हॉकी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

haauki
haauki stik tatha baaul
vivaran 'haauki' bharat ka rashtriy khel hai. is khel ke donon dalon men khiladiyon ki snkhya gyarah hoti hai.
pahali bar khela gaya is khel ki antarrashtriy spardha 1895 men prarnbh huee.
vargikaran daliy sthiti
dal ke sadasy gyarah
upakaran haauki stik, gend, helamet aur paid[1]
sthal haauki ka maidan samanyat: 91.4 mitar lnba aur 55 mitar chauda hota hai.
vishvakap pratiyogita 1971 men haauki vishv kap ki shuruat huee. maleshiya men 1975 men bharat ne pakistan ko 2-1 se harakar vishvakap pratiyogita jiti thi.
olampik purushon ki maidani haauki ko 1908 aur 1920 men olampik khelon men khela gaya aur 1928 se ise sthayi taur par olampik men shamil kar liya gaya.
gend gend ki paridhi lagabhag 30 se.mi. hoti hai.
haauki stik haauki stik lagabhag ek mitar lnbi aur 340 se 790 gram bhari hoti hai.
any janakari bharat men haauki sabase pahale kolakata men khela gaya. bharatiy tim ka sarvapratham vahin sngathan hua. 26 mee, 1928 men bharatiy haauki tim pratham bar olimpik khelon men sammilit huee aur vijay prapt ki.
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait (bharatiy haauki)

haauki bharat ka rashtriy khel hai. haauki ka prarambh varsh 2010 se 4,000 varsh poorv eeran men hua tha. isake bad bahut se deshon men isaka agaman hua par uchit sthan n mil saka. ant men ise bharat men vishesh samman mila aur yah rashtriy khel bana gaya. hamare desh men isaka arambh 100 varshon se pahale hua tha. 11 khiladiyon ke do virodhi dalon ke bich maidan men khele jane vale is khel men pratyek khiladi marak bindu par mudi huee ek chhadi (stik) ka istemal ek chhoti v kathor gend ko virodhi dal ke gol men marane ke lie karata hai. barf men khele jane vale isi tarah ke ek khel aees haauki se bhinnata darshane ke lie ise maidani haauki kahate hain. charadivari men kheli jane vali haauki, jisamen ek dal men chhah khiladi hote hain aur chhah khiladi parivartan ke lie rakhe jate hain.
haauki ke vistar ka shrey, visheshakar bharat aur sudoor poorv men, briten ki sena ko hai. anek antarrashtriy pratiyogitaon ke ahvan ke phalasvaroop 1971 men vishv kap ki shuruat huee. haauki ki any mukhy antarrashtriy pratiyogitaen hain- eshiyan kap, eshiyaee khel, yooropiyan kap aur pain-ameriki khel.

itihas

haauki ki shuruat arnbhik sabhyataon ke yug se mani jati hai. haauki khelane ke arabi, yahoodi, farasi aur roman tariqe rahe aur dakshin amerika ke ezatek indiyanon dvara chhadi se khele jane vale ek khel ke praman bhi milate hain. arnbhik khelon harling aur shinti jaise khelon ke roop men bhi haauki ko pahachana gaya hai. madhy kal men chhadi se khela jane vala ek fransisi khel haauki prachalit tha aur angrezi shabd ki utpatti shayad isi se huee hai.

bharatiy haauki ka pratik chihn

19vin shatabdi ke prarnbhik varshon men bharat men is khel ke vistar ka shrey mukhy roop se british sena ko jata hai aur ek svabhavik parinam ke roop men yah khel chhavani nagaron v usake asapas tatha yuddhapriy samajhe jane vale logon aur sainikon ke bich phala-phoola hain. sainik chhavaniyon vale sabhi nagar, jaise lahaur, jalndhar, lakhanoo, jhansi, jabalapur bharatiy haauki ke gadh the. magar is khel ko vibhajan-poorv bharat ki krishi pradhan bhoomi ke mehanati aur balishth pnjabiyon ne svabhavik roop se sikha. angrezi vidyalayon men haauki khelana 19vin shatabdi ke uttarardh men shuroo hua aur dakshin-poorvi lndan ke blaikahith men purushon ke pahale haauki klab ka vivaran 1861 ki ek vivaran-pustika men milata hai. purushon ki maidani haauki ko 1908 aur 1920 men olampik khelon men khela gaya aur 1928 se ise sthayi taur par olampik men shamil kar liya gaya.

