हस्तिनापुर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hastinapur uttar pradesh men merath ke nikat sthit maharaj hasti ka basaya hua ek prachin nagar, jo kauravon aur pandavon ki rajadhani thi. isaka mahabharat men varnit anek ghatanaon se snbndh hai. mahabharat se judi sari ghatanaen hastinapur men hi huee thin. abhi bhi yahan mahabharat kal se jude kuchh avashesh maujood hain. inamen kauravon-pandavon ke mahalon aur mndiron ke avashesh pramukh hain. isake alava hastinapur ko chakravarti samrat bharat ki bhi rajadhani mana jata hai. yahan sthit 'pandeshvar mahadev mndir' ki kafi manyata hai. kaha jata hai yah vahi mndir hai, jahan pandavon ki rani draupadi pooja ke lie jaya karati thi. pauranik kal men hastinapur ke raja ka nam adhisim krishn tha.

sthiti tatha sthapana

merath se 22 mil uttar-poorv men gnga ki prachin dhara ke kinare hastinapur basa hua hai. hastinapur mahabharat ke samay men kauravon ki vaibhavashali rajadhani ke roop men bharat bhar men prasiddh tha. prachin nagar gnga tat par sthit tha, kintu ab nadi yahan se kee mil door hat gee hai. gnga ki purani dhara jise 'boodhi gnga' kahate hain, yahan ke prachin tilon ke samip bahati hai. pauranik kinvadnti ke anusar nagar ki sthapana puruvnshi vrihatkshatr ke putr hastinh ne ki thi aur usi ke nam par yah nagar hastinapur kahalaya. hastinh ke pashchath ajamidh, daksh, snvaran aur kuru kramanusar hastinapur men rajy karate rahe. kuru ke vnsh men hi shantanu aur unake pautr pandu tatha dhritarashtr hue, jinake putr pandav aur kaurav kahalae.[1]

itihas

mahabharatakalin mahanagaron ki shreni men hastinapur bhi ata tha. isaki sthapana 'hastinh' namak vyakti dvara ki gee thi. isiliye ise 'hastinapur' kaha jata tha. hastinapur men yudhishthir jue men draupadi sahit apana sab kuchh har ge the. pandavon ki or se shantidoot banakar shrikrishn yahin dhritarashtr ki sabha men ae the. apane pita shantanu ki satyavati se vivah karane ki ichchha poori karane ke lie bhishm pitamah ne apana uttaradhikar chhodane aur ajivan avivahit rahane ka pran yahin par kiya tha. draupadi se vivah ke bad kuchh samay ke lie pandavon ne dilli ke nikat indraprasth ko apani rajadhani banaya tha, kintu mahabharat yuddh ke bad unhonne hastinapur ko hi rajadhani rakha.

vishal nagar

mahabharat ke yuddh ke samay hastinapur bada vishal nagar tha. mahabharat adiparv men isaka varnan is prakar hai-

'nagarn hastinapurn shanaiah pravivishustada. pandavanagatannchhrutva tva nagarastu kutoohalath, mndayanchakiretatr nagarn nagasahvayam. muktapushpavakirn tajjalasiktn tu sarvash:, ghooshitn divyaghoopen mndanaishchapi snvritamh. patakochhritamalyamn ch puramapratimnbabhau, shnbabherininadaishchanagavaditrani:svanai:. kautoohalen nagarn dipyamanamivabhavat, tatr te purushavyaghra: du:khashokavinashana:.'[2]

mahabharatakalin hastinapur

mahabharat men is nagar ka khula varnan milata hai. isake anusar vibhinn shastron dvara surakshit hone ke karan is pur ke bhitar shatruon ka pravesh dushkar tha. nagar ke parakote men bane gopur (daravaze) oonche the. nagar ka bhitari bhag rajamargon dvara vibhakt tha. sadakon ke donon kinaron par mahal aur bazar sushobhit the. rajamahal nagar ke bich men sthit tha. isamen anek sarovar aur udyan the. nagarik dharmanirat, homaparayan, ygyadi men shraddha rakhane vale, varnashram-vyavastha ke poshak aur dhan-dhany se sampann the. soot-magadh aur bandi apane-apane karm men nirat the. inake dvara nagar ki shobha itani badh gee thi ki vah indralok ke saman sundar lagata tha.

kaha jata hai ki mahabharat ke samay hastinapur rajy ki uttari sima 'shukkaratal' (muzaffaranagar zila), dakshini sima 'pushpavati'[3] aur pashchimi sima 'varanavat[4] tak thi. poorv ki or gnga pravahit hoti thi. gadhamukteshvar shayad yahan ka ek upanagar tha aur merath ya 'mayarashtr' bhi isaki parisima ke bhitar sthit tha.[5] merath se 15 mil uttar-poorv men sthit 'mavana' (muhana) namak gram ko hastinapur ka pramukh dvar kaha jata hai.[6] mahabharat adiparv[7] men hastinapur ke vardhaman namak puradvar ka ullekh hai. pandu ki mrityu ke pashchath shatashrng se hastinapur ate samay kunti apane putron sahit isi dvar se rajadhani men pravisht hueen thi[1]-

