हरियाणा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

India-flag.gif
hariyana
Haryana-map.jpg
rajadhani chndigadh
rajabhasha(en) hindi bhasha
sthapana 1 navnbar, 1966
janasnkhya 2,53,53,081
· ghanatv 477 /varg kimi
kshetraphal 44,212 varg kimi
bhaugolik nirdeshank 30°44′N 76°47′E
· grishm 50 °C
· sharad 1 °C
zile 21
sabase bada nagar faridabad
bade nagar gudaganv, faridabad
mukhy aitihasik sthal kurukshetr
mukhy paryatan sthal hisar, gudaganv, pinjaur, panipat, kurukshetr
ling anupat 1000:861 ♂/♀
rajyapal kaptan sinh solnki[1]
mukhyamntri manohar lal khattar
vidhanasabha sadasy 90
lokasabha kshetr 10
rajyasabha sadasy 5
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
Haryana Logo.jpg

hariyana uttar bharat ke prant pnjab ko 1966 men vibhajit karake banaya gaya tha. is rajy ki sima ke uttar men pnjab aur himachal pradesh, pashchim tatha dakshin sima par rajasthan aur poorv men uttarakhnd tatha uttar pradesh sthit hain. bharat ki rajadhani dilli ke tin taraf hariyana ki simayen lagi huee hain, jisake karan rashtriy rajadhani kshetr dilli ka ek bada hissa hariyana men mila hai. hariyana pradesh ki rajadhani chndigadh hai, jo kendr shasit pradesh hone ke sath pnjab rajy ki bhi rajadhani hai.

mahanyayalay, chndigadh
  • 'hariyana' ka shabdarth hai- 'parameshvar ka nivas', 'hari' (vishnu) aur 'ayan' (ghar) se milakar hariyana shabd bana hai.
  • yah rajy sampoorn bharat ke vikas ka agradoot mana jata hai.
  • british shasan men hariyana, pnjab prant ka ek bhag raha tha. isake itihas men pnjab ke itihas ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika hai.
  • hariyana men prati vyakti amadani gova aur dilli ke bad hai. hariyana men prati vyakti ausat ay 29,887 rupaye prativarsh (varsh 2006 ke ankadon ke anusar) hai.
  • yah rajy audyogik utpadan men desh ke agrani rajyon men se ek hai.
  • gudaganv shahar soochana praudyogiki aur aautomobail udyog ke ek pramukh kendr ke roop men tezi se ubhara hai. yah nirman kshetr ka bhi pramukh kendr hai. yahan maruti udyog limited, jo bharat ki sabase badi aautomobail nirmata knpani hai, aur hiro honda limited, jo dopahiya vahanon ki sabase bade nirmata kampani hain, ka mukhy karyalay hai.
  • panipat, pnchakoola aur faridabad bhi hariyana ke pramukh audyogik kendr hain.
  • panipat rifainari dakshin eshiya ki doosari sabase badi rifainari hai.
  • hariyana rajy men ispat aur vastr udyog bhi bahut vikasit hai.

itihas aur bhoogol

hariyana ke roop men jana jane vala kshetr (uttar vaidik yug, lagabhag 800-500 ee.poo. ka madhyama desh, yani madhy kshetr) hindoo dharm ka janm sthal mana jata hai. yah us kshetr men hai, jahan aryon ka pahala stotr gaya gaya tha aur sarvadhik prachin pandulipiyan likhi gee thin. dakshini pnjab men rohatak-gudaganv ka parvatiy pradesh, jisamen moolatah dilli bhi shamil hai. ab is nam ka ek naya rajy ban gaya hai. 1327 ke ek abhilekh men 'dhillika' ya 'dilli' ko hariyana ke antargat bataya gaya hai-

'deshosti hariyanakhyah prithivyan svargasannimah, dhillikapuri yatr tomarai-rasti nirmita.'

kuchh viddhanon ke mat men 'harayana' ya 'hariyana' shabd, 'ahirana' ka apabhrnsh hai. is pradesh men prachin kal se achchhi charagah bhoomi hone ke karan ahiron ya abhir jati ke logon ka nivas raha hai. hariyana ka prachin itihas bahut gauravapoorn hai. yah vaidik kal se prarnbh hota hai. yah rajy pauranik 'bharat vnsh' ki janmabhoomi mana jata hai, jisake nam par is desh ka nam 'bharat' pada. mahakavy mahabharat men hariyana ka zikr hua hai. kauravon aur pandavon ki yuddhabhoomi kurukshetr hariyana men hai. muslimon ke agaman aur dilli ke bharat ki rajadhani banane se pahale tak bharat ke itihas men hariyana ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika rahi hai. bad men hariyana dilli ka hi ek bhag ban gaya aur 1857 men pratham svatntrata sngram tak yah adhik mahattvapoorn nahin raha.

aitihasik yuddh bhoomi

aitihasik yuddh bhoomi ke roop men hariyana ko jana jata hai. pashchimottar aur madhy eshiyaee kshetron se huee ghusapaithon ke rasten men padane vale hariyana ko sikndar mahan (326 ee.poo.) ke samay se anek senaon ke hamalon ka samana karana pada. yah bharatiy itihas ki anek nirnayak ladaeeyon ka pratyakshadarshi raha hai. inamen pramukh hain-

  1. panipat ki ladaiyan - 1526 men jab mugal badashah babar ne ibrahim lodi ko harakar bharat men mugal samrajy ki ninv dali.
  2. 1556 men jab afagan sena mugal shahnshah akabar ki sena se parajit huee.
  3. 1739 men karanal ki ladaee - jab faras ke nadirashah ne dhvast hote mugal samrajy ko zoradar shikast di.
  4. 1761 men jab ahamadashah abdali ne maratha sena ko nirnayak shikast dekar bharat men british hukoomat ka rasta saf kar diya.

bharatiy svatntrata andolan men yogadan

bharatiy svatntrata andolan men hariyana ke anek svatntrata senaniyon ne yogadan diya hai jisamen se pramukh hain- chaudhari devi lal · aruna asaf ali · bnsilal · sucheta kripalani ·

poorn rajy ka darja

hariyana rajy ki sthapana 1 navambar, 1966 ko huee thi. isaliye hariyana ka sthapana divas pratyek varsh '1 navnbar' ko manaya jata hai. sanh 1857 ka vidroh dabane ke bad british shasan ke pun: sthapit hone par angrezon ne jhajjar aur bahaduragadh ke navab, ballabhagadh ke raja aur revadi ke rav tularam ke kshetr ya to british shasan men mila lie ya angrezon ne patiyala, nabh aur jind ke shasakon ko saunp diye aur is prakar hariyana pnjab prant ka bhag ban gaya. 1 navnbar, 1966 ko pnjab prant ke punargathan ke pashchath hariyana ko poorn rajy ka darja mila.

panipat yuddh

vartaman hariyana rajy men ane vala kshetr 1803 men british eest indiya knpani ko saunp diya gaya tha. 1832 men yah tatkalin pashchimottar prant ko hastantarit kar diya gaya aur 1858 men yah kshetr pnjab ka hissa ban gaya. 1947 men bharat ke vibhajan ke bad tak isaki yahi sthiti bani rahi, halanki alag hariyana rajy ki mang 1907 men bharat ki azadi ke kafi pahale se hi uthane lagi thi. 'bharatiy rashtriy andolan' ke pramukh neta lala lajapat ray aur asaf ali ne prithakh hariyana rajy ka samarthan kiya tha. svatntrata ke poorv evn bad men pnjab ka ek hissa hone ke bavajood ise vishisht sanskritik aur bhashaee ikaee mana jata tha, halanki samajik-arthik roop se yah pichhada kshetr tha. vayovriddh svatntrata senani shriram sharma ki adhyakshata men bani 'hariyana vikas samiti' ne ek svayatt rajy ki avadharana par dhyan kendrit kiya tha. 1960 ke dashak ki shuruat men uttari pnjab ke pnjabi bhasha sikkhon aur dakshin men hariyana kshetr ke hindibhashi hinduon dvara bhashaee adhar par rajyon ki sthapana ki mang zor pakadane lagi thi, lekin sikkhon dvara pnjabi bhashi rajy ki zoradar mang ke karan hi is mudde ko bal mila. 1966 men pnjab punargathan adhiniyam ke parit hone ke sath hi pnjab ke sath-sath hariyana bhi bharat ka ek prithakh rajy ban gaya. samajik aur arthik vikas ke drishtikon se chhote se rajyon ke gathan ka prayog saphal sabit hua hai, basharte unhen sabal aur yogy netritv mile, jaisa ki in do rajyon ne siddh kiya hai.