mahila haauki esosieshan ka nirman

viktoriyaee yug men khelon men mahilaon par pratibndh hone ke bavajood mahilaon men haauki ki lokapriyata bahut badhi. yadyapi 1895 se hi mahila timen niyamit roop se maitri pratiyogitaon men bhag leti rahi thin, lekin gnbhir antarrashtriy pratiyogitaon ki shuruat 1970 ke dashak tak nahin huee thi. 1974 men haauki ka pahala mahila vishv kap ayojit kiya gaya aur 1980 men mahila haauki olampik men shamil ki gee. 1927 men antarrashtriy niyamak snstha, intaraneshanal fedareshan aauf vimans haauki esosieshan ka nirman hua tha. 1901 men amerika men kansatens em.ke. eppelabi dvara is khel ki shuruat huee aur maidani haauki dhire-dhire yahan ki mahilaon men lokapriy maidani tim khel ban gee v vidyalayon, mahavidyalayon tatha klabon men kheli jane lagi.

haauki ki antarrashtriy spardha

is khel ki antarrashtriy spardha 1895 men prarnbh huee. upamahadvip ke haauki yuhg ki shuruat 1925 men huee, jab akhil bharatiy haauki sngh ki sthapana huee, jisamen karnal broos tarnabul adhyaksh tatha em.es. ansari sachiv the. ek sal bad hi nyoozilaind pravas ke dauran bharatiyon ne apani apoorv kshamata ka parichay diya. do mahine ke lnbe daure par nyoozilaind gee sena ki tim ne 21 muqabalon men se 18 muqabale jite aur keval do muqabale hare.

haauki ke niyam

  • lndan sthit ek any klab tedingatan ne kee mukhy parivartanon ki shuruat ki, jisamen hathon ka prayog ya chhadi ko kndhon se oopar uthane par pratibndh, rabar ki ghanakar gend ke sthan par golakar svaroop ke prayog shamil the. sabase mahattvapoorn tha[2] marak chakr ko apanana, jise 1886 men lndan men sthapit tatkalin haauki esosieshan ne apane niyamon men shamil kiya tha.
  • dal ke samany snyojan men panch khiladi faauravard, tin hafabaik, do phulabaik aur ek golakipar hote hain. ek khel men 35 minat ke do bhag hote hain, jinamen 5 se 10 minat ka antaral hota hai. keval chot lagane ki dasha men khel roka jata hai. golakipar mote magar halke paid pahanata hai aur use 30 gaz ke ghere (di) men gend ko pair se marane athava use pairon ya sharir ki madad se rokane ki ijazat hoti hai. any sabhi khiladi gend ko keval stik se hi rok sakate hain.
  • maidan ke kendr se pas-baik dvara, jisamen ek khiladi apani tim ke any khiladiyon ki or gend phenkata hai, gend punah us tak pahunchaee jati hai[3], khel prarnbh hota hai. kisi ko chot lagane par ya takaniki karan se khel rukane par, donon dalon dvara kramashah ek-ek penalti karane par ya khiladiyon ke kapadon men gend ke ulajhane par khel ko phir se shuroo karane ke lie fes-aauf ya buli ka prayog kiya jata hai. fes-aauf men donon timon ke ek-ek khiladi amane-samane khade hote hai aur gend unake bich maidan par hoti hai. ek ke bad ek zamin par aghat karane ke bad donon khiladi ek-doosare ki stik ko apas men tin bar takarate hain, pratyek khiladi gend ko marane ka prayas karata hai aur is prakar khel phir se shuroo ho jata hai. gend ke maidan se bahar jane ki dasha men khel ko phir se shuroo karane ke vibhinn tariqe hain.
  • haauki men kee tarah ki galatiyan (faul) hoti hain. kisi khiladi ko maidan men gend se age rahakar aur virodhi dal ke do khiladiyon se kam khiladiyon ke age rahakar labh uthane se rokane ke lie banae ge hain. aauf said niyam ko 1996 ke olampik khelon ke bad samapt kar diya gaya. gend se khelate vaqt haauki ko kndhon se oopar uthana niyamon ke viruddh hai. gend ko haauki se rokana usi tarah ki galati hai, jaisi gend ko sharir ya pairon se rokana. andarakating ke sath hi virodhi ki haauki men apani haauki phnsakar (huking) gend ko tezi se oopar uchhalate hue khel ko khataranak banana bhi galat hai. ant men avarodhan ka niyam hai: ek khiladi ko apani stik ya sharir ke kisi bhi bhag ko apane virodhi aur gend ke bich lakar avarodh khada karane athava virodhi v gnd ke bich daudakar badha dalane ki anumati nahin hai. adhikatar galatiyon ki saza virodhi dal ko, jis sthan par niyam toda gaya, vahan se ek fri hit ke roop men di jati hai. khel ke pratyek bhag ke lie ek nirnayak (refari) hota hai.

