हरिवंश राय बच्चन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(हरिवंशराय बच्चन se punarnirdeshit)
harivnsh ray bachchan
Harivanshrai-Bachchan.jpg
poora nam harivnsh ray bachchan
janm 27 navnbar, 1907 ee.
janm bhoomi ilahabad, uttar pradesh
mrityu 18 janavari, 2003 ee.
mrityu sthan munbee, maharashtr
abhibhavak pratap narayan shrivastav, sarasvati devi
pati/patni shyama bachchan, teji soori
sntan amitabh bachchan, ajitabh bachchan
karm bhoomi ilahabad
karm-kshetr adhyapak, lekhak, kavi
mukhy rachanaen madhushala, madhubala, madhukalash, tera har, nisha nimntran, maikabeth, janagita, do chattane
vishay kavita, kahani, atmakatha/rachanavali
bhasha hindi
vidyalay ilahabad vishvavidyalay, kaimbrij vishvavidyalay
shiksha em. e. (angrezi), pi. ech. di.
puraskar-upadhi sahity akadami puraskar (1968), soviyat laind neharoo puraskar, ephro eshiyaee sammelan ke kamal puraskar, sarasvati samman, padm bhooshan (1976)
nagarikata bharatiy
snbndhit lekh amitabh bachchan, abhishek bachchan, jaya bachchan, aishvarya ray bachchan
any janakari harivnsharay bachchan ne mahoo aur sagar men fauji prashikshan liya tha aur lephtinent banakar kndhe par do sitare lagane ka adhikar paya tha.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

harivnsh ray bachchan (angrezi: Harivansh Rai Bachchan, janm: 27 navnbar, 1907; mrityu: 18 janavari, 2003) hindi bhasha ke prasiddh kavi aur lekhak the. inaki prasiddhi inaki kriti 'madhushala' ke liye adhik hai. harivnsh ray bachchan ke putr amitabh bachchan bharatiy sinema jagat ke prasiddh sitare hain.

jivan parichay

27 navnbar, 1907 ko ilahabad, uttar pradesh men janme harivnsh ray bachchan hindoo kayasth parivar se snbndh rakhate hain. yah 'pratap narayan shrivastav' aur 'sarasvati devi' ke bade putr the. inako balyakal men 'bachchan' kaha jata tha jisaka shabdik arth 'bachcha ya sntan' hota hai. bad men harivnsh ray bachchan isi nam se mashahoor hue. 1926 men 19 varsh ki umr men unaka vivah 'shyama bachchan' se hua jo us samay 14 varsh ki thi. lekin 1936 men shyama ki ti.bi ke karan mrityu ho gee. panch sal bad 1941 men bachchan ne pnjab ki teji soori se vivah kiya jo rngamnch tatha gayan se judi huee thin. isi samay unhonne 'nid ka punarnirman' jaise kavitaon ki rachana ki. teji bachchan se amitabh tatha ajitabh do putr hue. amitabh bachchan ek prasiddh abhineta hain. teji bachchan ne harivnsh ray bachchan dvara 'sheksapiyar' ke anudit kee natakon men abhinay kiya hai.

shiksha

harivnsh ray bachchan ki shiksha ilahabad tatha 'kaimbrij vishvavidyalayon' men huee. inhonne kayasth pathashalaon men pahale urdoo ki shiksha li jo us samay qanoon ki digri ke lie pahala qadam mana jata tha. isake bad unhonne ilahabad vishvavidyalay se angrezi men em. e. aur kaimbrij vishvavidyalay se pi.ech.di. kiya.

karyakshetr

harivnsh ray bachchan anek varshon tak ilahabad vishvavidyalay ke angrezi vibhag men pradhyapak rahe. kuchh samay ke lie harivnsh ray bachchan akashavani ke sahityik karyakramon se sambaddh rahe. phir 1955 ee. men vah videsh mntralay men hindi visheshgy hokar dilli chale gaye. vishvavidyalayon ke dinon men inhonne kaimbrij jakar 1952-1954 ee. men angrezi kavi yits par shodh prabandh likha, jo kafi prashnsit hua.

sahityik parichay

bachchan ji apane mahanayak putr amitabh v mahakavi sumitranndan pnt ke sath

'bachchan' ki kavita ke sahityik mahattv ke bare men anek mat hain. 'bachchan' ke kavy ki vilakshanata unaki lokapriyata hai. yah ni:snkoch kaha ja sakata hai ki aj bhi hindi ke hi nahin, sare bharat ke sarvadhik lokapriy kaviyon men 'bachchan' ka sthan surakshit hai. itane vistrit aur virat shrotavarg ka virale hi kavi dava kar sakate hain.