bhoo-akriti

hariyana men do bade bhoo-kshetr hai, rajy ka ek bada hissa samatal jalodh maidanon se yukt hai aur poorvottar men tikhe dhal vali shivaliya pahadiyan tatha snkara pahadi kshetr hai. samudr ki satah 210 mitar se 270 mitar oonche maidani ilakon se pani bahakar ekamatr barahamasi nadi yamuna men ata hai, yah rajy ki poorvi sima se hokar bahati hai. shivalik pahadiyon se nikali anek mausami nadiyan maidani bhagon se guzarati hai. inamen sabase pramukh ghagghar (rajy ki uttari sima ke nikat) nadi hai. aisa mana jata hai ki kabhi yah nadi sindhu nadi men milati thi, jo ab pakistan men hai. is nadi ke nichale kshetr men ary-poorv sabhyata ke avashes milate hain. isake alava dakshin hariyana ke mahendragadh, revadi aur gudaganv zilon men dakshin se uttar ki or dilli tak vistrit aravali parvat shrinkhala ke bhi avashesh milate hain.

hariyana ke adhikansh kshetr men shushk aur arddh shushk paristhitiyan hain. keval purvotar men thodi ardrata paeen jati hai. yadyapi rajy men nahar sinchaee pranali aur bade paimane par nalakoop hain. isake bavajood yahan kuchh atyadhik sookhagrast kshetr hain, khasakar dakshini aur dakshin-pashchimi hisson men, tathapi yamuna v ghagghar nadi ki sahayak nadiyon men kabhi-kabhi badh bhi jati hai. garmiyon men khub garmi padati hai aur sardiyon men khoob sardi. garmiyon men (mee-joon) adhikatam tapaman 46 digri se. tak pahunch jata hai. janavari men kabhi-kabhi nyoonatam tapaman jamav bindu tak pahunch jata hai. rajy ke hisar shahar men sabase zyada garmi padati hai.

poorvotar men pahad ke talahati vale kshetr ko chhodakar poore rajy men mitti gahari v urvar hai aur dakshin-pashchim men rajasthan ke marusthal se sate simavarti kshetr men zamin retili hai. rajy ke kul kshetr ke 4/5 bhag men kheti hoti hai aur isamen se lagabhag tin-chauthaee kshetr sinchit hai. yadyapi rajy ke uttari, poorvi aur dakshin-poorvi bhagon men sinchaee nalakoopon ke zariye hoti hai, vahin dakshin-pashchimi kshetr men adhikansh sinchaee nahar ke zariye hoti hai. rajy men van kshetr nagany hain. rajamargon ke kinare aur oosar zaminon par yookaliptas ke ped ugae ge hain. rajy ke uttari bhagon men sadak kinare amataur par shisham (dalabargiya sissoo) ke ped pae jate hain, jabaki dakshin aur dakshin-pashchimi hariyana men kikar (akeshiya arebika) ke ped v jhadiyan amataur par milati hain.

krishi

krishi ki drishti se hariyana ek samriddh rajy hai aur yah kendriy bhndar (atirikt khadyann ki rashtriy sngrahan pranali) men badi matra men gehoon aur chaval deta hai. hariyana men 65 pratishat se bhi adhik logon ki jivika ka adhar krishi hai. rajy ke ghareloo utpadan men 26.4 pratishat yogadan krishi ka hai. khadyann ki utpadan kshamata, jo ke rajy nirman ke samay 25.92 lakh tan thi. aj ka sakal krishi utpadan isase kahin adhik hai. mukhy fasalon ka utpadan pahale se bahut badh gaya hai.
hariyana ka manachitr
chaval, gehoon, jvar, bajara, makka, jau, ganna, kapas, dalahan, tilahan aur aloo rajy ki mukhy fasalen hain. nakadi fasalon men ganna, kapas, tilahan aur sabjiyon tatha phalon ka utpadan adhik ho raha hai. soorajamukhi aur soyabin, moongaphali, bagavani ko bhi vishesh roop se protsahit kiya ja raha hai. rajy men kheti ko badhava dene ki koshishen ki ja rahi hain. mridu urvarata ko badhane ke lie dhencha aur moong ke utpadan ko bhi protsahit kiya ja raha hai.