gend

haauki men istemal hone vali yah gend moolatah kriket ki gend thi[4], lekin plastik ki gend bhi anumodit hai. isaki paridhi lagabhag 30 semi hoti hai.

haauki stik

haauki stik lagabhag ek mitar lnbi aur 340 se 790 gram hoti hai. stik ka chapata chhor hi gend ko marane ke lie istemal kiya jata hai.

maidan

mejar dhyanachnd rashtriy stediyam, dilli

yah khel chaukor maidan par 11 khiladiyon vale do dalon ke bich khela jata hai. yah maidan 91.4 mitar lnba aur 55 mitar chauda hota hai, isake kendr men ek kendriy rekha v 22.8 mitar ki do any rekhaen khinchi hoti hain. gol ki chaudaee 3.66 mitar v oonchaee 2.13 mitar hoti hai. ek gol banane ke lie[5] gend ko gol ke andar jana chahie aur akramanakari ki haauki se shooting sarkal ‘di’ ke andar gend ka sparsh zaroori hai.

bharat men haauki

bharat men yah khel sabase pahale kalakatta men khela gaya. bharatiy tim ka sarvapratham vahin sngathan hua. 26 mee ko sanh 1928 men bharatiy haki tim pratham bar olimpik khelon men sammilit huee aur vijay prapt ki. 1932 men laaus enjelis olampik men jab bharatiyon ne mezaban tim ko 24-1 se haraya. tab se ab tak ki sarvadhik antar se jit ka kirtiman bhi sthapit ho gaya. 24 men se 19 gol do bhaiyon ne kie, roopasinh ne 11 gol dage aur dhyanachnd ne shesh gol kie.