'satvadirghen kalen samprapta: kurujangalamh, vardhamanapuradvaramasasad yash-svini.'

puran ullekh

puranon men kaha gaya hai ki jab gnga ki badh ke karan yah pur vinasht ho gaya, us samay pandav hastinapur ko chhodakar kaushambi chale aye the. yah ghatana jhoothi nahin mani ja sakati. hastinapur aur kaushambi men jo khudaiyan hal men huee hain, unase isaki pushti ho chuki hai. ab vidvan is bat ko manane lage hain ki gnga ki badh ne hastinapur ko sachamuch hi kisi samay baha diya tha. kaushambi ke kuchh prachin bartan banavat men hastinapur ke bartanon ke tuly hain. isase pramanit hota hai ki gnga ki badh ke karan pandav hastinapur ko chhodakar kaushambi men bas gaye the. hastinapur ki adhunik khudaiyon ne vahan ki prachin kala aur snskriti par prakash dala hai. vahan ke nagarik apane bartanon par bhoore rng ki palish chadhate the. yah pratha mathura, indraprasth tatha mahabharatakalin any nagaron men bhi prachalit thi. isase siddh hota hai ki unaka samajik jivan ekaki nahin tha. ve ek-doosare se koee bahut door bhi nahin the. jalamarg se ek-doosare se ve lage huye the, at:ein mahapuriyon ke nivasiyon ke bich sanskritik sambandh koee anahoni bat nahin mani ja sakati.

'vishnupuran se gyat hota hai ki balaram ne kauravon par krodh karake unake nagar hastinapur ko apane hal ki nonk se khinch kar gnga men girana chaha tha, kintu pichhe unhen kshama kar diya; kintu usake pashchath hastinapur gnga ki or kuchh jhuka hua-sa pratit hone laga tha-

'baladevastatogatva nagarn nagasahriyamh bahyopavanamadhyeabhoonnaviveshatatpuramh.'[8]
'adyapyaghoornitakarn lakshyate tatgurn dvij, esh prabhavo ramasy balashauyolakshanah.'[9]

isase jan padata hai ki hastinapur ko gnga ki dhara ke bhay kauravon ke samay men hi utpann ho gaya tha. parikshit ke vnshaj 'nichakshu' ya 'nichaknu' ke samay men to vastav men hi gnga ne hastinapur ko baha diya aur use is nagar ko chhodakar vats desh ki prasiddh nagari kaushambi men jakar basana pada tha-

'adhisimakrishnannichaknuah yo gngaya pahte hastinapure kaushambayan nivatsyati.'[10]

puratatvon ki khojon se bhi uparokt tathy ki pushti hoti hai. utkhanan se gyat hota hai ki hastinapur ki sarvaprachin basti 1000 ee. poorv se pahale ki avashy thi aur yah kee shatiyon tak sthit rahi. doosari basti 90 ee. poo. ke lagabhag basaee gee thi, jo 300 ee. poo. ke lagabhag tak rahi. tisari basti 200 ee. poo. se lagabhag 200 ee. tak viddhaman thi aur antim 11vin se 14vin shati tak. is prakar hastinapur ka itihas kee bar bana aur bigada.[1]

vibhinn nam

paravarti kal men jain dharm ke tirth ke roop men is nagar ki khyati bani rahi. prachin snskrit sahity men is nagar ke 'hastinapur'[11], 'gajapur', 'nagapur', 'nagasahvay', 'hastigram', 'asandivat' aur 'brahmasthal' adi nam milate hain. kaha jata hai ki hathiyon ke bahutayat ke karan is pradesh ka pratham nam 'gajapur' tha, pichhe raja hastin ke nam par yah hastinapur kahalaya aur mahabharat ke yuddh ke pashchath yah nag jati ka pramukh hone se 'nagapur' ya 'nagasahvay' kahalaya. ye sab paryayavachi nam hain. 'asndivath' ka bauddh sahity[12] men ullekh hai. snbhav hai 'vishnupuran' ke urpayukt ullekh ke anusar gnga ki or jhuke hone ke karan hi yah nam pada ho.[13] is ullekh men ise 'kurutth'[14] ki rajadhani bataya gaya hai. 'vasudev hindi' namak grnth men 'brahmasthal' nam bhi milata hai. yah jain grnth hai.

kalidas ka ullekh

kalidas ne 'abhigyan shakuntalamh' men dushynt ki rajadhani hastinapur ka ullekh kiya hai. dushynt se 'gngharv vivah' hone ke pashchath shakuntala rishi kumaron ke sath kanvashram se dushynt ki rajadhani hastinapur gee thi-