sinchaee

rajy men sinchaee aur pey jal ke saman vitaran ke lie sarakar ne 354 karod rupe ki lagat se 109 kilomitar lnbi vishal nahar 'bhakhada mukhy nahar-hansi shakha-butana shakha bahuddeshiy snpark nahar’ ka nirman kiya hai. manasoon men yamuna nadi ke atirikt pani ko kam men lene ke lie 267 karod rupe ki ‘dadoopur-shahabad-valvi nahar pariyojana’ shuroo ki hai. isamen yamuna nagar, anbala aur kurukshetr men padane vali 92,532 hekteyar kshetr ki sinchaee aur bhoojal richarj suvidhaon ke lie 590 kyoosek atirikt jal ka prayog kiya jaega. ghagghar aur isaki sahayogi nadiyon par char kam oonchaee ke bandh - kaushalya bandh, dngrana bandh, divanavala bandh aur chhamala bandh - yojanaon par kary chal raha hai jin par kramash: - 118 karod, 63.69 karod, 132.70 karod aur 20.41 karod rupe ka kharcha aega. inase manasoon ke pani ka prayog badhega.

soochana praudyogiki

star maaul, gudaganv
Star Mall, Gurgaon

vishv vaishvikaran men soochana praudyogiki ke mahattv ko janate hue hariyana sarakar ne soochana praudyogiki ki vyapak aur vistrit niti banaee hai jisase rajy naye vikas ki or badhe. is yojana men soochana praudyogiki ke aee.ti.ee.es. aur bi.pi.o. udyog ko protsahan diya ja raha hai. sarakar ki yojana taiknolaauji parko ko vikasit karane ki hai bhi jisamen taiknolaauji parko aur aee.ti. kaauridors ko sthapit kiya ja raha hai. is prayas ka uddeshy soochana praudyogiki ko naino praudyogiki, jaiv praudyogiki, mobail knpyooting aur robotiks se jodana hai. isake atirikt gudaganv men soochana praudyogiki aur aee.ti.ee.es. / bi.pi.o. bhi honge jo vishvastariy suvidhaen pradan karenge. gudaganv ke atirikt, rajy sarakar ki kundali-manesar-palaval eksapres haee ve aur pharidabad ke pas ke rashtriy rajadhani kshetr ke bhagon ko vikasit karane ki yojanayen hain. ye gudaganv-manesar mega aee.ti. hab ke upagrah ka kam karenge. varsh 2007-08 men rajy se 17,500 karod rupaye ke saauphtaveyar ka niryat kiya gaya.

sarakar ne poore rajy men ‘ee-disha ekal seva kendr’ ke nam kendr’ ke nam se 1159 gramin aur 104 shahari 'seva kendr' ko sthapit kar rahi hai. gramin kshetron men shat pratishat aur shahari kshetron men 67 pratishat kary sampann ho chuka hai. is samay knpyootar prashikshan, ee-tikating, mobail richarj, jaaub plesament seva, intaranet sarphing, di.ti.pi. jaisi ‘bijanes tu sitijans’ (bi2si) sevaen in kendron se di ja rahi hai. sarakar in seva kendron se bas ke pas, bijali ke bil bharane, nakal (bhoomi rikaaurd) jari karane, anusoochit jati/pichhadi jati ke praman patr, nivas praman patr, janm-mrityu ke praman patr dene ke lie aur ne rashan kard banane jaisi ‘gavarment tu sitijans’ (ji2si) sevaen pradan karane par bhi kary kar rahi hai. knpyootar prashikshan karyakram ke antargat 23,000 sarakari karmachariyon ko knpyootar men prashikshit kiya ja chuka hai.

udyog

hariyan ka audyogik kshetr bahut hi vistrit aur vishal hai. rajy men 1,343 badi aur 80,000 laghu udyog ikaiyan karyarat hain. hariyana men bahut si vastuon ka utpadan hota hai. kar, traiktar, motarasaikil, saikil, rephrijaretar, vaigyanik upakaran adi anek prakar ke utpadakon ka sabase bada utpadak rajy hariyana hai. vishv bazar men basamati chaval ka sabase bada niryatak hariyana hai. pncharnga achar ke atirikt panipat men hathakaraghe se bani vastuen aur kalin vishv bhar men prasiddh hai aur inaka niryat bade star par kiya jata hai.

trident hotal, gudaganv

julaee, 1991 se ab tak 3828 audyogik udyamiyon se gyapan jama kie ge aur 2228 gyapan kriyanvit kar die ge hain. in vigyapanon men 21,578 karod rupaye ka nivesh kiya gaya aur 3,92,237 logon ko rozagar mil gaya hai. navin audyogik nitiyon ke parinamasvaroop 'vishesh arthik kshetr' (sej) sthapit karane ke 94 prastav rajy ko prapt hue hain jisake anusar audyogik dhanche par 2 karod rupaye ki lagat aegi. in pariyojanaon ke kriyanvayan ke bad kee hazar karod rupaye manesar ke vistar ke atirikt faridabad, rohatak aur jagadhari ko audyogik adarsh nagar ke roop men vikasit kiya ja raha hai. panipat men 33,000 karod rupaye se 'paitro rasayan kendr' sthapit kiya gaya hai. 2,000 karod rupaye laga kar kundal-manesar-palaval eksapres rajamarg ka vikas ho raha hai. is rajamarg ke asapas anek arthik kendr banaye jayegen jisase audyogik aur seva kshetr men nivesh ke avasar upalabdh honge. bahaduragadh aur rohatak men naye audyogik vikas tatha sonipat, kundali, raee aur badi men udyogon ka vikas karake arthik vikas ko badhaya ja raha hai. rajy sarakar anbala, saha, yamunanagar, baraval, karanal, rohatak aur kaithal adi shaharon ka audyogikaran karane ko prayasarat hain. yah bhi ullekhaniy hai ki rajy men kuchh audyogik nivesh pnjabi udyamiyon ne kiya hai, jisaka manana hai ki pnjab ke bajay hariyana men nivesh karana adhik surakshit aur labhadayak hai (kyonki dilli ke bazar se yah nazadik hai).

'hariyana rajy audyogik vikas nigam' aur 'hariyana nagar vikas pradhikaran' dvara vikasit audyogik kshetron men bhoomi abntan ki bahut mang hai. vartaman samay men 94 badi tatha 5031 laghu audyogik ikaiyon ki sthapana huee hai jin par 4124 karod rupaye ka nivesh hua hai aur 92,559 logon ko rozagar mila hai. isake atirikt anek audyogik ikaiyon ka vistar karane se 35,000 karod rupaye se adhik ka naya nivesh hua hai. 'bharatiy tel nigam' ne panipat men 5,000 karod rupaye ke nivesh se paireksilin/pitie ki sthapana ki hai. marooti udyog, hiro honda aur anek aautomobail udyogon ka bahut vistar hua hai jin par lagabhag 10,000 karod rupaye lagaye gaye hain.

prashasan evn samajik visheshataen

prashasan

bharatiy snvidhan ke pravadhanon ke anusar, rashtrapati dvara niyukt rajyapal rajy ka snvaidhanik pramukh hota hai. apane karttavyon ke nirvahan ke lie use mntriparishad se sahayata aur salah milati hai, jisaka pramukh mukhyamntri hota hai. mntriparishad vidhanasabha ke prati javabadeh hoti hai.

vidhanasabha ka chunav samanyatah panch varsh ke karyakal ke lie hote hain. hariyana aur pnjab ke lie ek uchch nyayalay hai. rajy 19 zilon men bnta hua hai : anbala, bhivani, faridabad, fatehabad , gudaganv, hisar, jhajjar, jind, kaithal, karanal, kurukshetr, mahendragadh, pnchakula, panipat, rivadi, rohatak, sirasa sonipat aur yamuna nagar. pnchayati raj (gramin svashasan) ka vistar sabhi ganvon tak ho chuka hai.