sarvagrahy aur sarvapriy

'bachchan' ki kavita itani sarvagrahy aur sarvapriy hai kyonki 'bachchan' ki lokapriyata matr pathakon ke svikaran par hi adharit nahin thi. jo kuchh mila vah unhen atyant ruchikar jan pada. ve chhayavad ke atishay sukumary aur madhury se, usaki atindriy aur ati vaiyaktik sookshmata se, usaki lakshanatmak abhivynjana shaili se ukata gaye the. urdoo ki gazalon men chamak aur lachak thi, dil par asar karane ki taqat thi, vah sahajata aur snvedana thi, jo pathak ya shrota ke munh se barabas yah kahalava sakati thi ki, mainne paya yah ki goya vah bhi mere dil men hai. magar hindi kavita janamanas aur jan ruchi se bahut door thi. 'bachchan' ne us samay (1935 se 1940 ee. ke vyapak khinnata aur avasad ke yug men) madhyavarg ke vikshubdh, vedanagrast man ko vani ka varadan diya. unhonne sidhi, sadi, jivant bhasha aur sarvagrahy, gey shaili men, chhayavad ki lakshanik vakrata ki jagah snvedanasikt abhidha ke madhyam se, apani bat kahana arambh kiya aur hindi kavy rasik sahasa chaunk pada, kyonki usane paya yah ki vah bhi usake dil men hai. 'bachchan' ne prapt karane ke uddeshy se cheshta karake yah rah dhoondh nikali aur apanayi ho, yah bat nahin hai, ve anayas hi is rah par a gaye. unhonne anubhooti se prerana payi thi, anubhooti ko hi kavyatmak abhivyakti dena unhonne apana dhyey banaya.
harivnsh ray bachchan

pahala kavy sngrah

ek prakashan 'tera har' pahale bhi prakashit ho chuka tha, par 'bachchan' ka pahala kavy sngrah 1935 ee. men prakashit 'madhushala' se hi mana jata hai. isake prakashan ke sath hi 'bachchan' ka nam ek gaganabhedi raauket ki tarah tezi se uthakar sahity jagat par chha gaya. 'madhubala', 'madhushala' aur 'madhukalash'-ek ke bad ek, ye tinon sngrah shighr hi samane a gaye hindi men jise 'halavad' kaha gaya hai. ye us kavy paddhati ke dharm granth hain. us kavy paddhati ke snsthapak hi usake ekamatr saphal sadhak bhi hue, kyonki jahan 'bachchan' ki pairodi karana asan hai, vahin unaka sachche arth men, anukaran asambhav hai. apani sari sahaj sarvajaninata ke bavajood 'bachchan' ki kavita nitant vaiyaktik, atm-sphoort aur atmakendrit hai.

prerana

'bachchan' ne is 'halavad' ke dvara vyakti jivan ki sari nirasataon ko svikar karate hue bhi usase munh modane ke bajay usaka upayog karane ki, usaki sari buraiyon aur kamiyon ke bavazood jo kuchh madhur aur anandapoorn hone ke karan gahy hai, use apanane ki prerana di. urdoo kaviyon ne 'vaiz' aur 'baza', masjid aur mazahab, qayamat aur uqava ki paravah n karake duniya-e-rngon-boo ko nikatata se, bar-bar dekhane, usaka asvadan karane ka amntran diya hai. khyam ne vartaman kshan ko janane, manane, apanane aur bhali prakar istemal karane ki sikh di hai, aur 'bachchan' ke 'halavad' ka jivan-darshan bhi yahi hai. yah palayanavad nahin hai, kyonki isamen vastavikata ka asvikaran nahin hai, n usase bhagane ki parikalpana hai, pratyutt vastavikata ki shushkata ko apani manastarng se sinchakar hari-bhari bana dene ki sashakt prerana hai. yah saty hai ki 'bachchan' ki in kavitaon men roomaniyat aur qasaq hai, par halavad gam galat karane ka nimntran hai; gam se ghabarakar khudaqashi karane ka nahin.

