हेमचन्द्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hemachandr athava hemachandrasoori (1078 - 1162) shvetambar parampara ke ek mahanh jain darshanik aur achary the. hemachandr darshan, dharm evn adhyatm ke mahanh chintak hone ke sath-sath ek mahanh vaiyakaran, alnkarik, mahakavi, itihasakar, puranakar, koshakar, chhandoanushasak evn dharmopadeshak ke roop men prasiddh hain. ye nyay, vyakaran, sahity, siddhant, snskrit, prakrit, apabhrnsh aur yog in sabhi vishayon ke prakhar vidvan the. hemachandr raja siddharaj jayasinh ke sabha-kavi the. ve bahumukhi pratibha sampann achary the. achary shri jain yog ke mahanh gyata evn mntrashastr ke adhikari vidvan the. inake advitiy gyan evn bahumukhi pratibha ke karan hi inhen 'kalikalasarvgy' ki upadhi se alnkrit kiya gaya hai.

jivan parichay

shvaitambar jain parampara ke achary hemachandr ka janm gujarat men ahamadabad se ath mil door dakshin-pashchim men sthit dhundhuka nagar men 1078 ee. ki kartik poornima ki ratri ko hua tha. inake mata-pita modh vnshiy vaishy the. inaki kuladevi 'chamunda' aur kulayaksh 'gonas' tha. achary hemachandr ka moolanam chagnadev tha. inaki mata pahini jain thin tatha inake pita chaching shaiv the. inamen koee virodh nahin hai, kyonki us kal men dakshin bharat tatha gujarat men aise parivar anek the, jinamen pati aur patni ke dharm alag-alag the.[1]

balak chagnadev ko ath varsh ki umr men stambhatirth (khambhat) men jain sngh ki anumati se diksha di gee aur unaka nam somachandr ho gaya. somachandr ne alpakal men hi darshan, lakshan evn sahity men apoorv gyan prapt kar liya. bad men ve 'hemachandr' kahalae. 84 varsh ki ayu men unhonne anashanapoorvak antyaradhan kriya ka shubharambh kiya aur kumar pal ko dharmopadesh dete hue apane aihik sharir ka parityag kar diya. achary hemachandr ka samadhi sthal shatrunjay pahad par sthit hai, jo shvetambar tatha digambar donon paramparaon ka tirthasthal ho gaya hai.

darshanik ke roop men

achary hemachandr ne anyayogavyavachchhev aur ayogavyavachchhed namak do dvaminshikaon ke madhyam se jainetar darshanon ka khndan tatha jain darshan ke mool siddhanton ka pratipadan kiya. in donon men 32-32 shlok hain. hemachandr ki anyayogavyavachchhedika ke oopar syadavadamnjari nam ki tika mallishen achary ne likhi hai. ayogavyavachchhedika nam ki doosari dvatrinshika men svapaksh ki siddhi ki gayi hai. achary hemachandr ke sampoorn vanmay ka uddeshy jain darshan ke siddhanton ka pratipadan evn prasar raha hai. is prakar unake granthon men, chahe ve sootr sahity, kavy, puran athava vitarag stuti ke hon, jain darshan ke hi uchchatar bhavon ki abhivyakti huee hai. vishuddh darshanik drishti se dekhane par achary shri ki 'dvatrinshik', 'praman mimansa' tatha 'yogashastr' ki ganana jain darshan ke akar granthon men hi jayegi. ayogavyavachchhedika men achary hemachandr ne tirthnkaron ke agam ko shreyaskar siddh kar jinashasan ki mahatta ki sthapana ki hai. achary shri ke anusar jainatar agam men hinsa ka vidhan paya jata hai. athach poorva par virodh se rahit yatharthavadi hi pramanit hain. unake anusar vitarag ko chhodakar doosara koee nyayamarg nahin hai.

achary hemachandr ke anusar pratiti abhedagamini ho bhedagamini, sabhi vastavik hain. kisi ek ko poorn manana hi bhool hai. samany aur vishesh ka vichar apane ap men yatharth hone par bhi poorn praman nahin hai. vah praman ka ek ansh vishesh hai. ise van aur vriksh ke udaharan dvara spasht kiya ja sakata hai. anek vrikshon ke samany ko van kahate hain. vrikshon ko samany van roop men svikar karane par visheshon ka lop nahin ho pata hai. par sabhi vishesh samany men lin ho jate hain. parantu jab vriksh ko usaki ikaee men alag-alag grahan karate hain, tab samany ka abhas ho jata hai. donon anubhav saty hain. parantu donon ki satyata ekangi hai. kisi ek ko poorn saty manana dridhavadita hai. poorn saty vibhinn vicharon ke samanvay men hai, karan ka kary saty bhi hai aur asath bhi. baudhon ka paramanupunjavad evn naiyayikon ka apoorvavayavivad donon ka samanvay achary ne praman mimansa men anekantavad ke antargat kiya hai. samanvayavadi vichar darshan ke antargat 'nayavad' aur 'bhngavad' ap hi ap phalit hote hain.[1]

