bharatiyon ne gadar parti ki sthapana ki. is parti ke pramukh neta sohanasinh bhakana, lala haradayal, baba basakha sinh, pn. kashiram aur udhamasinh the. is parti ke hazaron bharatavasi amerika se bharat ae. unhonne lahaur, firojapur, ambala, merath, agara adi sainik chhavaniyon men sainikon ko vidroh karane ki prerana di aur 25 pharavari 1915 ko gadar ka din rakha. lekin kupal sinh ke vishvasaghat ne is yojana ko asaphal kar diya. gadar parti ki tarah indo jarman mishan ne bhi tarki aur kabul ka sahayog prapt karake bharat ko svatntr karane ki yojana banaee aur asthayi bharat sarakar ki sthapana ki, jisake rashtrapati raja mahendr pratap aur pradhan mntri barakat allah the. lekin paristhiti anukool n hone ke karan ye deshabhakt bhi saphal nahin ho sake. saubhagy se dakshin aphrika men bharatavasiyon ko mahatma gandhi ke roop men ek aisa neta mila jisane sab bharatavasiyon ko sngathit kiya. unhonne satyagrah andolan chalaya aur bharatiyon par lagae ge qanoon rok die.
pratham mahayuddh men angrezon ne bharatiyon se madad mangi thi aur kuchh sahooliyaten dene ka vayada kiya tha. bharatiyon ne dilonjan se angrezon ki madad ki. lekin angrezon ne apana vada poora nahin kiya. unhonne jo suvidha di vah na ke barabar thi. indiyan neshanal kangres ne un riyayayon ki ninda ki. sarakar ne hindustaniyon ko dabane ke lie rolat ekt pas kiya. is ekt ke anusar sarakar kisi bhi vyakti ko bina muqadama chalae bandi bana sakati thi. use apane paksh men alil, dalil tatha vaqil ka adhikar bhi nahin tha. mahatma gandhi ne 13 march 1919 ko rolat ekt ke viruddh satyagrah andolan chalaya. parantu durbhagy se andolan ke dauran ahamad nagar, dilli aur pnjab men upadrav ho ge, jisake karan mahatma gandhi ko andolan sthagit karana pada. 10 aprail 1919 ko pnjab ke dipti kamishnar ne satyapal aur daau. kichaloo ko apani kothi par bulakar achanak bandi bana liya. 13 aprail 1919 ko jaliyanvala bag se pachchis hazar nagarik sabha karane ke lie ekatrit hue. angrez janaral dayar ne unako gher kar goli chalava di aur hazaron nihatthe log maut ke ghat utar die. is ghatana ke bad bharatavasiyon ne faisala kiya ki angrezon ko bharat par hukoomat karane ka koee adhikar nahin hai. 26 janavari 1930 ko poorn svarajy ki ghoshana ki gee. pnjab men bhagatasinh aur unake sathiyon ne naujavan bharat ki ninv dali. parantu ye deshabhakt bhi saphal nahin ho sake aur 23 march 1930 ko bhagat sinh, sukhadev aur rajaguru ko angrezon ne fansi par chadha diya.[1]

gandhi ji ke andolan

bambee prant men jitendranath ne 61 din bhookh hadatal karake apane pran tyag die. gandhi ne namak qanoon todane ke lie dandi march kiya. qanoon todane par angrezon ne gandhi ji ko giraftar kar liya. lekin desh men andolan zor pakad gaya, isalie gandhi ji ko riha kar diya gaya. angrezon ne tin bar landan men gol mej kanfrens bulaee, lekin gandhiji har bar nirash hi vapas laute. 3 sitambar 1939 ko dvitiy vishv yuddh chhid gaya. 8 agast 1942 ko kangres adhiveshan bambee men hua. usamen "bharat chhodo" prastav pas hua. pndit motilal neharoo tatha pndit javahar lal neharoo ne bhi svatntrata ke lie bahut kam kiya. angrez sarakar ne daman niti ka sahara liya. is bich netaji subhash chandr bos ne bharat se bahar rahakar bharat ko svatntr karane ka prayatn kiya. unaka vichar tha ki dvitiy vishvayuddh ka labh uthana chahie. unhonne azad hind fauj ki sthapana ki. aur "dilli chalo" ka nara diya. lekin netaji kisi durghatana men mare ge, isalie yah andolan bhi asaphal ho gaya. tatpashchath 18 pharavari 1946 ko bambee men sainik vidroh uth khade hue. sainikon ne apani bairakon se nikalakar angrez sainikon par dhava bol diya aur panch din tak angrezi sainikon ko maut ke ghat utarate rahe. ant men angrezon ko yah bat spasht ho gee ki ab ve bharat ko adhik samay tak apana gulam banakar nahin rakh sakate. inglaind ke tatkalin pradhanamntri kilaimant etali ne bharat samasya sulajhane ke lie 23 march 1946 ko tin adhikariyon—paithik larens, stephard krips aur e. bi. elaizendar ko bharat bheja. unhonne bharatiy netaon se tatha vayasaray se batachit ki. 14 agast 1946 ee. ko vayasaray ne kendr men antarim sarakar banane ke lie pndit javaharalal neharoo se anurodh kiya. parantu muslim lig ne pakistan ki mang ki aur sidhi karyavahi ke marg ko apanaya. 16 agast ko kalakatte men kafi khoon–kharaba hua, hazaron log mare ge tatha karodon ki sampatti nasht kar di gee. pharavari 1947 ko british pradhanamntri etali ne ek byan diya, jisake anusar hindustan ko 1948 men svatntr karane ki ghoshana ki. is byan ke sath bharat ke vayasaray lard bavel ko vapas inglaind bula liya gaya aur usaki jagah par lard mauntabetan ko bharat ka vayasaray banakar bheja. lard mauntabetan ne bharat ka bntavara karana hi behatar samajha. kangresi netaon ne is vichar ko svikar kar liya aur 4 julaee 1947 ko inglaind ki snsad men bharatiy svatntrata vidheyak pesh kiya gaya. 16 julaee 1947 ko snsad ke donon sadanon ne is vidheyak ko pas kar diya aur 18 julaee 1947 ko inglaind ke badashah ne bhi apani svikriti de di.[1]

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 gupta, ved prakash “bharatiy svatntrata sngram ka snkshipt itihas”, bharatiy utsav aur parv, 112.

snbndhit lekh