1936 ke barlin olampik men in bhaiyon ke netritv men bharatiy dal ne punah svarn 'padak jita' jab unhonne jarmani ko haraya. barlin olampik men dhyanachnd asamay bahar ho gaye aur dvitiy vishv yuddh ne bhi is vishv sparddha ko badhit kar diya. ath varsh ke bad olampik ki punah vapasi par bharat ki vishv haauki chainpiyan ki sthiti men koee parivartan nahin aya. ek asadharan kary, jo vishv men koee bhi ab tak duhara nahin paya hai. any timon ke ubharane ke snket sarvapratham melaborn men dikhaee die, jab bharat ko pahali bar svarn padak ke lie sngharsh karana pada. pahale ki tarah, tim ne apani or ek bhi gol nahin hone diya aur 38 gol dage, magar balabir sinh ke netritv men khiladiyon ko semifainal men jarmani ke khilaf aur fainal men pakistan ke khilaf sngharsh karana pada. semifainal men kaptan ke gol ne nirnay kiya, jabaki varishth rakshak ar.es. jental ke banae gol ne bharat ki aparajeyata ko banae rakha. 1956 ke melaborn olampik ke fainal men bharat aur pakistan ko 1960 men rom olampik men pakistan ne fainal men 1-0 se svarn jitakar bharat ki bazi palat di. bharat ne pakistan ko 1964 ke tokiyo olampik men haraya. 1968 ke meksiko olampik men pahali bar bharat fainal men nahin pahuncha aur keval kansy padak jit paya. magar meksiko ke bad, pakistan v bharat ka adhipaty tootane laga. 1972 ke myoonikh olampik men donon men se koee bhi tim svarn padak jitane men saphal nahin rahi aur kramashah doosare v tisare sthan tak hi pahunch saki.
bharatiy haauki tim
mukhy roop se bharat men, haauki ke parnparik kendron ke alava any sthanon par logon ki ruchi men tezi se giravat aee aur is patan ko rokane ke prayas bhi kam hi kie ge. isake bad bharat ne keval ek bar 1980 ke snkshipt maausko olampik men svarn padak jita. tim ka asthir pradarshan jari raha. isake bad 1998 ke eshiyaee khelon men svarn padak ki prapti bharatiy haauki ka ekamatr badhiya pradarshan tha. aise bahut kam mauqe rahe, jab kaushal ne sharirik saushthav ko haraya, anyatha yah barnbar bahut kam antar se har aur gol chook jane ka mamala raha hai. yadyapi bharat ab vishv haauki men ek shakti ke roop men nahin gina jata, par hal ke varshon men yahan aise kee khiladi hue hain, jinake kaushal ki barabari vishv men kuchh hi khiladi kar pate hain. ajitapal sinh, vi. bhaskaran, govinda, ashok kumar, muhammas shahid, jafar iqabal, paragat sinh, mukesh kumar aur dhanaraj pillai jaise khiladiyon ne apani akramak shaili ki dhak jamaee hai.

haauki akadami

bharat men haauki ke gaurav ko punarjivit karane ke gnbhir prayas hue hain. bharat men tin haauki akadami karyarat hain-

  1. nee dilli men 'eyar indiya akadami'
  2. ranchi (jharakhnd) men 'vishesh kshetr khel akadami'[6] air raurakela
  3. (udisa) men 'stil athaauriti aauf indiya limited (sel) akadami'.

in akadamiyon men prashiksharthi haauki ko prashikshan ke alava aupacharik shiksha bhi jari rakhate hain aur masik vritti bhi pate hain. pratyek akadami ne yogy khiladi taiyar kie hain, jinase ane vale varshon men is khel men yogadan ki asha hai. kriket ke prati divanagi ke bavajood vidyalayon aur mahavidyalayon men haauki ke punarutthan se nee pidhi men is khel ke prati ruchi jagrit huee hai. prativarsh rajadhani men hone vali 'neharoo kap haauki pratiyogita' jaisi pratisparddhaon men udisa, bihar aur pnjab ke vidyalayon, jaise sent igneshiyas vidyalay, raurakela; birasa munda vidyalay, gumala aur layalapur khalasa vidyalay, jalndhar dvara uchch stariy haauki ka pradarshan dekha gaya hai.