praman-mimansa

hemachandr ka nyay-granth 'praman-mimansa' vishesh prasiddh hai. isake sootr aur unaki svopgy tika donon hi sundar aur bodhaprad hain. nyay ke prathamik abhyasi ke lie parikshamukh aur nyayadipika ki tarah isaka bhi abhyas upayogi hai. praman-mimansa ke antargat anekantavad, praman, paramarthik pratyaksh, indriy gyan ka svaroop tatha sima, paroksh ke prakar-bhed, anumanavayav, nigrah-sthan, sarvgytv ki siddhi tatha praman-pramey adi sabhi vishayon ka tatvik vivechan kiya gaya hai. inaki yah antim evn adhoori kriti sootr-shaili men likhi gee hai. unhonne doosare hi sootr men praman ki saral tatha sahaj paribhasha di hai- samyagarthanirnay : pramanamh.[1]

achary hemachandr ke anusar praman do prakar ke hain- pratyaksh aur paroksh. svatntr atma ke ashrit gyan hi pratyaksh hain. paratntr indrijany gyan pratyaksh nahin hai. tatv chintan men ye vichar nitant maulik hain. sabhi praman prakashon ko unhonne paroksh ke antargat mana hai. ve indriyon ka svatntr samarthy svikar karate hain. ve anindriy arthath man aur atma donon ka alag-alg svatntr samarthy bhi svikar karate hain.

praman shastr

achary hemachandr ne katha ka vadatmak roop sthir kar praman shastr ko parishkrit evn parimarjit kiya. chhal adi kapat vyavahar ko varjy ghoshit kar tarkashastr ko yatharthavadi snskar diya. 'tatvasnrakshatarth prashnikadisamakshn sadhanadooshan-vadann vad:[2] katha vahi hai, jisake dvara tatv chintan sulabh ho sake. achary hemachandr ke anusar jain darshan vastut: parinamavadi hai. sankhy, yog ka parinamavad matr chetanatatvasparshi hai. jain parinamavad, jad, chetan, sthool, sookshm, samagr vastusparshi hai. vah sarvavyapak parinamavad hai. arambhavad tatha parinamavad ka apoorv samanvay jain sarvavyapak parinamavad men ho jata hai. praman mimansa men jin sarvgyvad ki sthapana ki gee hai. jain parampara men moolabhoot men sarvgyvadi hai jab ki bauddh aur vaidik parampara isase bhinn hain.[1]

mool siddhant

praman mimansa ke anusar saptabhngi ka adhar nayavad hai aur usaka uddeshy samanvay hai. darshanon ka samanvay batalane ki drishti se unake vishayabhoot bhav-abhavatmak donon anshon ko lekar un par snbhavit vakyabhng banae jate hain. vahi saptabhngi hai. is tarah nayavad aur bhnvad anekant drishti ke kshetr men ap hi ap phalit ho jate hain. samanvay hemachandr ki praman mimansa ka mool siddhant hai.

yogashastr

achary hemachandr ka yogashastr darshan tatha dharm ke kshetr men apana ek vishisht sthan rakhata hai. yogashastr jain sampraday ka vishuddh dharmik evn darshanik granth hai. yogashastr ko adhyatmopanishad kaha jata hai. isamen yog ki paribhasha, 'asan', rechak kumbhak' poorak adi pranayamon ka nirupan kiya gaya hai. sath hi adarsh grihasth jivan ke dvadash vrat ka vidhan kiya gaya hai. achary shri ne granth men indriyajay, kashayajay, man:shuddhi aur ragadvesh jay ki prakriya ka ullekh kiya hai. atm-gyan ke dvara hi karmakshay hota hai aur dhyan ke dvara hi atmgyan ki prapti hoti hai. samyabhav ke bina dhyan ki siddhi nahin ho sakati hai aur n dhyan ke bina samyabhav utpann ho sakata hai.

dhyan do prakar ke hain- dharmy aur shukl- dharmy dhyan ki siddhi ke lie maitri adi bhavanaon ko dhyan ka rasayan batalaya gaya hai. ratnatray ka bhi samyakh varnan kiya gaya hai. yogashastr ke anusar atma chidroop hai. dhyanagni se sarv karm bhasmibhoot ho jata hai aur atma nirnjan ho jati hai. kashayon ko jitakar jitendriy purush nirvan prapt karata hai. yog ki alaukik shaktiyon ki vyakhya ki hai. achary hemachandr bhi achary shubhachandr ki tarah pranayam ko moksh prapti men badhak manate hain. vaise achary ke yogashastr tatha maharshi patnjali ke yogasootr men kafi samanata bhi hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 sinh, daau. lalan prasad “96”, vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 684.
  2. (2-1-30)

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