sarvotkrisht kavyopalabdhi

harivnsharay bachchan, sumitranndan pnt aur ramadhari sinh 'dinakar'
apane jivan ki is mnzil men 'bachchan' apane yuvakal ke adarshon aur svapnon ke bhagnavasheshon ke bich se guzar rahe the. padhaee chhodakar rashtriy andolan men qood pade the. ab us andolan ki viphalata ka kadava ghoont pi rahe the. ek chhote se skool men adhyapak ki naukari karate hue vastavikata aur adarsh ke bich ki gahari khaee men doob rahe the. is abhav ki dasha men patni ke asadhy rog ki bhaynkarata dekh rahe the, anivary vidroh ke atnk se trast aur vyathit the. parinamat: 'bachchan' ka kavi adhikadhik antarmukhi hota gaya. is yug aur is 'mood' ki kavitaon ke sngrah 'nisha nimntran' (1938 ee.) tatha 'ekant sngit' 'bachchan' ki sambhavat: sarvotkrisht kavyopalabdhi hain. vaiyaktik, vyavaharik jivan men sudhar hua. achchhi naukari mili, 'nid ka nirman phir' se karane ki prerana aur nimitt ki prapti huee. 'bachchan' ne apane jivan ke is naye mod par phir atm-sakshatkar kiya, man ko samajhate hue poochha,
"jo base hain, ve ujadate hain, prakriti ke jad niyam se, par kisi ujade hue ko phir se basana kab mana hai?[1]"
  • param nirmal man se 'bachchan' ne svikar kiya hai ki
    "hai chita ki rakh kar men, mangati sindoor duniyan"- vyaktigat duniya ka itana saphal, sahaj sadharanikaran durlabh hai.

lokapriyata

'bachchan' ki kavita ki lokapriyata ka pradhan karan usaki sahajata aur snvedanashil saralata hai aur yah sahajata aur saral snvedana usaki anubhootimoolak satyata ke karan upalabdh ho saki. 'bachchan' ne age chalakar jo bhi kiya ho, arambh men unhonne keval atmanubhooti, atmasakshatkar aur atmabhivyakti ke bal par kavy ki rachana ki. kavi ke ahn ki sphiti hi kavy ki asadharanata aur vyapakata ban gee. samaj ki abhavagrast vyatha, parivesh ka chamakata hua khokhalapan, niyati aur vyavastha ke age vyakti ki asahayata aur bebasi 'bachchan' ke lie sahaj, vyaktigat anubhooti par adharit kavy vishay the. unhonne sahas aur satyata ke sath sidhi-sadi bhasha aur shaili men sahaj hi kalpanashilata aur samany bimbon se saja-snvar kar apane naye git hindi jagat ko bhent kiye. hindi jagat ne utsah se unaka svagat kiya.
bhagavaticharan varma ke sath harivnsh ray bachchan aur amitabh bachchan
pramukh kritiyan
san kritiyan
1932 tera har
1935 madhushala[2]
1936 madhubala
1937 madhukalash
1938 nisha nimntran
1938 khaiyam ki madhushala
1939 ekant sngit
1943 akul antar
1945 satarngini
1946 halahal
1946 bngal ka kavy
1948 khadi ke phool
1948 soot ki mala
1950 milan yamini
1955 pranay patrika
1957 dhar ke idhar udhar
1958 arati aur angare
1958 buddh aur nachaghar
1961 tribhngima
1962 char kheme chaunsath khoonte
1965 do chattanen
1967 bahut din bite
1968 katati pratimaon ki avaz
1969 ubharate pratimanon ke roop
1973 jal sameta
1934 bachapan ke sath kshan bhar
1938 khayyam ki madhushala
1953 sopan
1957 maikabeth
1958 janagita
1959 othelo
1959 umar khayyam ki rubaiyan
1960 kaviyon ke saumy snt pnt
1960 aj ke lokapriy hindi kavi sumitranndan pnt
1961 adhunik kavi 7
1961 neharoo rajanitik jivanachitr
1962 naye purane jharokhe
1964 abhinav sopan
1964 chausath roosi kavitaen
1968 dabloo bi yits end aaukaltizm
1968 marakat dvip ka svar
1966 nagar git
1967 bachapan ke lokapriy git
1969 haimalet
1970 bhasha apani bhav paraye
1970 pnt ke sau patr
1971 pravas ki dayari
1973 tooti chhooti kadiyan
1981 meri kavitaee ki adhi sadi
1981 sohn hns
1982 athaven dashak ki pratinidhi shreshth kavitayen
1984 meri shreshth kavitaen
1969 kya bhooloon kya yad karoon
1970 nid ka nirman phir
1977 basere se door
1965 dashadvar se sopan tak
1983 bachchan rachanavali ke nau khand

kavi ne naye sukh aur sampannata ke yug men pravesh kiya. 'satarngini' (1945 ee.) aur 'milan yamini' (1950 ee.) men 'bachchan' ke naye ullas bhare yug ki sundar gitopalabdhiyan dekhane-sunane ko milin.