'anusooye tvarasv, svarasv, etekhalu hastinapuragaminah rishayah shabdayyante.'[15]

hastinapur ke poorv ki or gnga ke par us samay vistrit ghana van pradesh tha, jahan dushynt akhet ke lie gaya tha aur jahan malini ke tat par kanvashram men usaki bhent shakuntala se huee thi. yah van gadhaval[16] ki taraee kshetr men sthit tha tatha isaka vistar bijanaur tatha gadhaval ke ilake men tha. vartaman hastinapur namak gram men, jo isi nam se aj tak prasiddh hai, prachin nagar ke khndahar, oonche-niche tilon ki shrrinkhalaon ke roop men door-door tak phaile hain. mukhy tila 'bidur ka tila' ya 'ulatakheda' kahalata hai. isaki khudaee se anek prachin avashesh prakash men aye hain.

jain tirth

jain samuday ke bich hastinapur ko ek pramukh tirth mana jata hai. hastinapur jain dharmavalnbiyon ka bhi prasiddh tirth hai. yahan jain dharm ke kee tirthnkaron ka janm hua tha. yahi vajah hai ki yahan kafi snkhya men jain mndir maujood hain. yahin par raja shreyans ne aditirthakar rishabhadev ko ganne ke ras ka dan diya tha. isalie isako 'danatirth' kahate hain. isaka snbndh shantinath, kunthunath aur aranath namak tirthakaron se bhi hai. yahan bhagavan shantinath, kunthunath, arahanath ke char-char kalyanak hue hain. yahan anek jain dharmashalaen aur mndir hain. khudaee men yahan anek prachin khndahar mile hain. inamen qarib 200 sal purana bada mndir, jnboodvip, kailash parvat, ashtapad ji, kamal mndir aur dhyan mndir mukhy hain. prachin bada mndir men hastinapur ki nahar ki khudaee ke dauran prapt huee jin pratimaon ko dekha ja sakata hai. in mndiron ko kafi sundar aur kalatmak tariqe se banaya gaya hai.

jain grnth 'vividhatirthakalp' ke anusar maharaj rishabhadev ne apane sambndhi kuru ko kurookshetr ka rajy de diya tha. inhin kuru ke putr hasti ne hastinapur ko bhagirathi ke kinare basaya tha. hastinapur men shanti, kundhu aur aranadh tirthnkaron ka janm hua tha. ye kramashah 16ven, 17ven aur 18ven tirthnkar the. 5ven, 6ven aur 7ven tirthnkaron ne yahan kaivaly gyan prapt kiya tha. hastinapur naresh bahubali ke pautr shreyansh ke nivas sthan par rishabhadev ne pratham upavas ka paran kiya tha. vishrag kumar namak jain sadhu jinhonne namuchi namak daity ko vash men kiya tha, hastinapur hi ke nivasi the. inake atirikt sanatkumar, mahapadm, subhoobh aur parashuram ka janm bhi hastinapur men hua tha. yahan char chaityon ka nirman kiya gaya tha.[1]

tridharm sthal

hastinapur pahala aisa tirth sthan hai, jo hindoo aur jainon ke sath sikkhon ka bhi pavitr tirth hai. hastinapur ke pas hi sthit 'saiphapur' sikkh dharm ke pnch pyaron men se ek bhaee dharmadas ki janmasthali hai. desh bhar ke shraddhalu yahan sthit pavitr sarovar men dubaki lagane ke lie ate rahate hain.

mele

hastinapur men sal men kee chhote-bade mele lagate hain. inamen akshay tritiya, holi aur 2 aktoobar ka mela pramukh hai. akshay tritiya ko desh bhar se shraddhalu yahan bhagavan ko ganne ke ras ka ahar karane ke lie ate hain. yadi kisi ko holi ke rng pasnd nahin ate, to hastinapur unake lie inase bachane ki ek behatarin jagah sabit ho sakata hai. dulhaindi vale din yahan lagane vale mele men desh bhar se holi nahin khelane vale log ate hain. sath hi 2 aktoobar ko lagane vale mele men bhi kafi bhid umadati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 1014 |
  2. mahabharat, adiparv 206, 14-dakshinaty path, 15
  3. pooth, bulndashahar zila)
  4. =baranava, merath zila
  5. di manumental entivivatij end insakripshns aauv en dablyoo pravinsej, 1891
  6. hastinapur, shiksha vibhag, uttar pradesh, pri. 2
  7. mahabharat adiparv 125,9
  8. vishnupuran 5,35,8
  9. vishnupuran 5,35,37
  10. vishnupuran 21,7-78; parjitar-dayanestaji aauv di kali ej, pri. 5
  11. panini 4, 2, 101
  12. avadan, 2 pri. 359
  13. asndi = kursi
  14. kururashtr
  15. ank 4
  16. pahale uttar pradesh ka bhag

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