raauk gardan, chndigadh
Rock Garden, Chandigarh

shiksha evn jan-kalyan

pnjab ki tarah hariyana men bhi vidyalay aur mahavidyalay, donon staron par shiksha ko badhava dene men sarakar ki bhoomika ke alava niji snsthanon ne bhi ullekhaniy yogadan diya hai. rajy ke vikas karyakramon men shiksha ko uchch prathamikata di gee hai. kala evn vigyan mahavidyalayon ki snkhya 1966-67 men 40 se badhakar 1997-98 men 140 ho gee, is avadhi men uchch aur uchchatar madhyamik vidyaliyon ki snkhya 597 se 3,517; madhyamik buniyadi pathashalaen 735 se 1,718 aur prathamikata buniyadi pathashalaon ki snkhya 4,447 se 10,134 ho gee. vibhinn staron ke ye snsthan rajy ke 6,759 ganvon aur 94 kasvon men sthit hain. inake alava hariyana men ab char vishavidyalay hai : kurukshetr men kurukshetr vishvavidyalay, rohatak men maharshi dayannd vishvavidyalay, hisar men guru jnbheshvar vishvavidyalay aur vikhyat pashupalan vigyan mahavidyalay sahit hariyana krishi vishvavidyalay, isake alava, rajy men deyari ke sabhi utpadon ke vijas ke lie karanal men rashtriy deyari shodh snsthan ki sthapana ki gee. shiksha ke vikas men hariyana ka sthan bharat ke uttari rajy pnjab, madhy aur kuchh pashchimi rajyon men keval pnjab ke bad ata hai, lekin dakshini rajyon se kafi pichhe rahata hai. 1991 tak sthapik vibhinn staron ke snsthanon ki snkhya ko dekhate hue shiksha karyakramon se labhanvit ho rahi janasnkhya ka pratishat kam hai. 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar, janasnkhya ka 68.59 pratishat sakshar hai (rashtriy ausat 65.38 pratishat hai). pichhale dashak men gramin kshetron men mahila saksharata ke mamale men hariyana ne kafi lnba safar tay kiya hai (2001 men 56.31 pratishak jabaki 1991 men 32.5 pratishak). anusoochit jati ke vidyarthiyon ki shiksha ke lie (samany tatha takaniki) sarakar dvara sabhi staron par sahayata di jati hai. rajy men vibhinn naukariyon aur shiksha pathyakramon men anusoochit jati varg ke sadasyon ko krishi, udyog, vyapar aur svarozagaraparak gatividhiyon ke lie rin v anudan bhi upalabdh karati hai. udaharan ke lie, 1997-98 men is uddeshy se lagabhag 24 karod rupe kharch kie ge.

rajy men zila aur upakhnd aspatalon v prathamik svasthay kendron ka snjal hai aur 1966 ke bad se inaki snkhya men kee guna vriddhi huee hai, kintu inaki gunavatta apekshit star ki nahin hai. ullekhaniy hai ki 1992 se rajy se sabhi ganvon men surakshit peyajal upalabdh karaya ja raha hai.

hariyana men lagabhag 22,800 kimi lnbi pakki sadaken hai, rajy ke lagabhag sabhi ganv pakki sadakon se ek-doosare se jude hue hain. sarakari svamitv vala hariyana rajy parivahan sthaniy aur antarrajyiy yatri basen snchalit karata hai. is pranali ke antargat 1997-98 men dainik yatriyon ki snkhya 13,86,326 thi.

sanskritik jivan

hariyana ke sanskritik jivan men rajy ki krishi arthavyavastha ke vibhinn avasaron ki lay pratibinbit hoti hai aur isamen prachin bharat ki parnparaon v lokakathaon ka bhndar hai. hariyana ki ek vishisht boli hai aur usamen sthaniy muhavaron ka prachalan hai. sthaniy lokagit aur nrity apane akarshak andaz men rajy ke sanskritik jivan ko pradarshit karaten hain. ye oj se bhare hain aur sthaniy snskriti ki vinodapriyata se jude hain. vasnt ritu men maujamasti se bhare holi ke tyohar men log ek-doosare par gulal udakar aur gila rng dalakar manate hain, isamen umr ya samajik haisiyat ka koee bhed nahin hota. bhagavan krishn ke janmadin, janmashtami ka hariyana men vishisht dharmik mahattv hai, kyonki kurukshetr hi vah ranabhoomi thi, jahan krishn ne yoddha arjun ko bhagavadgita (mahabharat ka ek hissa) ka upadesh diya tha.

sooryagrahan par pavitr snan ke lie desh bhar se lakhon shraddhalu kurukshetr ate hain. agroh (hisar ke nikat) aur pehova sahit rajy men anek prachin tirthasthal hain. agroha agrasen ke roop men jana jata hai, jo agraval samuday aur usaki upajatiyon ke pramukh poorvaj ya pravartak mane jate hain. isalie agroha samooche agraval samuday ki janmabhoomi hai. bharat ke vyapari vargon men pramukh yah samuday ab desh men phail gaya. agrasen ki janmabhoomi ke sammanasvaroop is samuday ne kuchh varsh pahale agroha men ek chikitsa vidyalay ki sthapana ki. pavitr nadi sarasvati (vedon ke anusar gyan aur kala ki devi) ke kinare sthit pehova ko poorvajon ke shraddh pindadan ke lie ek mahattvapoorn pavitr sthan mana jata hai. aprakritik ya prakritik, donon tarah ki atma ki shanti ke lie pehova men dharmik kriyaen ki jati hain. vibhinn devataon aur snton ki smriti men ayojit hone vale mele hariyana ki snskriti ka ek mahattvapoorn ang hai. anek sthanon par pashu mele bhi ayojit kie jate hain. yah kshetr achchhe nasl ke dudharoo pashuon, khasakar bhainson aur kheti ke kam men ane vale pashuon aur snkarit pashuon ke lie bhi jana jata hai.

hariyana ki haveliyan (parnparik parivarik avas) vastushilp ki sundarata, khasakar unake dvaron ki snrachana, ke lie jani jati hain. in haveliyon ke dvaron ka abhikalpan aur hastakaushal hi vividh nahin, balki in parv vibhinn vishayon ki shrinkhala bhi vismayakari hai. ye haveliyan hariyana ki galiyon ko madhyayugin svaroop aur sundarata pradan karati hai. in bhavanon men anek chabootare hote hain, jo rihayashi, suraksha, dharmik aur adalati karyon ke lie upayog men lae jate hain. in bhavanon se inake svamiyon ki samajik sthiti ka snket milata hai. in chabootaron par ukeri huee kalakritiyan is kshetr ki samriddh sanskritik virasat ki yad dilati hai.

bijali

hariyana rajy men 1970 men hi sabhi ganvon men shat pratishat bijali pahuncha di gee thi. sanh 1966 men rajy men 20,000 nalakoop the jinaki snkhya march 2008 men 4.51 lakh ho gee thi. 2007-08 men bijali ki dainik ausat upalabdhata 723.10 karod yoonit thi. 2007-08 men bijali upabhoktaon ki snkhya 42.70 lakh thi. 31 march, 2008 men bijali ki sthapit utpadan kshamata 4368 megavat thi.

parivahan

  • hariyana rajy ke sabhi ganv pakki sadakon se jude hue hain. rajy men sadakon ki kul lnbaee 31,010 kilomitar hai.
  • kalaka, kurukshetr, rohatak, jind, hisar, anbala, panipat aur jakhal hariyana rajy ke pramukh relave steshan hain. jagadhari shahar men relave varkashaaup bhi hai.
  • hariyana men asainik havaee adde- hisar, karanal, pinjaur, naranaul aur bhivani men hai.

paryatan sthal

hariyana dharmik aur aitihasik imaraton ki drishti se samridhd hai. chahe mamala kurukshetr ki pavitr dharati par shrikrishn dvara arjun ko gita ka gyan dene ka ho, panipat ki tin mahattvapoorn ladaiyon ka ho ya phir firozashah tugalaq dvara apani premika goojari ke lie bihad bayanban jngal men hisare-phirojan ka nirman kar usamen goojari mahal banavane ka ho. yahan ke kan-kan men itihas bolata hai. rajy men rooral toorijm ko badhava ki ek aitihasik prishthabhoomi bhi hai.[2]

hariyana men 44 se zyada paryatan sthal hain. pramukh paryatan kendron men-

  • bloo je (samalakha)
  • skaeelark (panipat)
  • chakravarti jhil aur oesis (uchana)
  • parakit (pipali)
  • kingaphishar (anbala)
  • maigapaee (faridabad)
  • dabachik (hodal)
  • jngal babalar (dharooheda)
  • red bishap (pnchakula bloo bard) (hisar)
  • shama (gudaganv)
  • gauraiya (bahaduragadh)
  • pinjaur gardan (pinjaur)
  • dilli ke pas soorajakund aur badakhal jhil
  • sultanapur pakshi vihar (sultanupar, gudaganv)
  • damadama (gudaganv)
  • chid van ke lie prasiddh morani pahadiyan paryatakon ki ruchi ke kuchh any kendr hain.
  • soorajakund ke prasiddh shilp mele ka har sal faravari men ayojan kiya jata hai.
  • pinjaur utsav bhi prativarsh manaya jata hai.

janasnkhya

varsh 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar hariyana rajy ki kul janasnkhya 2,10,82,989; gramin 1,49,68,850; shahari 61,14,139 thi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. mukhaprishth (hindi) adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 17 mee, 2012.
  2. khan, firadaus. hariyana ke gramin anchal par mohit paryatan (hindi) meri dayari. abhigaman tithi: 6 joon, 2011.

snbndhit lekh

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