atmakendrit kavi

'bachchan' ekant atmakendrit kavi hain, isi karan unaki ve rachanaen, jo sahaj sphoort nahin hain, udaharan ke lie 'bngal ke kal' aur mahatma gandhi ki hatya par likhi kavitaen keval niras hi nahin sarvatha kavitv rahit ho gee hain. svanubhooti ka kavi yadi anubhooti ke bina kavita likhata hai to use saphalata tabhi mil sakati hai, jabaki usaki rachana ka vichar tattv ya shilp use samany tukabndi se oopar utha sake-aur vicharatattv aur shilp 'bachchan' ke kavy men apekshakrit kshin aur ashakt hain. prabal kavyanubhooti ke kshan viral hote hain aur 'bachchan' ne bahut adhik likha hai. yah anivary tha ki unaki uttar kal ki adhikansh rachanaen atyant samany koti ki padyakritiyan hokar rah jatin. unhonne kavy ke shilp men anek prayog kiye hain, par ve prayog adhikatar urdoo kaviyon ke tarah-tarah ki baharon men tarah-tarah ki 'zamin' par nazm kahane ki cheshtaon se adhik mahattv ke nahin ho paye.

rochak prasng

umar khayyam ki rubaiyon ka harivnsharay bachchan dvara kiya gaya anuvad ek bhavabhoomi, ek darshan aur ek manaviy snvedana ka parichay deta hai. bachchanaji ne is anuvad ke sath ek mahattvapoorn lambi bhoomika bhi likhi thi, usake kuchh ansh is prakar se hain-

umar khayyam ke nam se meri pahali jan-pahachan ki ek badi mazedar kahani hai. umar khayyam ka nam mainne aj se lagabhag 25 baras hue jab jana tha, us samay main varnakyoolar apar praimari ke tisare ya chauthe daraje men raha hoonga. hamare pitaji 'sarasvati' mngaya karate the. patrika ke ane par mera aur mere chhote bhaee ka pahala kam yah hota tha ki use kholakar usaki tasviron ko dekh dalen. un dinon rngin tasvir ek hi chhapa karati thi, par sade chitr, foto ityadi kee rahate the. tasviron ko dekhakar ham badi utsukata se us din ki bat dekhane lagate the, jab pitaji aur unaki mitr-mndali ise padhakar alag rakh den. aisa hote-hote doosare mahine ki 'sarasvati' ane ka samay a jata tha. un logon ke padh chukane par ham donon bhaee apani kainchi aur chakoo lekar 'sarasvati' ke sath is tarah jut jate the, jaise medikal kaaulej ke vidyarthi murdon ke sath. ek-ek karake sari tasviren kat lete the. tasviren kat lene ke bad patrika ka mol hamako do kaudi bhi adhik jan padata. chitron ke katane men jaldabaji karane ke lie, ab tak yad hai, pitaji ne kee bar 'goshamali'[3] bhi ki thi.

unhin dinon ki bat hai, kisi mahine ki 'sarasvati' men ek rngin chitr chhapa tha-ek boodhe muslim ki tasvir thi, chehare se shok tapakata tha; niche chhapa tha-umar khayyam. rubaiyat ke kis bhav ko dikhane ke lie yah chitr banaya gaya tha, isake bare men kuchh nahin kah sakata, is samay chitr ki koee bat yad nahin hai, siva isake ki ek boodha muslim baitha hai aur usake chehare par shok ki chhaya hai. ham donon bhaiyon ne chitr ko sath-hi-sath dekha aur niche padha 'umar khayyam'. mere chhote bhaee mujhase poochh pade, "bhaee, umar khayyam kya hai?" ab mujhe bhi nahin maloom tha ki umar khayyam ke kya mane hain. lekin main bada thahara, mujhe adhik janana chahie. jo bat use nahin maloom hai, vah mujhe maloom hai, yahi dikhakar to main apane bade hone ki dhak us par jama sakata tha. main chookane vala nahin tha. mere guruji ne yah mujhe bahut pahale sikha rakha tha ki chup baithane se galat javab dena achchha hai.
bhagavaticharan varma ke 75ven janmadivas par harivnsh ray bachchan
mainne apani akl daudayi aur chitr dekhate hi dekhate bol utha, "dekho yah boodha kah raha hai-umar khayyam, jisaka arth hai 'umar khatyam', arthat umar khatam hoti hai, yah sochakar boodha afasos kar raha hai." un dinon snskrit bhi padha karata tha. 'khayyam' men kuchh 'kshay' ka abhas mila hoga aur usi se kuchh aisa bhav mere man men aya hoga. bat tali, mainne man men apani pith thonki, ham aur tasviron ko dekhane men lag gaye. par chhote bhaee ko age chalakar jivan ka aisa kshetr chunana tha, jahan har bat ko keval thik hi thik janane ki zaroorat hoti hai. jahan kalpana, anuman ya kayas ke lie suee ki nok ke barabar bhi jagah nahin hai. ladakapan se hi unaki adat har bat ko thik-thik janane ki or raha karati thi. unhen kuchh aisa abhas hua ki main bepar uda raha hoon. sham ko pitaji se poochh baithe. pitaji ne jo kuchh batalaya use sunakar main jhenp gaya. meri jhenp ko aur adhik badhane ke lie chhote bhaee bol uthe, "par bhaee to kahate hain ki yah boodha kahata hai ki umar khatam hoti hai-umar khayyam yani umar khatyam." pitaji pahale to hnse, par phir gambhir ho gaye; mujhase bole, "tum thik kahate ho, boodha sachamuch yahi kahata hai." us din mainne yahi samajha ki pitaji ne mera man rakhane ke lie aisa kah diya hai, vastav men meri soojh galat thi.

umar khayyam ki vah tasvir bahut dinon tak mere kamare ki divar par tngi rahi. jis duniya men n jane kitani sajiv tasviren do din chamakakar khak men mil jati hain, usamen umar khayyam ki nirjiv tasvir kitane dinon tak apani hasti banaye rakh sakati thi! umar khayyam ki tasvir to mit gayi par mere hriday par ek amit chhap chhod gayi. umar khayyam aur umar khatam hoti hai, yah donon bat mere man men ek sath jud gayin. tab se jab kabhi bhi mainne 'umar khayyam' ka nam suna ya liya, mere hriday men vahi tukada, 'umar khatam hoti hai' gooj utha. yah to mainne bad men jana ki apani galat soojh men bhi mainne in do baton men ek bilkul thik sambandh bana liya tha.

kavy bhasha ki garima

samany bolachal ki bhasha ko kavy bhasha ki garima pradan karane ka shrey nishchay hi sarvadhik 'bachchan' ka hi hai. isake atirikt unaki lokapriyata ka ek karan unaka kavy path bhi raha hai. hindi men kavi sammelan ki parampara ko sudridh aur janapriy banane men 'bachchan' ka asadharan yog hai. is madhyam se ve apane pathakon-shrotaon ke aur bhi nikat a gaye. kavita ke atirikt 'bachchan' ne kuchh samikshatmak nibandh bhi likhe hain, jo gambhir adhyayan aur sulajhe hue vichar pratipadan ke lie pathaniy hain. unake sheksapiyar ke natakon ke anuvad aur 'janagita' ke nam se prakashit dohe-chaupaiyon men 'bhagavad gita' ka ultha 'bachchan' ke sahityik krititv ke visheshataya ullekhaniy ya smaraniy ang mane jayenge ya nahin, isamen sndeh hai.

samman aur puraskar

harivnsh ray bachchan ko unaki kriti 'do chattane' ko 1968 men hindi kavita ke lie 'sahity akadami puraskar' se sammanit kiya gaya tha. unhen 'soviyat laind neharoo puraskar' tatha ephro eshiyaee sammelan ke 'kamal puraskar' se bhi sammanit kiya gaya. bidala phaundeshan ne unaki atmakatha ke liye unhen sarasvati samman diya tha. 1955 men indaur ke 'holkar kaaulej' ke hindi vibhag ke adhyaksh daau. shivamngalasinh suman ne harivnsh ray bachchan ko kavi sammelan ki adhyakshata ke lie amntrit kiya tha. harivnsh ray bachchan ko bharat sarakar dvara sanh 1976 men sahity evn shiksha ke kshetr men padm bhooshan se sammanit kiya gaya tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. andhere ka dipak -harivnsh ray bachchan
  2. 'madhushala' ka ek angrezi anuvad 'haus af vain' ke nam se lndan se prakashit hua (roopantarakar-marjari boltan tatha ramasvaroop vyas
  3. kan umethana, ladakon athava chhote naukaron ko saza dene ke lie unake kan malana.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah