हिन्दी व्याकरण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi vishay soochi

jis vidya se kisi bhasha ke bolane tatha likhane ke niyamon ki vyavasthit paddhati ka gyan hota hai, use 'vyakaran' kahate hain. vyakaran vah vidha hai, jisake dvara kisi bhasha ka shuddh bolana ya likhana jana jata hai. vyakaran bhasha ki vyavastha ko banaye rakhane ka kam karate hain. vyakaran, bhasha ke shuddh evn ashuddh prayogon par dhyan deta hai. pratyek bhasha ke apane niyam hote hain, us bhasha ka vyakaran bhasha ko shuddh likhana v bolana sikhata hai.[1]

manushy maukhik evn likhit bhasha men apane vichar prakat kar sakata hai aur karata raha hai kintu isase bhasha ka koee nishchit evn shuddh svaroop sthir nahin ho sakata. bhasha ke shuddh aur sthayi roop ko nishchit karane ke lie niyamabaddh yojana ki avashyakata hoti hai aur us niyamabaddh yojana ko ham vyakaran kahate hain.[2]

paribhasha

vyakaran vah shastr hai jisake dvara kisi bhi bhasha ke shabdon aur vakyon ke shuddh svaroopon evn shuddh prayogon ka vishad gyan karaya jata hai.

bhasha aur vyakaran ka snbndh

koee bhi manushy shuddh bhasha ka poorn gyan vyakaran ke bina prapt nahin kar sakata. atah bhasha aur vyakaran ka ghanishth snbndh hain vah bhasha men uchcharan, shabd-prayog, vaky-gathan tatha arthon ke prayog ke roop ko nishchit karata hai. vyakaran ke vibhag- vyakaran ke tin ang nirdharit kiye gaye hain-

  1. varn vichar- isame varnon ke uchcharan, roop, akar, bhed adi ke sambandh men adhyayan hota hai.
  2. shabd vichar- isamen shabdon ke bhed, roop, prayogon tatha utpatti ka adhyayan kiya jata hai.
  3. vaky vichar- isame vaky nirman, unake prakar, unake bhed, gathan, prayog, vigrah adi par vichar kiya jata hai.[1]

varnamala

hindi bhasha men jitane varnon ka prayog hota hai, un varnon ke samooh ko 'varnamala' kaha jata hai.

hindi varnamala

hindi bhasha men jitane varn prayukt hote hain, un varnon ke samooh ko 'hindi-varnamala' kaha jata hai.

svar

svatntr roop se bole jane vale varn svar kahalate hain.

vynjan

svaron ki sahayata se bole jane vale varn vynjan kahalate hain.

shabd

  • varn-samooh ya dhvani-samooh ko 'shabd' kahate hain.
  • shabd do prakar ke hote hain- sarthak aur nirarthak.

sarthak shabd

  • kisi nishchit arth ka bodh karane vale shabdon ko sarthak shabd kaha jata hai.
  • jaise- ana, oopar, jana, pana adi.

nirarthak shabd

kisi nishchit arth ka bodh nahin karane vale shabdon ko nirarthak shabd kaha jata hai.

vikari shabd

  • vah shabd jo ling, vachan, karak adi se vikrit ho jate hain vikari shabd hote hain.
  • jaise- main→ mujh→ mujhe→ mera, achchha→ achchhe adi.

avikari shabd

  • vah shabd jo ling, vachan, karak adi se kabhi vikrit nahin hote hain avikari shabd hote hain.
  • inako 'avyay' bhi kaha jata hai.

sngya

  • yah sarthak varn-samooh shabd kahalata hai.
  • kintu jab isaka prayog vaky men hota hai to vah vyakaran ke niyamon men bndh jata hai aur isaka roop bhi badal jata hai.

sarvanam

  • sngya ke sthan par prayukt hone vale shabd ko sarvanam kahate hain.
  • sngya ki punarukti n karane ke lie sarvanam ka prayog kiya jata hai.

visheshan

sngya athava sarvanam shabdon ki visheshata (gun, dosh, snkhya, pariman adi) batane vale shabd ‘visheshan’ kahalate hain.

kriya

  • jin shabdon se kisi kary ya vyapar ke hone ya kie jane ka bodh hota hai unhen kriya kahate hain.
  • jaise- uthana, baithana, sona jagana.

kriyavisheshan

jin avikari shabdon se kriya ki visheshata ka bodh hota hai ve kriyavisheshan kahalate hain.

sambandhabodhak

  • jo avikari shabd sngya ya sarvanam shabdon ke pahale ya pichhe akar usaka sambandh vaky ke kisi any shabd se karate hain, unhen sambandhabodhak kahate hain.
  • jaise- poorvak, aur, vaste, tuly, saman adi.

samuchyabodhak

  • vyakaran men samuchyabodhak ek avikari shabd hai.
  • jo avikari shabd do shabdon, do vakyon athava do vakyon khandon ko jodate hain, unhen samuchyabodhak kahate hain.
  • jaise- vah yahan avashy ata, parantu bimar tha.

vismayadibodhak

  • jo avikari shabd harsh, shok, ashchary, ghrina, krodh, tiraskar adi bhavon ka bodh karate hain, unhen vismayadibodhak kahate hain.
  • jaise- vah, oh, hay adi.

karak

karak shabd ka arth hai kriya ko karane vala arthat kriya ko poori karane men kisi n kisi bhoomika ko nibhane vala.

kal

kriya ke vyapar ka samay soochit karane vale kriya roop ko 'kal' kahate hain.

sndhi

  • do samipavarti varnon ke mel se jo vikar hota hai, vah sndhi kahalata hai.
  • jaise- dev+ alay= devalay, man:+ yog= manoyog

upavaky

  • yadi kisi ek vaky men ek se adhik samapika kriyaen hoti hain to vah vaky upavakyon men bnt jata hai.
  • usamen jitani bhi samapika kriyaen hoti hain utane hi upavaky hote hain.

vachan

  • vikari shabdon ke jis roop se snkhya ka bodh hota hai, use vachan kahate hain.
  • vaise to shabdon ka sngya bhed vividh prakar ka hota hai, parantu vyakaran men usake ek aur anek bhed prachalit hain.

vartani

  • likhane ki riti ko vartani ya akshari kahate hain.
  • ise hijje bhi kaha jata hai.

upasarg

  • ve shabdansh jo yaugik shabd banate samay pahale lagate hain, upasarg kahalate hain.
  • jaise- prati= pratinidhi, pratikool, pratishtha, pratyaksh.

ras

  • ras ka shabdik arth hai 'anand'. kavy ko padhane ya sunane se jis anand ki anubhooti hoti hai, use ras kaha jata hai.
  • ras ko 'kavy ki atma' ya 'pran tatv' mana jata hai.

ling

sngya ke us roop ko ling kahate hain, jisake dvara vachak shabdon ki jati ka bodh hota hai.

alnkar

  • alnkar ka shabdik arth hai, 'abhooshan' . jis prakar suvarn adi ke abhooshanon se sharir ki shobha badhati hai usi prakar kavy alnkaron se kavy ki.
  • hindi ke kavi keshavadas ek alnkaravadi hain.

chhand

  • varnon ya matraon ke niyamit snkhya ke vinyas se yadi ahlad paida ho, to use chhnd kahate hain.
  • chhnd ka sarvapratham ullekh 'rigved' men milata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 vyakaran (hindi) (ech ti em el) hindikunj. abhigaman tithi: 27 disnbar, 2010.
  2. hindi vyakaran (hindi) hindi sahity. abhigaman tithi: 27 disnbar, 2010.

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