हड़प्पा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hadappa muhar
Harappa Seals
  • pakistan ke pnjab prant men sthit 'mantagomari zile' men ravi nadi ke bayen tat par yah purasthal hai.
  • hadappa men dhvnshavasheshon ke vishay men sabase pahale janakari 1826 ee. men 'charls mainsarn' ne di.
  • 1856 ee. men 'brantan bandhuon' ne hadappa ke puratatvik mahattv ko spasht kiya.
  • 'jaaun marshal' ke nirdeshan men 1921 ee. men 'dayaram' ke puratatvik mahattv ko spasht kiya. jaaun marshal ke nirdeshan men 1921 ee. men 'dayaram sahani' ne is sthal ko spasht kiya. jaaun marshal ke nirdeshan men 1921 ee. men dayaram sahani ne is sthal ka utkhanan kary prarambh karavaya.
  • 1946 men martimar hvilar ne hadappa ke pashchimi durg tile ki suraksha ka prachir ka svaroop gyat karane ke lie yahan utkhanan karavaya. isi utkhanan ke adhar par hvilar ne raksha prachin evn samadhi kshetr ke parasparik sambandhon ko nirdharit kiya hai. yah nagar qarib 5 ki.mi. ke kshetr men basa hua hai. hadappa se prapt do tilon men poorvi tile ko 'nagar tila' tatha pashchimi tile ko 'durg tila' ke nam se sambodhit kiya gaya. hadappa ka durg kshetr suraksha- prachir se ghira hua tha. durg ka akar samalamb chaturbhuj ki tarah tha. durg ka uttar se dakshin se lambaee 420 mi. tatha poorv se pashchim chaudaee 196 mi. hai. utkhananakartaon ne durg ke tile ko maunt 'AB' nam diya hai. durg ka mukhy pravesh dvar uttar-disha men tatha doosara pravesh dvar dakshin disha men tha. raksha-prachir lagabhag 12 mitar oonchi thi jisamen sthan-sthan par toran athava burj bane hue the. hadappa ke durg ke bahar uttar disha men sthit lagabhag 6 mitar oonche tile ko ‘eph‘ nam diya hai gaya hai jis par annagar, anaj kootane ki vrittakar chabootare aur shramik avas ke sakshy mile hain. padari hadappaee nagar, hadappa poorv v vikasit hadappa kal ke do sanskritik charanon ko spasht karata hai.
sindh men mohanajodado men hadappa snskriti ke avashesh

annagar ka avashesh

yahan par 6:6 ki do pnktiyon men nirmit kul barah kakshon vale ek annagar ka avashesh prapt hua hain, jinamen pratyek ka akar 50x20 mi. ka hai, jinaka kul kshetraphal 2,745 varg mitar se adhik hai. hadappa se prant annagar nagaramadhi ke bahar ravi nadi ke nikat sthit the. hadappa ke ‘eph‘ tile men paki huee eeton se nirmit 18 vrittakar chabootare mile hain. in chabootaron men eeton ko khade roop men joda gaya hai. pratyek chabootare ka vyas 3.20 mi. hai. har chabootare men sambhavatah okhali lagane ke lie chhed tha. in chabootaron ke chhedon men rakh, jale hue gehoon tatha jaun ke dane evn bhoosa ke tinake mile hai. 'martimar hrilar' ka anuman hai ki in chabootaron ka upayog anaj pisane ke lie kiya jata raha hoga. shramik avas ke roop men vikasit 15 makanon ki do pnktiyan mili hain jinamen uttari pnkti men sat evn dakshini pnkti men 8 makanon ke avashesh prapt hue, pratyek makan ka akar lagabhag 17x7.5 mi. ka hai. pratyek grih men kamare tatha angan hote the. inamen mohanajodado ke grahon ki bhanti kuen nahin mile hain. shramik avas ke nazadik hi qarib 14 bhatton aur dhatu banane ki ek moosha (Crucible) ke avashesh mile hain. isake atirikt yahan se prapt kuchh mahattvapoorn avashesh- ek bartan par bana machhuare ka chitr, shnkh ka bana bail, pital ka bana ikka, eeton ke vrittakar chabootare jinaka upayog snbhavatah fasal ko dabane men kiya jata tha, sath hi gehoon tatha jau ke danon ke avashesh bhi mile hain.

sindhu ghati sabhyata men sthit ek kuan aur snan ghar

prapt qabristan

hadappa ke samany avas kshetr ke dakshin men ek aisa qabristan sthit hai jise ‘samadhi ar-37‘ nam diya gaya hai. yahan par prarambh men 'madhosvaroop vats' ne utkhanan karaya tha, bad men 1946 men hvilar ne bhi yahan par utkhanan karaya tha. yahan par khudaee se kul 57 shavadhan pae ge hain. shav prayah uttar-dakshin disha men dafanae jate the jinamen sir uttar ki or hota tha. ek qabr men lakadi ke taboot men lash ko rakhakar yahan daphanaya gaya tha. 12 shavadhanon se 'kansy darpan' bhi pae ge hain. ek surama lagane ki salaee, ek se sipi ki chammach evn kuchh anyay se patthar ke phalak (bled) pae ge hain. hadappa men sanh 1934 men ek any samadhi mili thi jise samadhi 'ech' nam diya gaya tha. isaka sambndh sindhu sabhyata ke bad ke kal se tha.

mahattvapoorn tathy

  • sindhu ghati sabhyata ki khudaee men paki huee mitti ke dipak prapt hue hain aur 3500 eesa varsh poorv ki mohanajodado sabhyata ki khudaee men prapt bhavanon men dipakon ko rakhane hetu takh banae ge the v mukhy dvar ko prakashit karane hetu alon ki shrinkhala thi.
  • mohanajodado sabhyata ke prapt avasheshon men mitti ki ek moorti ke anusar us samay bhi dipavali manaee jati thi. us moorti men matri-devi ke donon or dip jalate dikhaee dete hain. isase yah siddh svat: hi ho jata hai ki yah sabhyata hindoo sabhyata thi.
  • hadappa aur mohanajodado se kapadon ke tukade ke avashesh, chandi ke ek phooladan ke dhakkan tatha kuchh any tanben ki vastuen mile hain.
  • yahan ke log shatarnj ka khel bhi janate the aur ve lohe ka upayog karate the. isaka matalab yah ki ve lohe ke bare men bhi janate the.
  • yahan se prapt muharon ko sarvottam kalakritiyon ka darja prapt hai. hadappa nagar ke utkhanan se tanbe ki muharen prapt huee hain. is kshetr ki bhasha ki lipi chitratmak thi. mohanajodado se prapt pashupati ki muhar par hathi, gainda, bagh aur bail ankit hain.
  • hadappa ke mitti ke bartan par samanyatah lal rng ka upayog hua hai.
  • mohanajodadon se prapt vishal snanagar men jal ke risav ko rokane ke lie eenton ke oopar jipsam ke gare ke oopar charakol ki parat chadhaee gee thi, jisase pata chalata hai ki ve charakol ke snbndh men bhi janate the.


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vithika

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