upalabdhiyan

mejar dhyanachnd sinh
Major Dhyan Chand Singh

haauki ke khel men bharat ne hamesha vijay paee hai. is svarn yug ke dauran bharat ne 24 olampik maich khele aur sabhi 24 maichon men jit kar 178 gol banae[7] tatha keval 7 gol chhode. hamare desh ke pas 8 olampik svarn padakon ka utkrisht rikaaurd hai. bharatiy haauki ka svarnim yug 1928-56 tak tha jab bharatiy haauki dal ne lagatar 6 olampik svarn padak prapt kie. 1928 tak haauki bharat ka rashtriy khel ban gaya tha aur isi varsh emastardam olampik men bharatiy tim pahali bar pratiyogita men shamil huee. bharatiy tim ne panch muqabalon men ek bhi gol die bagair svarn padak jita. jayapal sinh ki kaptani men tim ne, jisamen mahanh khiladi dhyanachnd bhi shamil the, antim muqabale men haaulaind ko asani se harakar svarn padak jita.
bharatiy haauki sngh ke itihas ki shuruat olampik men apani svarn gatha shuroo karane ke lie ki gee. is daure men bharat ko 21 maichon men se 18 maich bharat ne jite aur prakhyat khiladi dhyanachnd sabhi ki ankhon men bas ge jab bharat ke kul 192 golon men se 100 gol unhonne akele kie. yah maich emastardam men 1928 men hua aur bharat lagatar laaus enjels men 1932 ke dauran tatha barlin men 1936 ke dauran jitata gaya aur is prakar usane olampik men svarn padakon ki haitrik prapt ki.
kishanalala ke netritv men dal ne lndan men svarn padak jita. bharatiy haauki dal ne 1975 men vishv kap jitane ke alava do any padak (rajat aur kansy) bhi jite. bharatiy haauki sngh ne 1927 men vaishvik snbaddhata arjit ki aur antararashtripay haauki sngh (ephaeeech) ki sadasyata prapt ki. bharat ko 1964 tokiyo olampik aur 1980 maausko olampik men do anyh svarn padak prapt. hue. 1962 men kansy padak aur 1980 men svarn padak prapt kiya aur desh ka nam ooncha kar diya.

samachar

5 agast, 2013 somavar

jooniyar mahila haauki vishvakap men kansy padak jita

jooniyar mahila haauki tim

bharat ki jooniyar mahila haauki tim ne jarmani men snpann hue vishvakap men inglaind ko 3-2 (1-1) se harakar kansy padak par kabja kiya. bharatiy ladakiyon ne ravivar (4 agast, 2013) ko tisare sthan ke lie khele ge pleaauph mukabale men inglaind ko penalti shootaut men haraya. nirdharit samay tak donon timen 1-1 ki barabari par thin. isake bad maich ka phaisala penalti shootaut se karane ka phaisala kiya gaya. nirdharit samay men bharat ke lie rani ne 13ven minat men phild gol kiya jabaki inglaind ki or se ena toman ne 55ven minat men barabari ka gol kiya. penalti shootaut men ena toman inglaind ki taraph se pahala gol chook geen, jabaki rani ne penalti shootaut par pahala gol dagakar bharat ko 1-0 se badhat dila di. penalti shootaut ke pahale chhah shaaut tak bharat ne badhat banae rakhi, kyonki bharat ki navanit kaur, vndana katariya aur navajot kaur aur inglaind ki loosi haims, shona maiklin aur jo liph ne apane-apane shaaut mis kar die. akhirakar emili diphrond ne inglaind ke lie gol kar skor 1-1 se barabari par la diya. isake bad poonam rani dvara gol mis kie jane se bharat saden deth ki sthiti men pahunch gaya.
rani ne phir se is bar bharat ko snkat se ubara aur gol kar bharat ko 2-1 se badhat dila di. emili ne phir se skor ko 2-2 kar diya. isake bad bharat ki taraph se poonam rani aur inglaind ki taraph se shona maiklin apane-apane gol chook geen. akhirakar navanit kaur ne bharat ko 3-2 se badhat dilaee, jabaki inglaind ki ena gol karane se chook geen. isi ke sath vishv chainpiyanaship men bharatiy mahilaon ne apana pahala padak hasil kiya.

samachar ko vibhinn sroton par padhen


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. golakipar ke lie
  2. straiking sarkal
  3. aur ek gol karane ke bad v madhyantar ke bad
  4. jisamen bich men kaaurk rahata hai, jise rassi se lapetakar chamade ke avaran se dhakate the
  5. jisaki ganana ek ank ke roop men hoti hai
  6. speshal eriya gems akaidami
  7. prati maich ausatan 7.43 gol

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh