bharatakosh ke snsthapak/snpadak ke fesabuk laiv ke lie yahan klik karen.

साँचा:भारत पृष्ठ इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

astr, mohanajodado 3000 ee.poo.

inhen bhi dekhen: ary, aryavart, som ras evn ved

nrityangana mohanajodado 2500 ee.poo.
bharat ka itihas pragaitihasik kal se arambh hota hai. 3000 ee. poorv tatha 1500 ee. poorv ke bich sindhu ghati men ek unnat sabhyata vartaman thi, jisake avashesh mohan jodado (muan-jo-dado) aur hadappa men mile hain. vishvas kiya jata hai ki bharat men aryon ka pravesh bad men hua.
pradhan anushthanakarta mohanajodado 2000 ee.poo.
aryon ne paya ki is desh men unase poorv ke jo log nivas kar rahe the, unaki sabhyata yadi unase shreshth nahin to kisi riti se nikrisht bhi nahin thi. aryon se poorv ke logon men sabase bada varg dravidon ka tha. aryon dvara ve kramik riti se uttar se dakshin ki or khaded diye ge. jahan dirgh kal tak unaka pradhany raha. bad men unhonne aryon ka prabhutv svikar kar liya. unase vivah sambandh sthapit kar liye aur ab ve mahan bharatiy rashtr ke ang hain. dravidon ke alava desh men aur mool jatiyan thi, jinamen se kuchh ka pratinidhitv munda, kol, bhil adi janajatiyan karati hain jo mon-khmer varg ki bhashaen bolati hain. bharatiy aryon ka prachinatam sahity hamen vedon men vishesh roop se rigved men milata hai, jisaka rachanakal kuchh vidvan tin hazar ee. poo. manate hain. vedon men hamen us kal ki sabhyata ki ek jhanki milati hai. aryon ne is desh ko koee rajanitik ekata pradan nahin ki. yadyapi unhonne use ek pusht darshan aur dharm pradan kiya, jo hindoo dharm ke nam se prakhyat hai aur kam se kam char hazar varsh se akshunn hai.

mahajanapad yug

inhen bhi dekhen: brahman, andhak sngh, krishn evn braj

prachin bharatiyon ne koee tithi kramanusar itihas nahin surakshit rakha hai. sabase prachin sunishchit tithi jo hamen gyat hai, 326 ee. poo. hai, jab maqadooniya ke raja sikandar ne bharat par akraman kiya. is tithi se pahale ki ghatanaon ka taratamy jod kar tatha sahity men surakshit aitihasik anushrutiyon ka upayog karake bharat ka itihas satavin shatabdi ee. poo. tak pahunch jata hai. is kal men bharat qabul ki ghati se lekar godavari tak shodash janapadon men vibhajit tha.

in rajyon men apas men barabar ladaee hoti rahati thi. chhathin shatabdi ee. poo. ke madhy men bimbisar tatha ajatashatru ke rajy kal men magadh ne kashi tatha koshal par adhikar karane ke bad apani simaon ka vistar arambh kiya. inhin donon magadh rajaon ke rajyakal men vardhaman mahavir ne jain dharm tatha gautam buddh ne bauddh dharm ka upadesh diya. bad ke kal men magadh rajy ka vistar jari raha aur chauthi shatabdi ee. poo. ke ant men nand rajaon ke shasanakal men usaka vistar bngal se lekar pnjab men vyas nadi ke tat tak sare uttari bharat men ho gaya.

maury aur shung

inhen bhi dekhen: ashok ke shilalekh, ashok, buddh, bauddh darshan, bauddh dharm, fahyan evn pataliputr

yoonani itihasakaron ke dvara varnit 'presiaee' desh ka raja itana shaktishali tha ki sikandar ki senaen vyas par karake presiaee desh men nahin ghus sakin aur sikandar, jisane 326 ee. men pnjab par hamala kiya, pichhe lautane ke lie vivash ho gaya. vah sindhu ke marg se pichhe laut gaya. is ghatana ke bad hi magadh par chndragupt maury (lagabhag 322 ee. poo.-298 ee. poo.) ne pnjab men sikandar jin yoonani adhikariyon ko chhod gaya tha, unhen nikal bahar kiya aur bad men ek yuddh men sikandar ke senapati selyukas ko hara diya. selyukas ne hindookush tak ka sara pradesh vapas lauta kar chandragupt maury se sndhi kar li. chandragupt ne sare uttari bharat par apana prabhutv sthapit kiya. usane sambhvatah dakshin bhi vijay kar liya. vah apane is vishal samrajy par apani rajadhani pataliputr se shasan karata tha. usaki rajadhani pataliputr vaibhav aur samriddhi men soosa aur ekabatana nagariyon ko bhi mat karati thi. usaka pautr ashok tha, jisane kaling (udisa) ko jita. usaka samrajy himalay ke padamool se lekar dakshin men pannar nadi tak tatha uttar pashchim men hindookush se lekar uttar-poorv men asam ki sima tak vistrit tha. usane apane vishal samrajy ke samay sadhanon ko manushyon tatha pashuon ke kalyan karyon tatha bauddh dharm ke prasar men lagakar amit yash prapt kiya. usane bauddh dharm ke prachar ke lie bhikshuon ko misr, maqadooniya tatha korinth (prachin yoonan ki vilas nagari) jaise door-daraj sthanon men bheja aur vahan lokopakari kary karavaye. usake prayatnon se bauddh dharm vishvadharm ban gaya. parantu usaki yuddh se virat rahane ki shantipoorn niti ne usake vnsh ki shakti kshin kar di aur lagabhag adhi shatabdi ke bad pushyamitr ne usaka uchchhed kar diya. pushyamitr ne shungavnsh (lagabhag 185 ee. poo.- 73 ee. poo.) ki sthapana ki, jisaka uchchhed karav vnsh (lagabhag 73 ee. poo.-28 ee. poo.) ne kar diya.

shak, kushan aur satavahan

inhen bhi dekhen: rabatak lekh, kushan, kanishk, kambojika evn kalhan

mauryavnsh ke patan ke bad magadh ki shakti ghatane lagi aur satavahan rajaon ke netritv men magadh samrajy dakshin se alag ho gaya. satavahan vnsh ko andhr vnsh bhi kahate hain aur usane 50 ee. poo. se 225 ee. tak rajy kiya. bharat men ek shaktishali kendriy sarakar ke abhav men baiktriya aur parthiya ke rajaon ne uttari bharat par akraman shuroo kar diye. in akramanakari rajaon men minandar sabase vikhyat hai. isake bad hi shak rajaon ke akraman shuroo ho gaye aur maharashtr, saurashtr tatha mathura shak kshatrapon ke shasan men a gaye. is tarah bharat ki jo rajanitik ekata bhng ho gayi thi, vah eesvin pahali shatabdi men kujul kadafaisis dvara kushan vnsh ki shuruat se phir sthapit ho gayi. is vnsh ne tisari shatabdi eesvin ke madhy tak uttari bharat par rajy kiya.

is vnsh ka sabase prasiddh raja kanishk (lagabhag 120-144 ee.) tha, jisaki rajadhani purushapur athava peshavar thi. usane bauddh dharm grahan kar liya aur ashvaghosh, nagarjun tatha charak jaise bharatiy vidvanon ko snrakshan diya. kushanavnsh ka agyat karanon se tisari shatabdi ke madhy tak patan ho gaya. isake bad bharatiy itihas ka andhakar yug arambh hota hai. jo chauthi shatabdi ke arambh men guptavnsh ke uday se samapt hua.

gupt

inhen bhi dekhen: hven tsang

varah avatar bhitti moohrtikala, gupt kal, udayagiri gufaen

lagabhag 320 ee. poo. men chandragupt ne guptavnsh ko prachalit kiya aur pataliputr ko phir se apani rajadhani banaya. gupt vnsh men ek ke bad ek char mahan shaktishali raja hue, jinhonne sare uttari bharat men apana samrajy vistrit kar liya aur dakshin ke kee rajyon par bhi apana prabhutv sthapit kiya. unhonne hindoo dharm ko rajy dharm banaya, bauddh dharm aur jain dharm ke prati sahishnuta barati aur gyan-vigyan, sahity, kala, vastukala aur chitrakala ki unnati ki. isi yug men kalidas, aryabhat tatha varahamihir hue. ramayan, mahabharat, puranon tatha manusnhita ko bhi isi yug men vartaman roop prapt hua. chini yatri fahyan ne 401 se 410 ee. ke bich bharat ki yatra ki aur usane us kal ka rochak varnan kiya hai. usaka mat hai ki us kal men desh men poora ramarajy tha. svabhavik roop se gupt yug ko bharatiy itihas ka 'svarnayug' mana jata hai aur usaki tulana ethens ke pariklij yug se ki jati hai. (periklij (lagabhag 492-529 ee. poo.) ethens ka mahan rajaneta tatha senapati tha. usake shasanakal (460-429 ee. poo.) men ethens unnati ke shikhar par pahunch gaya). antarik vighatan tatha hoonon ke akramanon ke phalasvaroop chhathi shatabdi men gupt vnsh ka patan ho gaya. parantu satavin shatabdi ke prarambh men harshavardhan ne ek doosara samrajy khada kar diya, jisaki rajadhani kannauj thi. yah samrajy sare uttari bharat men vistrit tha. dakshin men chaluky raja pulakeshi dvitiy ne usaka samrajy narmada tat se age badhane se rok diya tha. chini yatri huenasang usake rajyakal men bharat aya tha aur usane apani yatra varnan men likha hai ki harshavardhan bada pratapi aur shaktishali raja hai. vah 646 ee. men nissntan mar gaya aur usake bad sare uttari bharat men phir se avyavastha phail gayi.

kirti stambh, chittaudagadh

rajapoot adi rajavnsh

is avyavastha ke phalasvaroop rajavnshon ka uday hua, jo apane ko rajapoot kahate the. inamen pnjab ka hindooshahi rajavnsh, gujarat ka gurjar-pratihar rajavnsh, ajamer ka chauhan vnsh, kannauj ka gahadaval vnsh tatha magadh aur bngal ka pal vnsh tha. dakshin men bhi satavahan vnsh ke patan ke bad isi prakar satta ka vighatan ho gaya. udisa ke gng vnsh jisane puri ka prasiddh jagannath mandir banavaya, vatapi ke chaluky vnsh, jisake rajyakal men ajanta ke kuchh gufa chitr bane tatha kanchi ke pallav vnsh ne, jisaki smriti us kal men banavaye gaye kuchh prasiddh mandiron men surakshit hai, dakshin ko apas men bant liya aur paraspar yuddhon men ek doosare ka nash kar diya. isake bad manyakhet athava malakhad ke rashtrakoot vnsh ka uday hua, jisaka uchchhed pur ke chaluky vnsh ki ek navin shakha ne kar diya. jisane kalyani ko apani rajadhani banaya. usaka uchchhed devagiri ke yadavon tatha dvarasamudr ke hoyasal vnsh ne kar diya. sudoor dakshin men cher, pandy aur chol rajyon ka uday hua, jinamen se antim rajy sabase adhik chala. is tarah sare bharat men anaiky vyapt ho gaya.

prachin rajy sima manachitr
bharat- pashan kal bharat men prastar yug ke mahattvapoorn sthal rigvaidik kalin bharat vaidik kalin pramukh nadiyan bharat- mahakavy kal bharat par videshi akraman bharat- kushan samrajy bharatavarsh- prakritik manachitr bharat- gupt samrajy bharat- harsh samrajy
aryon ke adi sthal soochi
aryon ke adi sthal hadappakalin nadiyon ke kinare base nagar vibhinn vidvanon dvara sindhu sabhyata ka kal nirdharan
adi (mool) sthan mat nagar nadi / sagar tat kal vidvan
saptasaindhav kshetr daau. avinash chndr, daau. snpoornanand
brahmarshi desh pn. gnganath jha
madhy pradesh daau. rajabali pandey
kashmir el. di. kall
devika pradesh (multan) di. es. trivedi
uttari dhruv pradesh bal gngadhar tilak
hngari (yoorop) (denyoob nadi ki ghati) pi. gails
dakshini roos neharing gardan chailds
jarmani penka
yoorop philippo sesseti, sar viliyam jons
pamir evn baiktriya edavard meyar evn olden varg je. ji. rod
madhy eshiya maiksamoolar
tibbat dayanand sarasvati
himalay (manas) ke. ke. sharma
mohanajodado sindhu nadi
hadappa ravi nadi
ropad sataluj nadi
kalibnga ghagghar nadi
lothal bhogava nadi
sutkagenador dasht nadi
valakot arab sagar
sotkakoh arab sagar
alamagirapur hindan nadi
rngapur madar nadi
kotadiji sindhu nadi
3500 - 2700 ee.poo. madhosvaroop vats
3250 - 2750 ee.poo. jaaun marshal
2900 ee.poo. - 1900 ee.poo. dels
2800 - 2500 ee.poo. arnest maike
2500 - 1500 ee.poo. martimar hvilar
2350 - 1700 ee.poo. si. je. gaid
2300 ee.poo. - 1750 ee.poo. di. pi. agraval
2000 - 1500 ee.poo. pheyar sarvis
mahajanapad soochi
nam vivaran kshetr
ang vartaman men bihar ke munger aur bhagalapur zile isamen ate the. inaki rajadhani chnpa thi. poorvi bihar
magadh isaki sthiti sthool roop se dakshin bihar ke pradesh men thi. adhunik patana tatha gaya zila isamen shamil the . dakshini bihar
kashi varanasi, kashi athava banaras bharat desh ke uttar pradesh ka ek prachin aur dharmik mahatta rakhane vala shahar hai . isaka purana nam kashi hai. banaras
koshal uttari bharat ka prasiddh janapad jisaki rajadhani vishvavishrut nagari ayodhya thi. uttar pradesh ke phaijabad zila, gonda aur baharaich ke kshetr shamil the. avadh-lakhanoo
vats adhunik uttar pradesh ke ilahabad tatha mirzapur zile isake arntagat ate the. is janapad ki rajadhani kaushanbi (zila ilahabad uttar pradesh) thi. ilahabad
kuru adhunik hariyana tatha dilli ka yamuna nadi ke pashchim vala ansh shamil tha . isaki rajadhani adhunik dilli (indraprasth) thi . thaneshvar tatha dilli kshetr
vats adhunik uttar pradesh ke ilahabad tatha mirzapur zile isake arntagat ate the. is janapad ki rajadhani kaushanbi (zila ilahabad uttar pradesh) thi. ilahabad
pnchal pashchimi uttar pradesh ke bareli, badayoon aur pharrookhabad zilon se parivrit pradesh ka prachin nam hai. yah kanapur se varanasi ke bich ke gnga ke maidan men phaila hua tha. bareli tatha badayoon
matsy matsy desh men virat ka raj tha tatha vahan ki rajadhani upaplav namak nagar men thi. virat nagar matsy desh ka doosara pramukh nagar tha. jayapur
shoorasen mathura ka purana nam shoorasen tha . mathura
ashmak narmada aur godavari nadiyon ke bich avasthit is pradesh ki rajadhani patan thi. godavari ke tat par
avnti adhunik malava ka pradesh jisaki rajadhani ujjayini aur mahishmati thi. malava
gandhar pakistan ka pashchimi tatha afaganistan ka poorvi kshetr. peshavar kshetr
knboj knboj desh ya yahan ke nivasi kanbojon ke vishay men anek ullekh hain jinase jan padata hai ki knboj desh ka vistar sthool roop se kashmir se hindookush tak tha. kashmir tatha afaganistan
vrijji uttar bihar ka bauddh kalin ganarajy jise bauddh sahity men vrijji kaha gaya hai. uttari bihar
mall mall bhi ek ganasngh tha aur poorvi uttar pradesh ke ilake isake kshetr the. gorakhapur
chedi gnga aur narmada ke bich ke kshetr ka prachin nam chedi tha. bundelakhand

islam ka pravesh

inhen bhi dekhen: chngez khan evn mahamood gazanavi is bich 712 ee. men bharat men islam ka pravesh ho chuka tha. muhammad-ibn-qasim ke netritv men musalaman arabon ne sindh par hamala kar diya aur vahan ke brahman raja dahir ko hara diya. is tarah bharat ki bhoomi par pahali bar islam ke pair jam gaye aur bad ki shatabdiyon ke hindoo raja use phir hata nahin sake. parantu sindh par arabon ka shasan vastav men nirbal tha aur 1176 ee. men shahabuddin muhammad gori ne use asani se ukhad diya. isase poorv subuktagin ke netritv men musalamanon ne hamale karake pnjab chhin liya tha aur gazani ke sultan mahamood ne 997 se 1030 ee. ke bich bharat par satrah hamale kiye aur hindoo rajaon ki shakti kuchal dali, phir bhi hindoo rajaon ne musalamani akraman ka jis anavarat riti se prabal virodh kiya, usaka mahattv kam karake nahin ankana chahie.

prithviraj chauhan aur gori

inhen bhi dekhen: mahamood gori

qutub minar

faras tatha pashchim eshiya ke doosare rajyon ki tarah musalamanon ko bharat men shighrata se saphalata nahin mili. yadyapi sindh par arab musalamanon ka shighrata se qabza ho gaya, parantu vahan se ve lagabhag char shatabdiyon tak age nahin badh paye. uttar-pashchim ke musalaman akramanakariyon ko bhi bharat ne lagabhag tin shatabdiyon tak roke rakha. shahabuddin muhammad gori ka dilli jitane ka pahala prayas viphal hua aur prithviraj ne 1190 ee. men taraeen ki pahali ladaee men use hara diya. vah 1193 ee. men taraeen ki doosari ladaee men hi prithviraj ko harane men saphal hua. is vijay ke bad shahabuddin aur usake senapatiyon ne uttari bharat ke doosare hindoo rajaon ko bhi hara diya aur vahan musalamani shasan sthapit kar diya. is tarah terahavin shatabdi ke prarambh men dilli ke sultanon ki adhinata men uttari bharat ki rajanitik ekata phir se sthapit ho gee.

taimoor

inhen bhi dekhen: taimoor lng, vijay nagar samrajy, bahamani vnsh, chngez khan evn alauddin khilaji dakshin ek aur shatabdi tak svatntr raha, kintu sultan khilaji ke rajyakal men dakshin bhi dilli saltanat ke adhin ho gaya aur is tarah chaudahavin shatabdi men kuchh kal ke lie sare bharat ka shasan phir se ek kendriy satta ke antargat a gaya. parantu dilli saltanat ka shighr hi patan shuroo ho gaya aur 1336 ee. men dakshin men hinduon ka ek vishal rajy sthapit hua, jisaki rajadhani vijay nagar samrajy thi. bngal (1338 ee.), jaunapur (1393 ee.), gujarat tatha dakshin ke madhyavarti bhag men bhi bahamani saltanat (1347 ee.) ke nam se svatntr musalamani rajy sthapit ho gaya. 1398 ee. men taimoor ne bharat par hamala kiya aur dilli par qabza kar liya aur use loota. usake hamale se dilli ki saltanat jarjar ho gayi.

mugal

inhen bhi dekhen: babar, humayoon, akabar, jahangir, shahajahan, aurngazeb, sherashah soori samrajy evn sherashah soori

dilli ki saltanat vastav men kamazor thi, kyonki sultanon ne apani vijit hindoo praja ka hriday jitane ka koee prayas nahin kiya. ve dharmik drishti se atyant kattar the aur unhonne balapoorvak hinduon ko musalaman banane ka prayas kiya. isase hindoo praja unase koee sahanubhooti nahin rakhati thi. isak phalasvaroop 1526 ee. men babar ne asani se dilli ki saltanat ko ukhad phainka. usane panipat ki pahali ladaee men antim sultan ibrahim lodi ko hara diya aur mugal vnsh ki pratishthit kiya, jisane 1526 se 1858 ee. tak bharat par shasan kiya. tisara mugal badashah akabar asadharan roop se yogy aur dooradarshi shasak tha. usane apani vijit hindoo praja ka hriday jitane ki koshish ki aur vishesh roop se yuddh priy rajapoot rajaon ko apane paksh men karane ka prayas kiya. akabar ne dharmik sahishnuta tatha mel-milap ki niti barati, hinduon par se jaziya utha liya aur rajy ke oonche padon par bina bhedabhav ke sirf yogyata ke adhar par niyuktiyan kin.


maratha

inhen bhi dekhen: maratha samrajy, shivaji, tanaji, ahilyabaee holkar evn jaton ka itihas

rajapooton aur mugalon ke yog se usane apana samrajy kandahar se asam ki sima tak tatha himalay ki talahati se lekar dakshin men ahamadanagar tak vistrit kar diya. usake putr jahangir jahan pautr shahajahan ki rajyakal men mugal samrajy ka vistar jari raha. shahajahan ne tajamahal ka nirman karaya, parantu kandahar usake hath se nikal gaya. akabar ke prapautr aurngazeb ke rajyakal men mugal samrajy ka vistar apane charam shikhar par pahunch gaya aur kuchh kal ke lie sara bharat usake antargat ho gaya. parantu aurngazeb ne jan-boojhakar akabar ki dharmik sahishnuta ki niti tyag di aur hinduon ko apane viruddh kar liya. usane hindustan ka shasan sirf musalamanon ke hit men chalane ki koshish ki aur hinduon ko zabardasti musalaman banane ka asaphal prayas kiya. isase rajapootana, bundelakhand tatha pnjab ke hindoo usake viruddh uth khade hue. maharashtr men shivaji ne 1707 ee. men aurngazeb ki mrityu se poorv hi ek svatntr hindoo rajy sthapit kar diya. aurngazeb antim shaktishali mugal badashah tha. usake uttaradhikari atyant nirbal aur ayogy the, unake vazir vishvasaghati the. faras ke nadirashah ne mugal badashahat par sabase sanghatik prahar kiya. usane 1739 ee. men bharat par chadhaee ki aur dilli par qabza kar liya aur use nirdayata se poori tarah loota. usake hamale se mugal samrajy poori tarah jarjar ho gaya aur isake bad shighrata se usaka vighatan ho gaya. avadh, akhandit bngal tatha dakshin ke musalaman soobedaron ne apane ko svatntr kar liya. rajapoot raja bhi arddh-svatntr ho gaye. peshava bajirav pratham ke netritv men marathon ne mugal samrajy ke khndaharon par hindoo pad padashah ki sthapana ka prayas kiya.

angrez

inhen bhi dekhen: vasko d gama firngi log samudri margon se bharat ki zamin par pair jama chuke the. akabar se lekar aurngazeb tak mugal badashahon ne bharat ke is naye marg ka mahattv nahin samajha. inamen se koee in navangatukon ki rajanitik mahattvakankshaon ka anuman nahin laga saka aur unake jngi bede ka muqabala karane ke lie ek shaktishali bharatiy jngi beda taiyar karane ki avashyakata ko anubhav nahin kar saka. is tarah bharatiyon ki or se kisi pratirodh ka samana kiye bagair sabase pahale purtagali bharat pahunche. usake bad dach, angrez, phransisi aye. solahavin shatabdi men in phirngiyon men apas men ladaiyan hoti rahi, jo adhikansh samudr men huee. dach aur angrejon ne milakar sabase pahale purtagaliyon ki samudrik shakti ko samapt kiya. isake bad dach logon ko pata chala ki unake lie bharat ki apeksha masale vale dvipon se vyapar karana adhik labhadayi hai. is tarah bharat men sirf angrez aur phransisi logon ke bich pratidvandvita huee.

eest indiya kampani

inhen bhi dekhen: maisoor yuddh evn tipoo sultan

atharahavin shatabdi ke shuroo men angrejon ki eest indiya kampani ne bambee (mumbee), madras (chennee) tatha kalakatta (kolakata) par qabza kar liya. udhar phransisiyon ki eest indiya kampani ne mahe, pandicheri tatha chndranagar par qabza kar liya. unhen apani senaon men bharatiy sipahiyon ko bharati karane ki bhi ijazat mil gayi. ve in bharatiy sipahiyon ka upayog n keval apani apasi ladaiyon men karate the balki is desh ke rajaon ke viruddh bhi karate the. in rajaon ki apasi pratidvandvita aur kamazori ne inaki rajanitik mahattvakanksha ko jagrat kar diya aur unhonne kuchh deshi rajaon ke viruddh doosare deshi rajaon se sndhiyan kar lin. 1744-49 ee. men mugal badashah ki prabhusatta ki poorn upeksha karake unhonne apas men karnatak ki doosari ladaee chhedi. ek sal ke bad karnatak ki doosari ladaee shuroo huee. jisamen phransisi gavarnar doople ne pahali ladaee se sabaq lete hue n keval karnatak ke prashasan par, balki nizam ke rajy par bhi frans ka rajanitik niyatrnn sthapit karane ki koshish ki. parantu angrejon ne usaki mahattvakanksha poori nahin hone di. angrejon ko bngal men bhari saphalata mili thi. badashah aurngazeb ki mrityu ke keval pachas varsh bad 1757 ee. men rabart klaiv ke netritv men angrejon ne navab sirajuddaula ke viruddh vishvasaghatapoorn rajadrohatmak shadayntr rachakar plasi ki ladaee jit li aur bngal ko ek prakar se apani mutthi men kar liya. unhonne bngal ki gaddi par ek kathaputali navab mir zafar ko bitha diya. isake bad ek ke bad, tezi se kee ghatanaen ghatin.

panipat

ahamad shah abdali ne 1748 se 1760 ee. ke bich bharat par chadhaiyan kin aur 1761 ee. men panipat ki tisari ladaee jit kar mugal samrajy ka fatiha padh diya. usane dilli par dakhal karake use loota. panipat ki tisari ladaee men sabase adhik kshati marathon ko uthani padi. kuchh samay ke lie unaki badh ruk gayi aur is prakar ve mugal badashahon ki jagah le lene ka mauqa kho baithe. yah ladaee vastav men mugal samrajy ke patan ki soochak hai. isane bharat men mugal samrajy ke sthan par british samrajy ki sthapana men madad ki. abdali ko panipat men jo fatah mili, usase n to vah svayn koee labh utha saka aur n usaka sath dene vale musalaman saradar. is ladaee se vastavik fayada angrezi eest indiya kampani ne uthaya. isake bad kampani ko ek ke bad doosari saphalataen milati gayin.

angrez gavarnar janaral aur vayasaray
janaral aur vayasaray kary / karyakal
angrez gavarnar janaral
laaurd viliyam baintik 1833-35 ee.
sar charls maitakaph (sthananpann) 1835-36 ee.
akalaind 1836-42 ee.
laaurd elanabaro 1842-44 ee.
viliyam vilabar phors bard 1844 ee.
laaurd harding 1844-48 ee.
laaurd dalahauzi 1848-56 ee.
laaurd kaining 1856-58 ee.
angrez gavarnar janaral aur vayasaray
laaurd kaining 1858-62 ee.
laaurd elgin pratham 1862-63 ee.
sar rarbat nepiyar (sthanapann) 1863 ee.
sar viliyam ti. denisan (sthanapann) 1863 ee.
sar jaaun larens 1864-68 ee.
laaurd meyo 1869-72 ee.
sar jaaun strechi (sthanapann) 1872 ee.
laaurd narthabruk 1872-76 ee.
laaurd litan pratham 1876-80 ee.
markvis aauf ripan 1880-84 ee.
arl aauf dafarin 1984-88 ee.
laaurd lainsadaun 1988-94 ee.
laaurd elgin dvitiy 1894-99 ee.
laaurd karzan 1899-1905 ee.
laaurd empiray (sthanapann) 1904 ee.
laaurd karzan 1904-05 ee.
laaurd minto dvitiy 1905-10 ee.
laaurd hardings 1910-16 ee.
laaurd chaimsaphord 1916-21 ee.
laaurd riding 1921-25 ee.
laaurd litan dvitiy (sthanapann)
laaurd iravin 1926-31 ee.
laaurd vilingadan 1931-34 ee.
sar jaaurj stenale 1934 ee.
laaurd linalithago 1934-37 ee.
vairan vrevarn (sthanapann) 1938 ee.
laaurd linalithago 1938-43 ee.
laaurd vevel 1943-47 ee.
laaurd mauntabeten 1947 ee.
angrez janaral evn vayasarayon se sambandhit kary
varen hestings revenyoo, faujadari v apili nyayalayon ki sthapana
laaurd karnavalis sthayi bhoomi bandobast
laaurd velejali sahayak sndhi pranali
viliyam baintik sati pratha ki samapti
charls metakaph pres par pratibandh ki samapti
laaurd elanabaro sindh ka vilay
laaurd dalahauzi rel, adhunik dak, tar v pi. dablyoo. di. ki sthapana
laaurd kaining kalakatta, bambee v madras vishvavidyalay ki sthapana
laaurd litan dilli darabar, varnakyoolar pres ekt, arms ekt
laaurd ripan pratham karakhana adhiniyam, ilbart bil
laaurd karzan bngal vibhajan, prachin smarak snrakshan qanoon,

bharatiy vishvavidyalay qanoon

laaurd minto dvitiy prithak nirvachan kshetr ki vyavastha
laaurd harding bharat ki rajadhani kalakatta se dilli sthanantarit
laaurd chemsaphord raulet ekt, jaliyanvala bag htyakand
laaurd iravin gandhi iravin samajhauta (1931 ee.)
laaurd vilingadan kamyoonal avard (1932 ee.)
laaurd linalithago prantiy chunav
laaurd vevel shimala sammelan, kaibinet mishan, snvidhan sabha ki sthapana
laaurd mauntabeten bharat vibhajan evn bharat ki svatntrata

regyuleting ekt

bngal ke sadhanon se balashali hokar angrejon ne 1760 ee. men vandivash ki ladaee men phransisiyon ko hara diya aur 1762 ee. men unase pandecheri le liya. is prakar unhonne bharat men phransisiyon ki rajanitik shakti samapt kar di. 1764 ee. men angrajon ne baksar ki ladaee men badashah bahadur shah aur avadh ke navab ki sammilit sena ko hara diya aur 1765 ee. men badashah se bngal, bihar tatha udisa ki divani prapt kar li. isake phalasvaroop eest indiya kampani ko pahali bar bngal, udisa tatha bihar ke prashasan ka qanooni adhikar mil gaya. kuchh itihasakar ise bharat men british rajy ka prarambh manate hain. 1773 ee. men british parliyament ne ek regyuleting ekt pas karake bharat men british prashasan ko vyavasthit roop dene ka prayas kiya. is ekt ke antargat bharat men kampani kshetron ka prashasan gavarnar-janaral ke adhin kar diya gaya. usaki sahayata ke lie char sadasyon ki kaauunsil gathit ki gayi. ekt men bngal ke gavarnar ko gavarnar-janaral ka pad pradan kiya gaya aur kalakatta men ek suprim kort ki bhi sthapana ki gayi. varen hestings, jo us samay bngal ka gavarnar tha, 1773 ee. men pahala gavarnar-janaral banaya gaya.

1773 ee. se 1947 ee. tak ka kal, jab bharat men british shasan samapt hua aur bharat svadhin hua, do bhagon men banta ja sakata hai. pahala, kampani ka shasanakal, jo 1858 ee. tak chala aur doosara, 1858 se 1947 ee. tak ka kal, jab bharat ka shasan sidhe briten dvara hone laga.

gavarnar-janaralon ka samay

kampani ke shasan kal men bharat ka prashasan ek ke bad ek baees gavarnar-janaralon ke hathon men raha. is kal ke bharatiy itihas ki sabase ullekhaniy ghatana yah hai ki kampani yuddh tatha kootaniti ke dvara bharat men apane samrajy ka uttarottar vistar karati rahi. maisoor ke sath char ladaiyan, marathon ke sath tin, barma (myanmar) tatha sikhon ke sath do-do ladaiyan tatha sindh ke amiron, gorakhon tatha afaganistan ke sath ek-ek ladaee chhedi gayi. inamen se pratyek ladaee men kampani ko ek ya doosare deshi raja ki madad mili. usane jin faujon se ladaee ki unamen se adhikansh bharatiy sipahi the aur ladaee ka kharch poori tarah bharatiy karadata ko uthana pada. in ladaiyon ke phalasvaroop 1857 ee. tak sare bharat par sidhe kampani ka prabhutv sthapit ho gaya. do-tihaee bharat par deshi rajyon ka shasan bana raha. parantu unhonne kampani ka sarvabhaum prabhutv svikar kar liya aur adhinasth tatha ashrit mitr raja ke roop men apani riyasat ka shasan chalate rahe.

gadar- pratham svatntry sngram

inhen bhi dekhen: jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee, tatya tope, raja ramamohan ray evn sati pratha

is kal men sati pratha ka ant kar dene ke saman kuchh samajik sudhar ke bhi kary kiye gaye. raja ramamohan ray ne sati pratha jaisi amanaviy pratha ke viruddh nirantar andolan chalaya. unake poorn aur nirantar samarthan ka hi prabhav tha, jisake karan laaurd viliyam baintik 1829 men sati pratha ko band karane men samarth ho saka. angrezi ke madhyam se pashchim shiksha ke prasar ki disha men qadam uthaye gaye, angrezi desh ki rajabhasha bana di gayi, sare desh men saman zabta divani aur zabta faujadari qanoon lagoo kar diya gaya, parantu shasan svechchhachari bana raha aur vah poori tarah angrezon ke hathon men raha. 1833 ke chartar ekt ke viparit oonche padon par bharatiyon ko niyukt nahin kiya gaya. bhap se chalane vale jahazon aur relagadiyon ka prachalan, eesaee mishanariyon dvara akshepajanak riti se eesaee dharm ka prachar, laaurd dalahauzi dvara zabti ka siddhant lagoo karake athava kushasan ke adhar par kuchh purani deshi riyasaton ki zabti tatha british bharatiy sena ke bharatiy sipahiyon ki shikayaten; in sab karanon ne milakar sare bharat men ek gahare asntosh ki ag dhadhaka di, jo 1857-58 ee. men gadar ke roop men bhadak uthi.

antim mugal bahadur shah zafar, jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee, tantya tope (ramachnndr pandurng), bihar ke baboo kunvarasinh, maharashtr se nana sahib, is pratham kranti ke prayas ke nayak the kintu prayas viphal ho gaya. adhikansh deshi rajaon ne apane ko gadar se alag rakha. kampani ko balapoorvak gadar ko kuchal dene men saphalata mili, parantu gadar ke bad british parliyament ne bharat par kampani ka shasan samapt kar diya. bharat ka shasan ab sidhe briten ke dvara kiya jane laga.

bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana

is prakar bharat men british shasan ka doosara kal (1858-1947 ee.) arambh hua. is kal ka shasan ek ke bad ikattis gavarnar-janaralon ke hathon men raha. gavarnar-janaral ko ab vaisaray (british samrat ka pratinidhi) kaha jane laga. laaurd kaining pahala vaisaray tatha gavarnar-janaral niyukt hua. is kal ke bharatiy itihas ki sabase pramukh ghatana hai—bharat men rashtravadi bhavana ka uday aur 1947 ee. men bharat ki svadhinata ke roop men antim vijay. 1857 ee. men kalakatta (kolakata), madras (chennee) tatha bambee (mumbee) men vishvavidyalayon ki sthapana ke bad shiksha ka prasar hone laga tatha 1869 ee. men svez nahar khulane ke bad inglaind tatha yoorop se nikat sampark sthapit ho jane se bharat men naye madhyavarg ka vikas hua. yah madhy varg pashchimi darshan shastr, rajaniti shastr tatha arthashastr ke vicharon se prabhavit tha aur british shasan men bharatiyon ko jo nicha darja mila hua tha, usase rusht tha. british men sthapit shanti ke phalasvaroop yah varg sare bharat ko ek desh tatha samast bharatiyon ko ek qaum manane laga aur briten ki bhanti snsadiy shasan pranali ki sthapana usaka lakshy ban gaya. vah ek aise sngathan ki avashyakata mahasoos karane laga jo samast bharatiy rashtr ka pratinidhitv kar sake.

isake phalasvaroop 1885 ee. men bambee men bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana huee jisamen desh ke samast bhagon se 71 pratinidhiyon ne bhag liya. kangres ka doosara adhiveshan 1883 ee. men kalakatta men hua, jisamen sare desh se nirvachit 434 pratinidhiyon ne bhag liya. is adhiveshan men mang ki gayi ki bharat men kendriy tatha prantiy vidhanamndalon ka vistar kiya jaye aur usake adhe sadasy nirvachit bharatiy hon. kangres har sal apane adhiveshanon men apani mangen doharati rahi. laaurd dafarin ne kangres par vyngy karate hue use aise alpasnkhyak varg ka pratinidhitv karane vali snstha bataya jise sirf khurdabin se dekha ja sakata hai. laaurd lainsadaun ne usake prati poorn upeksha ki niti barati, laaurd karzan ne usaka khuleam mazak udaya tatha laaurd minto dvitiy ne 1909 ke indiyan kaauunsil ekt dvara sthapit vidhanamndalon men musalamanon ko anuchit riti se anupat se adhik pratinidhitv dekar unhen phodane tatha kangres ko todane ki koshish ki, phir bhi kangres jinda rahi.

prarambhik saphalata

kangres ko pahali mamooli saphalata 1909 men mili, jab inglaind men bharat mntri ke nirshadan men kam karane vali bharat parishad men do bharatiy sadasyon ki niyukti pahali bar ki gayi, vaisaray ki ekjikyootiv kaunsil men pahali bar ek bharatiy sadasy ki niyukti ki gayi tatha indiyan kaunsil ekt ke dvara kendriy tatha prantiy vidhanamndalon ka vistar kar diya gaya tatha unamen nirvachit bharatiy pratinidhiyon ka anupat pahale se adhik badha diya gaya. in sudharon ke prastav laaurd marle ne halanki bharat men snsadiy snsthaon ki sthapana karane ka koee irada hone se inkar kiya, phir bhi ekt men jo vyavasthaen ki gayin thi, unaka uddeshy usi disha men age badhane ke siva aur kuchh nahin ho sakata tha. 1911 ee. men laaurd karzan ke dvara 1905 ee. men kiya bngal ka vibhajan radd kar diya gaya aur bharat ne briten ka poora sath diya. bharat ne yuddh ko jitane ke lie briten ki faujon se, dhan se tatha samagri se madad ki. bharat asha karata tha ki is rajabhakti pradarshan ke badale yuddh se hone vale labhon men use bhi hissa milega.

dvaidhashasan pranali

bharat ke lie svashasan ki mang karane men pahali bar bharatiy musalaman bhi hinduon ke sath snyukt ho gaye aur agast 1917 ee. men british sarakar ne ghoshana ki ki bharat men britesh shasan ki niti hai ki shasan ki pratyek shakha men bharatiyon ko adhikarik sthan diya jay tatha svayatt shasan ka kramikaroop se vikas kiya jay, taki british samrajy ke antargat bharat men uttaradayi sarakar ki uttarottar sthapana ho sake. is ghoshana ke anusar 1919 ka gavarnament aph indiya ekt pas kiya gaya. is ekt ke dvara vidhan mndalon ka vistar kar diya gaya aur ab unake bahusnkhy sadasy bharatiy janata ke nirvachit pratinidhi hone lage. ekt ke dvara kendriy tatha prantiy sarakaron ke karyon ka vibhajan kar diya gaya aur pranton men dvaidhashasan pranali lagoo karake karyapalika ko anshik riti se vidhanamndal ke prati uttaradayi bana diya gaya. is ekt ke dvara bharat ne sunishchit riti se pragati ki. bharatiy ke itihas men pahali bar ek aisi snstha ki sthapana ki gayi, jisake dvara british bharat ke nirvachit pratinidhi sarakari adhar par ekatr ho sakate the. pahali bar unaka bahumat sthapit kar diya gaya aur ab ve sarakar ke karyon ki nirbhayatapoorvak alochana kar sakate the.

asahayog aur satyagrah

saradar bhagatasinh

in sudharon se purane kangresajan sntusht ho gaye, parantu nav yuvakon ka dal, jise mohanadas karamachnd gandhi ke roop men ek naya neta mil gaya tha, sntusht nahin hua. in sudharon ke antargat kendriy karyapalika ko kendriy vidhan mndal ke prati uttaradayi nahin banaya gaya tha aur vaisaray ko bahut adhik adhikar pradan kar diye gaye the. atev usane in sudharon ko asvikrit kar diya. usake man men jo ashnkaen thin, ve galat nahin thi, yah 1919 ke ekt ke bad hi pas kiye gaye raulat ekt jaise damanakari qanoonon tatha jaliyanvala bag hatyakannd jaise damanamoolak karyon se siddh ho gaya. jaliyanvala bag hatyakand ke 21 sal bad 13 march 1940 ko 'raauyal sentral eshiyan sosayati' ki lndan ke 'kaauksatan haaul' men baithak men oodhamasinh ne maikal o dayar par goliyan chala din. jisase usaki turant maut ho gee. chndrashekhar azad, rajaguru, sukhadev aur bhagatasinh jaise mahan krantikariyon ne british shasan ko aise ghav diye jinhen british shasak bahut dinon tak nahin bhool pae. kangres ne 1920 ee. men apane nagapur adhiveshan men apana dhyey poorn svarajy ki sthapana ghoshit kar di aur apani mangon ko manavane ke lie usane ahinsak asahayong ki niti apanayi. choonki british sarakar ne usaki mangen svikar nahin ki aur damanakari niti ke dvara vah asahayog andolan ko daba dene men saphal ho gayi. isalie kangres ne disambar 1929 ee. men lahaur adhiveshan men apana lakshy poorn svidhinata nishchit kiya aur apani mang ka manavane ke lie usane 1930 men namak satyagrah andolan shuroo kar diya.

dvitiy vishvayuddh

sarakar ne pahale ki tarah andolan ko dabane ke lie daman aur samajhaute ke donon raste akhtiyar kiye aur 1935 ka gavarnent aph indiya ekt pas kiya. is ekt ke dvara britash bharat tatha deshi riyasaton ke lie sammilit roop se ek snghiy shasan ka prastav kiya, kendr men ek prakar ke dvaidh shasan ki sthapana ki gayi tatha pranton ko svashasan pradan kar diya gaya. ekt ka pranton se sambandhit bhag lagoo kar diya gaya tatha aprail 1937 ee. men prantiy svashasan ka shriganesh kar diya gaya. parantu ekt ke sngh sarakar se sambandhit bhag ke lagoo hone se pahale hi sitambar 1939 ee. men dvitiy vishvayuddh shuroo ho gaya jo 1945 ee. tak jari raha. yah vishvavyapi yuddh tha aur briten ko apane sare sadhan usamen jhonk dene pade. bharat ne briten ka sath diya aur bharat ke pas jan aur dhan ki jo vishal shakti thi usase labh uthakar tatha amarika ki sahayata se briten yuddh jit gaya. gandhi ji ke amit prabhav tatha ahinsa men unaki dridh nishtha ke karan bharat ne yadyapi british sambandh ko banaye rakha, phir bhi yah spasht ho gaya ki bharat ab british samrajy ki adhinata men nahin rahana chahata.

sampradayik dnge

kuchh british afasaron ne bharat ko svadhin hone se rokane ke lie antim durrabh sndhi ki aur musalamanon ki bharat vibhajan karake pakistan ki sthapana ki mang ka samarthan karana shuroo kar diya. isake phalasvaroop agast 1946 ee. men sare desh men bhayanak sampradayik dnge shuroo ho gaye, jinhen vaisaray laaurd vevel apane samast fauji anubhavon tatha sadhanon bavajood rokan men asaphal raha. yah anubhav kiya gaya ki bharat ka prashasan aisi sarakar ke dvara chalana sambhav nahin hai. jisaka niyntran mudhy roop se angrejon ke hathon men ho. atev sitambar 1946 ee. men laaurd vevel ne pndit javahar lal neharoo ke netritv men bharatiy netaon ki ek antarim sarakar gathit ki. british adhikariyon ki kripapatr hone ke karan muslim lig ke dimag kafi oonche ho gaye the. usane pahale to ek mahine tak antarim sarakar se apane ko alag rakha, isake bad vah bhi usamen sammilit ho gayi.

svadhinata

15 agast 1947 ka akhabar
Newspaper Of 15th August 1947

bharat ka snvidhan banane ke lie ek bharatiy snvidhan sabha ka ayojan kiya gaya. 1947 ee. ke shuroo men laaurd vevel ke sthan par laaurd mauntabeten vaisaray niyukt hua. use pnjab men bhayanak sampradayik dngon ka samana karana pada. jinako bhadakane men vahan ke kuchh british aphasaron ka hath tha. vah pradhanamntri etali ke netritv men briten ki sarakar ko yah samajhane men saphal ho gaya ki bharat ka bharat aur pakistan ke roop men vibhajan karake use svadhinata pradan karane se shanti ki sthapana sambhav ho sakegi aur briten bharat men apane vyaparik hiton ko surakshit rakh sakega. 3 joon 1947 ko british sarakar ki or se yah ghoshana kar di gayi ki bharat ka; bharat aur pakistan ke roop men vibhajan karake use svadhinata pradan kar di jayagi. british parliyament ne 15 agast 1947 ko indipedns aph indiya ekt pas kar diya. is tarah bharat uttar pashchimi sima prant, baloochistan, sindh, pashchimi pnjab, poorvi bngal tatha pashchim bngal ke musalim bahul bhagon se rahit ho jane ke bad, sat shatabdiyon ki videshi paradhinata ke bad svadhinata ke ek naye path par agrasar hua.

gandhi ji ki hatya

svadhin bharat ko jin samasyaon ka samana karana pada, ve saral nahin thin. use sabase pahale sampradayik unmad ko shant karana tha. bharat ne janaboojhakar dharm nirapeksh rajy banana pasnd kiya. usane ashvasan diya ki jin musalamanon ne pakistan ko nirgaman karane ke bajay bharat men rahana pasnd kiya hai unako nagarikata ke poorn adhikar pradan kiye jayenge. halanki pakistan janaboojhakar apane yahan se hinduon ko nikal bahar karane athava jin hinduon ne vahan rahane ka phaisala kiya tha, unako ek prakar se dvitiy shreni ka nagarik bana dene ki niti par chal raha tha. laaurd mauntabeten ko svadhin bharat ka pahala gavarnar janaral banaye rakha gaya aur pndit javahar lal neharoo tatha antarim sarakar men unake kangrasi sahayogiyon ne thode se herapher ke sath pahale bharatiy mntrimndal ka nirman kiya. is mntrimndal men saradar patel tatha maulana abulakalam azad ka to sammilit kar liya gaya tha, parantu netaji ke bade bhaee sharatachndr bos ko chhod diya gaya. 30 janavari 1948 ee. ko nathooram godase namak hindoo ne rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ki hatya kar di. sara desh shok ke sagar men doob gaya. nau mahine ke bad, pakistan ke pahale gavarnar janaral muhammad ali jinnah ki bhi mrityu ho gayi. usi varsh laaurd mauntabeten ne bhi avakash grahan kar liya aur chakravarti rajagopalachari bharat ke pratham aur antarim gavarnar janaral niyukt hue.

riyasaton ka vilay

adhikansh deshi riyasaton ne , jinake samane bharat athava pakistan men vilay ka prastav rakha gaya tha, bharat men vilay ke paksh men nirnay liya, parantu, do riyasaton—kashmir tatha haidarabad ne koee nirnay nahin kiya. pakistan ne balapoorvak kashmir ki riyasat par adhikar karane ka prayas kiya, parantu aktoobar 1947 ee. men kashmir ke maharaj ne bharat men vilay ki ghoshana kar di aur bharatiy senaon ko vayuyanon se bhejakar shrinagar sahit kashmiri ghati tak jammoo ki raksha kar li gayi. pakistani akramanakariyon ne riyasat ke uttari bhag par apana qabza banaye rakha aur isake phalasvaroop pakistan se yuddh chhid gaya. bharat ne yah mamala snyukt rashtr sngh men uthaya aur snyukt rashtr sngh ne jis kshetr par jisaka qabza tha, usi ke adhar par yuddh viram kar diya. vah aj tak is saval ka koee nipatara nahin kar saka hai. haidarabad ke nizam ne apani riyasat ko svatntrata ka darja dilane ka shadayntr racha, parantu bharat sarakar ki pulis karravaee ke phalasvaroop vah 1948 ee. men apani riyasat bharat men vilayan karane ke lie majaboor ho gaye. riyasaton ke vilay men tatkalin grihamntri saradar ballabh bhaee patel ki mukhy bhoomika rahi.

sngh rajyon ka vilay

bharatiy snvidhan sabha ke dvara 26 navambar 1949 men snvidhan pas kiya gaya. bharat ka snvidhan adhiniyam 26 janavari 1950 ko lagoo kar diya gaya. is snvidhan men bharat ko laukatantrik ganarajy ghoshit kiya gaya tha aur snghatmak shasan ki vyavastha ki gayi thi. daktar rajendr prasad ko pahala rashtrapati chuna gaya aur bahumat parti ke neta ke roop men pndit javahar lal neharoo ne pradhan mntri ka pad grahan kiya. is pad par ve 27 mee 1964 ee. men, apani mrityu tak bane rahe. navodit bharatiy ganarajy ke lie unaka dirghakalin pradhanamntritv bada labhadayi siddh hua. usase prashasan tatha ghareloo evn videsh nitiyon men nirntarata bani rahi. pndit neharoo ne vaideshik mamalon men gut-nirapekshata ki niti apanayi aur chin se rajanayik sambandh sthapit kiye. phrans ne 1951 ee. men chndranagar shantipoorn riti se bharat ka hastantarit kar diya. 1956 ee. men usane any phrench bastiyan (pandicheri, karikal, mahe tatha yunnan) bhi bharat ko saunp din. purtagal ne phrans ka anusaran karane aur shantipoorn riti se apani purtagali bastiyan (gova, daman aur div) chhodane se inkar kar diya. phalasvaroop 1961 ee. men bharat ko balapoorvak in bastiyon ko lena pada[1]. is tarah bharat ka ekikaran poora ho gaya.

itihas tithi kram 1947 tak
kram tithi kram vivaran
1 7000 ee.poo. rajasthan (sambhar) men bone paudhe ke pratham sakshy.
2 6000 ee.poo. meharagadh (sindh-baloochistan sima), burzahom (kashmir) men bharat ke prachinatam avas, krishi tatha pashupalan ke avashesh.
3 5000–4000 ee.poo. bagor (bhilavada) tatha adamagadh (hoshngabad) ke nikat akhetakon dvara bhed-bakari palan ke pratham avashesh.
4 4000–3000 ee.poo. khetiharon-pashupalakon ki sthaniy sabhyataen.
5 2500 ee.poo. sindhu ghati men poorv-hadappa sabhyata ke nagaron ka vikas, asthi evn prastar upakaran tatha manakon ke abhooshan ke avashesh.
6 2500–1750 ee.poo. rediya-karban tithi-nirdharan ke adhar par hadappa sabhyata ka kal-vistar.
7 2250–2000 ee.poo. hadappa sabhyata ka poorn-vikasit daur, vighatan tatha sthaniy sabhyataon ka uday.
8 1500 ee.poo. bharat men aryon ka agaman, rigved ki rachana, vaidik kal (1500-1000) prarambh, gnga ke maidan men aryottar tamr sabhyata.
9 1000 ee.poo. aryon ka (gnga maidan) vistar, uttar vaidik kal prarambh, 'brahman granthon' ki rachana, varn vyavastha ka bijaropan, lauh dhatu ka prayog prarambh.
10 950 ee.poo. mahabharat ka yuddh.
11 800 ee.poo. maharshi vyas ke dvara mahabharat mahakavy ki rachana, aryon ka dakshin-poorv (bngal) ki or vistar, ramayan ka pratham vrittant.
12 600–550 ee.poo. upanishadon ki rachana, aryon ka vidarbh tatha godavari tak dakshin-vistar. solah mahajanapadon ki sthapana, ary sabhyata men karmakandiy anushthan pratishthit.
13 563–483 ee.poo. bauddh dharm ke snsthapak gautam buddh ka jivan kal, janm-lumbini, mrityu-kushinagar.
14 599–257 ee.poo. jain dharm ke punarpratishthapak vardhaman mahavir ka kal (janm-kundagram, vaishali), mrityu-pavapuri, kushinagar.
15 544–492 ee.poo. gautam buddh ke samakalik bimbisar (haryak vnsh) ka rajyakal, magadh rajy ki shreshthata.
16 517–509 ee.poo. hakhamani vnsh (eeran) ke samrat deriyas pratham ke sath pratham videshi akraman, aryon ki parajay, yoonani nau-senapati skailaiks dvara sindhu nadi par gaveshan abhiyan.
17 492–460 ee.poo. bimbisar ke putr ajatashatru ka rajyakal.
18 412–344 ee.poo. shishunag vnsh ka shasanakal, avanti ke pradyaut vnsh ka magadh samrajy men vilay.
19 400 ee.poo. sampoorn dakshin bharat men aryon ka prabhutv, sambhavatah shrilnka tak vistar. (dakshin bharat)
20 344 ee.poo. mahapadmanand dvara magadh men nndavnsh ki sthapana.
21 326 ee.poo. nnd vnshi raja ghanannd ki sainy shakti se prabhavit hokar sikandar ke sainikon ka vapas lautane ka irada, vapasi marg men bebilon men sikandar ki mrityu.
22 322 ee.poo. chndragupt maury dvara (kautily ki madad se) nnd shasak ghanannd ko parajit kar maury vnsh ki sthapana.
23 315 ee.poo. indika ke lekhak tatha selyukas (yoonani shasak) ke doot megasthaniz ka bharat men agaman.
24 298–273 ee.poo. chandragupt maury ke putr bindusar ka rajy kal.
25 273–232 ee.poo. ashok ka shasanakal, mauryavnsh ka svarnayug, ashok dvara kaling ki vijay (262-61).
26 185 ee.poo. antim maury shasak brihadrath ki hatya kar maury senapati pushyamitr shung dvara shung vnsh ki sthapana.
27 190–171 ee.poo. yavan shasak demetriyas ka rajyakal.
28 165 ee.poo. kaling shasak kharavel dvara 'tramiradesh snghatam' (pandy, chol) rajy par vijay.
29 155–130 ee.poo. sabase prasiddh yavan shasak 'minandar' (milind) ka rajyakal.
30 145 ee.poo. chol raja elara ki shrilnka ke shasak asel par vijay tatha lagabhag 50 varshon tak shasan.
31 128 ee.poo. yoochi akraman ke bhay se shak qabilon ka bharat men pnjab se pravesh.
32 71 ee.poo. shung vnsh ke antim samrat devabhooti ki hatya, vasudev ke dvara kanv vnsh ki sthapana.
33 60 ee.poo. andhr men simuk dvara satavahan vnsh ki sthapana.
34 58 ee.poo. ujjain ke shasak vikramadity dvara vikram snvat ka prarambh.
35 50 ee.poo. dakshin bharat (dakkan) men satavahan vnsh shuroo.
36 22 ee.poo. rom ke shasak agastas ke darabar men pandy rajadoot pahuncha, chol, pandyon ka rom men vyaparik sambandh.
37 14–13 ee. shak (hind-parthiyan) shasak gondofaras ka shasan, eesaee dharm prachar hetu roman snt sent tamas ka bharat men agaman.
38 15 ee. kushanon (yoochi ka tochariyan) ka bharat men pravesh.
39 64 ee. uttar-pashchimi bharat men shak vim kadafaisis ka rajy.
40 78 ee. kushan vnsh ke mahanatam shasak kanishk ka rajyarohan, usake dvara shak snvat ka prarambh.
41 78–101 ee. kanishk ka shasanakal, chauthi bauddh sngiti ka (kashmir men) ayojan.
42 100 ee. ashvaghosh dvara 'saundaranand' tatha 'buddhacharit' evn 'kumaralat' ke dvara 'kalpamnditika' ki rachana.
43 100–200 ee. sngam yug, karikal ka shasan (trichanapalli ke nikat kaveri nadi par sinchaee bandh ka nirman). (dakshin bharat)
44 109–132 ee. mahanatam satavahan shasak gautamiputr satakarni dvara rajy vistar.
45 150 ee. baghelakhand, varanasi tatha age chalakar mathura tak ke kshetr men bharashiv nagaon ki vibhinn shakhaon ka rajy.
46 200–250 ee. satavahanon ka patan, maharashtr men abhir, uttari kanara tatha maisoor zilon men kuntal aur katu, andhr men ikshvaku tatha vidarbh men vakatakon ki satta sthapit.
47 300–888 ee. kanchi men pallavon ka shasanakal. (dakshin bharat)
48 225 ee. vindhyashakti dvara vakatak shasan ki sthapana, agale 272 varshon tak is vnsh ka shasan.
49 250 ee. nasik men abhiron dvara traikutakar vnsh ki sthapana, agale 250 varshon tak is vnsh ka shan.
50 320–335 ee. chandragupt pratham ne gupt vnsh ko sthapit kiya.
51 325 ee. krishna nadi ke dakshin men pallav vnshi rajy ki sthapana.
52 335–376 ee. samudragupt ka shasanakal.
53 330–375 ee. sampoorn uttar bharat men samudragupt ka shasan. poorv men asam, pashchim men kabul, uttar men nepal tatha dakshin men pallavon tak, keval ujjain svatntr (shak vnsh ke adhin).
54 350 ee. mayoorasharman dvara kadamb vnsh ki sthapana jo agale 200 varshon tak vidyaman raha.
55 375–413 ee. chandragupt dvitiy vikramadity dvara ujjain, malava tatha gujarat par vijay, rajadhani pataliputr se ayodhya aur tatpashchat kaushambi sthanantarit, chini yatri fahyan ka bharat agaman.
56 415–454 ee. kumaragupt pratham ka shasanakal, nalanda men bauddh vihar tatha vishvavidyalay ki sthapana, hunon ke akraman ka khatara.
57 455–467 ee. skandagupt ka shasanakal, hoonon ka bharat par pratham akraman tatha unaki parajay.
58 477–496 ee. buddhagupt guptavnsh ka antim samrat, guptavnsh ka vighatan prarambh.
59 490–766 ee. saurashtr ke ballabhi kshetr men maitrak (sambhavatah videshi mool) akramakon ka shasan. (pashchim bharat)
60 500–502 ee. hoonon ke pratham shasak toraman dvara bharat men rajy sthapana tatha madhyavarti bhag (malava men eran) tak usaka vistar.
61 500–757 ee. pashchim tatha madhy dakkan men vatapi ka pratham chaluky vnsh. (dakshin bharat)
62 502–528 ee. toraman ka uttaradhikari mihirakul bharat men gupt shasak bhanugupt dvara parajit, eran par guptavnsh ka punah adhikar, (510).
63 533 ee. mndasaur ke yashodharman ki mihirakul par vijay.
64 540 ee. paravarti gupt tatha gupt vnsh ki mukhy shakha ka ant.
65 550–861 ee. madhy rajapootana men madhy eshiya men aye hue gurjar khanabadosh dalon ka shasan sthapit. (pashchim bharat)
66 600–1200 ee. maukhari vnsh ke shasak yashovarman ki mrityu (752), uttar, madhy, pashchim tatha dakshin bharat men anek samnton ke dvara svatntrata ki ghoshana, anek chhote-bade rajyon ka uday, bngal men gaud, khng, varman, pal tatha sen vnsh, ujjain men gurjar-pratihar, kannauj men pratihar, udisa men bhaum, bhnj, som tatha poorvi gng vnsh, asam men bhaskar varma, gujarat men chaluky, dhara men paramar, narmada-tripuri tatha uttar pradesh men kalachuri, rajasthan men chahaman (chauhan), bundelakhand men chndel, kannauj men gahadaval, kashmir men karkot, utpal tatha lohar, afaganistan-pnjab men hindushahi vnsh.
67 606–647 ee. harsh (pushyabhuti ya kanyakubj vnsh) ka shasanakal. chini bauddh yatri hven tsang ka bharat agaman (630-44), banabhatt ne 'harshacharit' ki rachana ki.
68 630–970 ee. poorvi dakkan men vengi ke poorvi chalukyon ka shasanakal. (dakshin bharat)
69 636–637 ee. khalifa umar ke samay men arabon ka bharat par pahala abhilikhit hamala. (dakshin bharat)
70 643 ee. chini yatri hvenasang ki chin vapasi. (dakshin bharat)
71 647 ee. tibbat se kannauj ate hue hven sang par kisi sthaniy samnt ke dvara hamala. harshavardhan ki mrityu. (dakshin bharat)
72 674 ee. vikramadity pratham, chaluky aur parameshvar varman pratham, pallav shasak bane. (dakshin bharat)
73 675–685 ee. tisare chin yatri itsing ka nalanda avas. (dakshin bharat)
74 700 ee. kannauj men yashovarman (maukhari vnsh) sinhasanaroodh, snskrit natyakar bhavabhooti tatha prakrit kavi vakpatiraj ko usake rajadarabar men snrakshan.
75 700–900 ee. dakshin bharat men alavaron (vaishnav) ka bhakti andolan, bhakti sngrah 'prabndhamh' ki rachana. (dakshin bharat)
76 712 ee. muhammad bin qasim ke netritv men bharat par pratham arab akraman, maitrak rajy ka patan. (pashchim bharat), muhammad bin qasim ka sindh par akraman, devalagadh vijay, nirun ki ladaee men hindoo raja dahir ki mrityu, qasim ki brahmanabad par vijay.
77 730 ee. kannauj men maukhari shasak yashovarman sinhasanarudh.
78 753–774 ee. khalifa mnsoor ke kal men brahmagupt ke 'brahm siddhant' tatha 'khandanakhady' ka alfajari dvara arabi men anuvad.
79 757–973 ee. manyakhet men rashtrakooton ka shasanakal. (dakshin bharat)
80 740–1036 ee. uttar bharat men gurjar-pratiharon ka adhipaty, arabon ka pratirodh. (uttari bharat)
81 746–974 ee. chhap ya chhapautakatt, gurjar qabile dvara 746 ke asapas anhilapur (anandapur) ki sthapana, jo 15vin shati tak pashchim bharat ka pramukh nagar raha. (pashchim bharat)
82 786–808 ee. eerani shasak khalifa haroon-al-rashid ka shasanakal, baramask (ek mantri) dvara bharat ke anek vaidyon, jyotishiyon, rasayanashastriyon, vicharakon ko bagadad bulakar unase in vishayon ke anek granthon ka arabi men anuvad karavaya.
83 824–924 ee. vaishnav bhaktikal.
84 831–1310 ee. chandelon dvara bundelakhand men svatntr rajy ki sthapana, anek vishnu mandiron aur khajurahon ke mandiron ka bhi nirman. (pashchim bharat)
85 840–890 ee. sataluj se narmada nadi tak mihirabhoj ya bhoj ka shasan. (pashchim bharat)
86 950–1200 ee. indaur ke pas dhara men paramaron ka rajy, jinamen munj (974-994) tatha bhoj prasiddh raja hue, bhoj jyotish, kavyashastr, vastukala tatha snskriti ka vidvan tha. (pashchim bharat)
87 973–1189 ee. kalyani ka dvitiy chaluky vnsh. (dakshin bharat)
88 974–1240 ee. chalukyon ka anhilapur, saurashtr tatha aboo kshetr men prabhutv, chaluky shasak moolaraj ka shasan kal (974-995). (pashchim bharat)
89 985–1014 ee. chol shasak rajaraj ka shasanakal, bhoomi-sarvekshan ka prarambh (1000 ee.). (dakshin bharat)
90 986–87 ee. khurasani shasak alaptagin ke gulam subuktagin ka kabul-kndhar men hindushahi shasak jayapal par pratham akraman, jayapal parajit.
91 997–998 ee. subuktagin ki mrityu, mahamood gajanavi khurasan ki gaddi par baitha.
92 999 ee. bagadad ke khalifa dvara mahamood gajanavi ko svatutr shasak ke roop men manyata.
93 1000 ee. mahamood gajanavi ka bharat par (kabul men) pratham akraman, sthaniy janata par loot tatha jabaran dharm parivartan.
94 1002 ee. mahamood gajanavi ka tisara akraman, anandapal se yuddh tatha usaki parajay.
95 1010 ee. anandapal apamanajanak sharton par mahamood gajanavi ka samnt bana.
96 1011–1012 ee. mahamood ka thaneshvar par hamala, uttar-pashchim bharat men hindushahi vnsh ke chhote-bade sabhi rajy dhvast.
97 1013 ee. anandapal ki mrityu, putr trilochanapal uttaradhikari bana.
98 1014 ee. toshi ki ladaee men trilochanapal parast, jhelam tak ka kshetr mahamood gajanavi ke rajy men sammilit.
99 1014–1044 ee. chol raja rajendr ka shasanakal, shrilnka ki vijay (1018), bngal par akraman (1021). (dakshin bharat)
100 1017 ee. shnkarachary ke 'mayavad' ka khndan kar vishishtadvaitavad mat ki sthapana karane vale vaishnav achary ramanuj ka janm.
101 1018–1019 ee. mahamood gajanavi ka gnga nadi-yamuna doab kshetr par qabza.
102 1025–1026 ee. gajanavi ke dvara somanath mandir (gujarat) ki loot.
103 1026 ee. antim hindooshahi shasak bhimapal ki mrityu, kabul-kndhar ke hindushahi vnsh ka ant.
104 1027 ee. jaton ko kuchalane ke lie mahamood gajanavi ka bharat (gujarat-sindh) par 17van v antim akraman.
105 1030 ee. mahamood gajanavi ki mrityu; masood, gajani ka sultan, 'kitab-ul-hind' ke lekhak alaberooni ka bharat agaman.
106 1043 ee. sthaniy hindoo rajaon ka lahaur par punah adhikar kar svadhin rajy sthapit karane ka prayas viphal.
107 1044–52 ee. rajendr ke uttaradhikari rajadhiraj pratham ka shasanakal. (dakshin bharat)
108 1052–64 ee. rajendr dvitiy ka shasanakal. (dakshin bharat)
109 1064–70 ee. vir rajendr chol ka shasanakal. (dakshin bharat)
110 1070–1120 ee. kulottung pratham ka shasanakal, andhr ka chol rajy men viley (1076). (dakshin bharat)
111 1120–1267 ee. paravarti chol shasakon ka kal. (dakshin bharat)
112 1131 ee. karnatak men lingayat sampraday ke snsthapak snt basaveshvar ya basav ka janm. (dakshin bharat)
113 1137 ee. vishishtadvaitavad mat ke vicharak snt ramanujachary ka dehant.
114 1162 ee. dvaitavadi vaishnav snt nimbark svami ka janm.
115 1163 ee. muijuddin mohammad gauri gajani ka shasan bana.
116 1167 ee. snt basaseshvar ka nidhan.
117 1191 ee. taraeen ke pratham yuddh men rajapoot shasak prithviraj tritiy ke hathon muhammad gori parajit.
118 1192 ee. taraeen ka doosara yuddh, mohammad gauri ke hathon prithviraj tritiy ki har, gauri ka gulam kutubuddin aibak bharat ka soobedar niyukt, merath evn kaul (aligadh) par adhikar.
119 1192–1193 ee. dilli par kutubuddin aibak ka adhipaty.
120 1199 ee. dvaitavadi sampraday ke achary mahadev madhvachary ka janm.
121 1200 ee. mohammad gauri ki mrityu.
122 1206 ee. kutubuddin aibak dvara 'dilli saltanat' ki sthapana; dilli saltanat par shasan karane vale pratham vnsh- 'ilbari vnsh' ki sthapana; qutubaminar ka nirman arambh.
123 1210 ee. aibak ki mrityu, aramashah uttaradhikari bana.
124 1211–1236 ee. iltutamish ka shasanakal, ranathambhaur vijay (1226).
125 1221 ee. bharat par chngez khan ka hamala.
126 1228 ee. bagadad ke khalifa se iltutamish ko 'khillat' arthath 'islami shasak ke roop men manyata'.
127 1229 ee. pratham yooropiy yatri mante kairbano (itali) ka bharat agaman.
128 1236 ee. iltutamish ke uttaradhikari rukunuddin firozashah ki mrityu, rajiya sultan gaddi par baithi.
129 1239 ee. ikhtiyaruddin altooniya ka vidroh.
130 1240 ee. rajiya sultan ki hatya.
131 1241 ee. bharat par mngolon ka pratham akraman.
132 1246 ee. sultan nasiruddin gaddi par asin, 1265 men usaki mrityu.
133 1253 ee. amir khusaro ka janm.
134 1266 ee. gayasuddin balaban gaddi par baitha.
135 1279 ee. maharashtr men snt sammelan ka ayojan.
136 1279 ee. bngal men tugaril khan ka vidroh.
137 1286 ee. balaban ki mrityu.
138 1288–1293 ee. prasiddh venish yatri marko polo ki bharat yatra.
139 1290 ee. jalaluddin khilaji dilli ka sultan, khilaji vnsh ki sthapana.
140 1294 ee. alauddin khilaji ka devagiri abhiyan.
141 1295–1316 ee. alauddin khilaji dilli ka sultan, rajy-vistar abhiyan prarambh; gujarat (1299), ranathambhaur (1301), chittaud (1303), malava (1305), malik kafoor ke netritv men dakkan abhiyan, 1320-1325-alauddin ki mrityu
142 1320–1325 ee. gayasuddin tugalaq (gazi malik) dilli ka sultan bana, tugalaq vnsh ki sthapana, kakatiy tatha pandyon ke rajy ka dilli saltanat men vilay (1321-1323).
143 1325 ee. gayasuddin ki mrityu, muhammad bin tugalaq gaddi par asin, amir khusaro ki mrityu, phainsiskan padari adorik af pordenaaun ki bharat yatra.
144 1326–1327 ee. muhammad tugalaq dvara dilli se daulatabad rajadhani ka sthanantaran.
145 1330 ee. muhammad tugalaq dvara prayog ke taur par sone ke sthan par tanbe ke sikke jari kie ge.
146 1333 ee. afriki yatri ibnabatoota ki bharat yatra.
147 1336 ee. harihar evn bukka dvara vijayanagar rajy ki sthapana.
148 1342 ibnabatoota ka chin ko prasthan.
149 1347 ee. alauddin bahaman shah pratham ke dvara bahamani rajy ki sthapana.
150 1350 ee. vidyapati ka janm, snt namadev ka nidhan.
151 1351 ee. muhammad tugalaq ki mrityu, firoz shah tugalak uttaradhikari bana.
152 1351–1388 ee. sultan firoz shah tugalak ka rajyakal, bngal abhiyan (1353-54, 1359, 1369), kangada vijay (1360-61), thatta vijay (1371-72), firoj ki mrityu.
153 1388–1414 ee. paravarti tugalaq shasakon ka shasanakal.
154 1398 ee. taimoor lng ka bharat par akraman, dilli par adhikar, bharat men arajakata.
155 1399 ee. dilli saltanat ka vighatan prarambh, soobedaron dvara svatntr rajyon ki sthapana, dilli-doab men iqabal khan, gujarat men jafar khan, sindh-multan men khizr khan, mahoba-kalapi men mahamood khan, kannauj athava bihar men khvaja jahan, dhara (indaur) men dilavar khan, saman men galib khan, bayana men shakhs khan tatha gvaliyar men bhimadev dvara svatntr rajy sthapit.
156 1411–42 ee. ahamadashah dvara ahamadabad ki sthapana evn svatntrata ki ghoshana.
157 1412 ee. antim tugalaq shasak mahamood ki mrityu, tugalaq vnsh ka patan.
158 1414 ee. dilli par khizr khan ka adhikar.
159 1420–1421 ee. itali ke yatri nikolo konti ki bharat yatra.
160 1429 ee. bahamani rajy ki rajadhani gulabarga se bidar sthanantarit.
161 1430–69 ee. mevad men rana kumbha ka rajyakal.
162 1442 ee. abdurrajjak ki vijayanagar yatra.
163 1447 ee. bahalol lodi ka dilli par adhikar, lodi vnsh ki sthapana.
164 1450 ee. gorakhanath ki sakhiyon ki rachana.
165 1455 ee. prasiddh snt kabir ka janm.
166 1469 ee. sikkh dharm ke snsthapak gurunanak dev ka nanakana (pnjab) men janm.
167 1470 ee. roosi yatri nikitin ki bharat yatra.
168 1472 ee. sherashah soori ka janm.
169 1479 ee. ballabhachary ka janm.
170 1483 ee. jahirooddin babar ka pharagana men janm.
171 1485 ee. chaitany mahaprabhu ka janm.
172 1486 ee. purtagali navik saradar bartholomyo diaj denovej ne 'kep aauf gud hop' (shubh yatra antarip) ki khoj ki, isi marg se bad men vaskodigama ne bharat ki yatra ki.
173 1489 ee. sikandar lodi gaddi par asin, bijapur svadhin.
174 1490 ee. dilli saltanat se ahamadanagar svadhin.
175 1494 ee. bngal men husainashah gaddi par asin, babar pharagana ka amir bana.
176 1498 ee. purtagali navik vaskodigama bharat men, kalikat pahuncha.
177 1502 ee. purtagal ke raja jaaun dvitiy ko pop alekjendar shashtam ka 'bul' pradan kiya gaya, jisase purtagaliyon ko bharat ke sath vyapar karane ka ekadhikar tatha bharat men rajy sthapit karane ka aupacharik adhikar mila.
178 1503 ee. pharagana babar ke adhikar se mukt.
179 1504 ee. itali ke ludoviko di barthema ki pashchim tatha dakshin bharat ki yatra, kabul par adhikar kar babar ka multan ki or prasthan.
180 1507 ee. gujarat ke shasak mahamood begada ka div (gova) men purtagaliyon ke viruddh abhiyan.
181 1508 ee. dvitiy mugal samrat humayoon ka janm.
182 1509 ee. vijayanagar men krishnadevaray sinhasanaroodh, purtagali gavarnar fransisko-d-almeda bharat aya.
183 1509–1527 ee. mevad men rana sanga ka rajyakal.
184 1510 ee. gova par purtagaliyon ka adhikar, alabukark gavarnar bana.
185 1512–1518 ee. golakunda bahamani rajy se mukt.
186 1517 ee. sikandar lodi ki mrityu ke pashchath ibrahim lodi gaddi par baitha.
187 1519 ee. babar ka bharat agaman.
188 1520 ee. babar ka bhira, siyalakot par akraman.
189 1522 ee. babar ka kndhar par adhikar.
190 1523 ee. lahaur aur sarahind par babar ka akraman, lahaur par adhikar (1524).
191 1526 ee. (21 aprail) babar tatha ibrahim lodi ke madhy panipat ka pratham yuddh, ibrahim lodi ki parajay tatha mrityu, dilli par qabze ke sath hi mugal samrajy ki sthapana.
192 1527 ee. rana sngram sinh tatha babar ke madhy khandava ka yuddh (16 march), sngram sinh parajit.
193 1528 ee. rana sngram sinh ki mrityu, babar ne sahayog ke badale sherashah ko sasaram (bihar) ki paitrik jagir vapas ki.
194 1530 ee. babar ki mrityu (29 mee), vijayanagar ke raja krishnadev ray ki mrityu (26 disambar).
195 1531 ee. gujarat ke bahadurashah ka malava tatha ujjain par adhikar.
196 1532 ee. rayasen, chnderi evn mndasaur par bahadurashah ka adhikar tatha chittaud par pahala hamala.
197 1533 ee. bahadurashah ne chittaud ka ghera uthaya, ranathambhaur tatha ajamer par adhikar, vaishnav snt chaitany ka nidhan.
198 1534 ee. humayoon ka malava ko prasthan, sherashah ne soorajagadh ki ladaee men bngal ke shasak mahamood khan ko parast kiya.
199 1535 ee. purtagaliyon ki sahayata se bahadurashah ka chittaud par adhikar, humayoon se bahadurashah parajit, humayoon ki gujarat tatha malava par vijay.
200 1536 ee. humayoon ne askari ko gujarat ka shasak niyukt kiya, gujarat men mugalon ke viruddh vidroh.
201 1537 ee. gujarat ke shasak bahadurashah ki mrityu.
202 1538 ee. sherashah ke hathon bngal ka shasak mahamoodashah parast, humayoon ka bngal par akraman, sikkh guru nanak dev ka nidhan.
203 1539 ee. chausa ke yuddh men humayoon sherashah se parajit.
204 1540 ee. sherashah dilli ki gaddi par baitha.
205 1542 ee. maravad ke raja maladev ke amntran par humayoon jodhapur pahuncha, amarakot men (15 aktoobar) akabar ka janm.
206 1544 ee. humayoon faras ke tahamasp shah ki sharan men pahuncha.
207 1545 ee. shah tahamasp ki madad se kndhar-kabul par punah humayoon ka adhikar, sherashah ki mrityu, islamashah gaddi par baitha.
208 1553 ee. soor vnshi shasak islamashah ki mrityu.
209 1555 ee. lahaur par humayoon ka adhikar.
210 1556 ee. humayoon ki mrityu (24 janavari), bairam khan ke snrakshan men akabar mugal samrat bana, panipat ke doosare yuddh (5 navambar) men akabar ke dvara adilashah ka divan hemoo parajit, purtagal se pahala pres bharat pahuncha, jise jesuit padari gova lekar ae the.
211 1557 ee. khizr khan ke sath ladaee men adilashah mara gaya, sikandar soor ko harakar manakot ke qile par akabar ka adhikar.
212 1560 ee. akabar ke dvara bairam khan ka nishkasan.
213 1561 ee. akabar ki malava par vijay.
214 1562 ee. amer ki rajakumari (raja bharamal ki putri) se akabar ka vivah, yuddh-bnndiyon ko das banane ki pratha ka unmoolan.
215 1563 ee. akabar dvara tirthayatra-kar ki samapti.
216 1564 ee. akabar dvara jaziya kar ki ugahi band, rani durgavati ko parast kar gondavana mugal rajy men sammilit, rani dvara atmahatya.
217 1564–1567 ee. ujabekon ka vidroh.
218 1565 ee. vijayanagar ke shasak ramaray aur bahamani sultanon ke bich talikot ka yuddh, vijayanagar parajit.
219 1567 ee. radhavallabh sampraday ke pravartak shri harivnsh ka devaband (saharanapur) men janm.
220 1568 ee. akabar ki chittaud par vijay.
221 1569 ranathambhaur aur kalinjar par akabar ka adhikar, yuvaraj salim (jahangir) ka janm.
222 1571 ee. akabar dvara fatehapur sikari ka nirman tatha rajadhani banane ka nirnay.
223 1572 ee. rana udayasinh ki mrityu, jalaur ke raja aur mevad senapatiyon ke dvara rana pratap ko gaddi par baithaya gaya.
224 1573 ee. kabir ka nidhan, gujarat par akabar ka adhipaty.
225 1574–76 ee. akabar ki bihar-bngal par vijay.
226 1575 ee. thukaroee (udisa) ka yuddh, akabar dvara daood khan parajit fatehapur sikari men ibadatakhana ki sthapana.
227 1576 ee. haldighati ka yuddh, akabar dvara rana pratap parajit, akabar ka bngal par adhikar, daood khan ki mrityu.
228 1578 ee. bharatiy bhasha ki pahali pustak "dutrina krista' (tamil bhasha men) mudrit v prakashit, is pustak ke lie taip juabon gunjalbej nam ke speni luhar ne kkilon (keral) men dhale the. (dakshin bharat)
229 1579–1580 ee. akabar ne 'mahajaranama' (inphailibiliti dikri) jari kiya, bngal-bihar men vidroh, akabar ke darabar men gova se pratham jesuit mishan aya (1580).
230 1580–1611 ee. golakunda men sultan kuli kutubashah dvitiy ke ashray men 'rekhta' (hindustani ke adi roop) ke kaviyon ko protsahan.
231 1611–1656 adilashah bijapur ki gaddi par asin.
232 1582 ee. akabar ke dvara din-e-ilahi ki ghoshana.
233 1583 ee. pahale panch angrez vyapari (jaaun nyoobari, richard stepar, ralf, jems stori tatha viliyam lids) akabar ke nam maharani elijabeth ka patr lekar bharat pahunche, akabar se inaki mulaqat nahin ho paee, lekin lids ko akabar ke yahan jhaveri ki naukari mil gee, phinch ath sal tak bharat-barma ki yatra karane ke bad 26 aprail, 1591 ko landan pahuncha, phinch ke vivaran se hi angrez vyapariyon ki bharat se vyapar karane ki lalasa balavati huee.
234 1585 ee. kashmir par akabar ka adhipaty.
235 1589 ee. raja todaramal ki mrityu.
236 1590–1592 ee. akabar ki sindh par vijay.
237 1591 ee. faizi ko mugal rajadoot banakar dakkan ke rajyon men bheja gaya.
238 1592 ee. udisa par akabar ka adhikar.
239 1595 ee. akabar ki kndhar vijay, baloochistan mugal samrajy men sammilit.
240 1597 ee. rana pratap ki mrityu.
241 1600 ee. ahamadanagar ka patan, landan men maharani elijabeth dvara apane bhaee jarj, arl aauf kambaralaind tatha sar jaaun haaurt ki eest indiya kampani (d gavarnar end kampani aauf landan treding in tu d eest indij) ko bharat se vyapar karane ke lie adhikar patr pradan kiya gaya.
242 1601 ee. akabar ka asiragadh par adhikar.
243 1602 ee. abul fajal ki mrityu, dach yoonivarsal yoonaited eest indiya kampani ki sthapana, 13 varshon men hi halaind ke eshiya vyapar men asadharan vriddhi.
244 1601–1603 ee. akabar ke putr salim ka vidroh.
245 1605 ee. akabar ki mrityu (16 aktoobar), jahangir gaddi par baitha (24 aktoobar).
246 1606 ee. shahajada khusaro ka vidroh, jahangir ke adeshanusar panchaven sikkh guru arjun dev ko pranadand, eeraniyon dvara kndhar ka gherav, jahangir ki mevad par chadhaee.
247 1607 ee. mugalon ke dvara kndhar mukt.
248 1608 ee. ahamad nagar par malik ambar ka punah adhikar, inglaind ke raja jems pratham ka patr lekar viliyam hakins jahangir ke darabar men bharat aya tatha tin sal tak usake darabar men raha, 1612 men vapas inglaind lautakar bharat yatra ka vivaran likha, snt tukaram ka janm.
249 1609 ee. pulikat men dach phaiktari sthapit.
250 1611 ee. masulipatatam men angrez phaiktari sthapit, jahangir ka noorajahan se vivah.
251 1611-1625 ee. golakunda men sultan muhammad kutubashah ka shasanakal.
252 1612 ee. shahajada khurram (shahajahan) ka mumataz mahal se vivah, bngal ki rajadhani rajamahal se dhaka sthanantarit.
253 1614 ee. mevad ke rana amar sinh se jahangir ki sndhi.
254 1615 ee. mevad par jahangir ka adhikar, inglaind ke shasak jems pratham ke rajadoot ke roop men sar tamas ro jahangir ke darabar men aya.
255 1620 ee. kangada par mugalon ka adhikar.
256 1622 ee. kndhar par faras ka punah adhikar, shahajahan ka vidroh, gosvami tulasidas ka janm.
257 1625-1674 ee. golakunda ki gaddi par sultan abdulla kutbashah baitha.
258 1624 ee. ahamadanagar ke malik ambar ke hathon mugal sena parajit.
259 1626 ee. mahavat khan ka vidroh.
260 1627 ee. jahangir ki mrityu (29 aktoobar), junnar (poona) ke nikat shivaneri ke qile men shivaji ka janm (20 aprail).
261 1628 ee. shahajahan mugal samrat bana (6 faravari).
262 1631 ee. mumataz mahal ki mrityu (7 joon).
263 1632 ee. bijapur par mugal akraman, purtagaliyon ke viruddh sainy abhiyan, hugali men unaki basti nasht.
264 1633 ee. ahamadanagar ke nizamashahi vnsh ka ant, ahamadanagar mugal samrajy men sammilit, daulatabad ke qile par adhikar.
265 1634 ee. angrezon ko bngal men vyapar karane ka faraman mila, mahavat khan ki mrityu.
266 1636 ee. bijapur aur golakunda se mugalon ki sndhi, aurngazeb dakkan ka soobedar niyukt.
267 1638 ee. ali mardan dvara kndhar mugalon ko samarpit.
268 1638 ee. shahajahan dvara ne rajadhani shahar shahajahannabad ka nirman prarambh.
269 1639 ee. angrezon dvara madras men sent jaaurj fort ki adharashila rakhi gee. (dakshin bharat)
270 1646 ee. balkh par mugalon ka adhikar, toran par shivaji ka adhikar.
271 1649 ee. kndhar par par punah faras ka adhikar.
272 1650 ee. marathi snt tukaram ka nidhan.
273 1656 ee. shivaji ka javali par adhipaty.
274 1657 ee. bidar ka patan aur mugalon dvara bijapur ki gherabandi, shahajahan ke asvasth hone par 'uttaradhikari ka yuddh' prarambh, bijapur ke sath dvitiy sandhi.
275 1658 ee. dharamat ke yuddh (5 mee) tatha samoogadh ke yuddh (8 joon) men dara ki aurngazeb ke hathon parajay, shahajahan agara men bandi (5 joon), aurngazeb ka rajyabhishek (31 julaee).
276 1659 ee. dara ko mrityudand, shivaji ke hathon afazal khan ki mrityu.
277 1660 ee. mir jumala bngal ka soobedar niyukt, shivaji ke dvara dakshin karnatak kshetr men charon or hamale.
278 1661 ee. murad ki hatya, purtagaliyon dvara is shart par bambee angrezon ko hastantarit ki gayi ki ve dachon ko is kshetr men vyapar se bahar khadedane men inaka sath denge.
279 1662 ee. mir jumala ka asam abhiyan.
280 1663 ee. mir jumala ki mrityu, shaista khan bngal ka soobedar niyukt.
281 1664 ee. shivaji ka soorat par akraman, sthaniy purtagali upanivesh dvara shivaji ko varshik nazarana dena svikar, fransisi eest indiya kampani ki sthapana.
282 1665 ee. raja jayasinh ke hathon shivaji ki parajay, mugalon ke sath shivaji ki purandar sandhi.
283 1666 ee. shahajahan ki mrityu, mugal darabar men shivaji bandi (mee), nazarabandi se mukt.
284 1668 ee. aurngazeb dvara hinduon ke viruddh naye adesh, eest indiya kampani ka poorn adhikar.
285 1669 ee. mathura men jat saradar gokul sinh ka vidroh, bambee par angrez kampani ka poorn adhikar.
286 1670 ee. shivaji ka soorat par doosara akraman.
287 1671 ee. chhatrasal ke netritv men bundelon ka vidroh.
288 1672 ee. aphridi tatha satanami vidroh, dam lauhem ke netritv men fransisiyon ne shrilnka men trinkomali tatha chennee ke nikat sent tom par adhikar, kuchh samay ke pashchath dachon ne fransisiyon se donon sthanon ko chhin liya.
289 1673 ee. shivaji ka soorat par tisara akraman, hindi kavi dhanannd ka janm.
290 1674 ee. fransisi kaptan fransis martin ke dvara panndicheri ki sthapana, shivaji dvara rajyabhishek (rayagadh men) tatha 'chhatrapati' ki upadhi dharan, 'svaraj' ki sthapana.
291 1675 ee. sikkh guru tegabahadur sinh ko aurngazeb dvara mrityudand.
292 1677 ee. karnatak men shivaji ki vijay.
293 1679 ee. aurngazeb dvara jaziya kar punah aropit, maravad abhiyan.
294 1680 ee. shivaji ki mrityu, shnbhaji peshava bana, alnkaravadi hindi kavi keshavadas ka janm.
295 1681 ee. asam punah svatntr, aurngazeb ka dakshin men abhiyan.
296 1685 ee. angrez eest indiya kampani ka mukhy vyapar karyalay soorat se bambee sthanantarit.
297 1686 ee. aurngazeb ka bijapur par adhikar.
298 1687 ee. golakunda mugal samrajy men sammilit, angrez kampani dvara aurngazeb ke viruddh yuddh ki ghoshana.
299 1689 ee. aurngazeb dvara shnbhaji ko pranadand, rajaram sattaroodh, shahoo bandi bana.
300 1699 ee. malava par marathon ka pratham akraman.
301 1700 ee. shnbhaji ke chhote bhaee rajaram ki mrityu, tarabaee ke snrakshan men shivaji tritiy (rajaram ka putr) gaddi par baitha.
302 1702 ee. inglainnd men rani ain gaddi par baithin, godolphin ke hastakshep se purani aur nayi kampaniyon ko ekikaran kar nayi eest indiya kampani ka uday.
303 1703 ee. marathon ka barar par akraman.
304 1706 ee. marathon ka gujarat par akraman, badauda dhvast.
305 1707 ee. aurngazeb ki mrityu, bahadurashah pratham (rajakumar muhammad muajjam) mugal samrat bana, shahoo mukt, tarabaee tatha shahoo samarthakon ke madhy kheda ka yuddh, maratha rajy do bhagon men vibhakt, satara men shahoo ka rajy tatha kolhapur men tarabaee (ya shivaji tritiy) ka rajy, peshava balaji vishvanath, shahoo ke sath.
306 1708 ee. shahoo ka rajyabhishek chhatrapati ke roop men, balaji vishvanath ko 'senakarte' ki upadhi, sikkhon ke antim guru govind sinh ka nidhan (naded men).
307 1712 ee. bahadurashah pratham ki mrityu, jahandarashah uttaradhikari bana.
308 1713 ee. jahandarashah ki hatya, bndhuon ki madad se farrukhasiyar sinhasanaroodh.
309 1714 ee. balaji vishvanath ki 'peshava' ke pad par padonnati, husain ali dakshin ka soobedar, husain ali ki marathon se sandhi.
310 1715 ee. sikkh neta banda bahadur ko pranadand.
311 1717 ee. eest indiya kampani ko badashah farrukhasiyar ka svatntr vyapar (dyooti-fri) faraman, kalakatta ke nikat 37 gavon ko kharidane ka adhikar bhi mila.
312 1719 ee. farrukhasiyar ki hatya, muhammadashah raushan akhtar gaddi par asin (do alpakalik shasakon rafi-ud-daula tatha rafi-ud-darajat ki mrityu ke uparant), mugal samrat dvara sanad pradan kar chauth tatha sadareshamukhi vasoolane ka adhikar tatha dakkan ke 6 soobon ko svarajy pradan kiya gaya.
313 1720 ee. bajirav pratham peshava bane, saiyyad bandhuon ka ant, marathon ka uttari abhiyan prarambh.
314 1723 ee. shivaji ke guru samarth ramadas ki mrityu, peshava ka malava par akraman.
315 1724 ee. sadat khan avadh ka soobedar niyukt, dakshin men nizam svatntr.
316 1725 ee. shujauddin bngal ka soobedar.
317 1731 ee. gaautanabarg men samrat fredarik dvara 'svidish eest indiya' ka gathan.
318 1735 ee. mugal badashah dvara peshava bajirav pratham ko malava ke shasak ke roop men svikriti.
319 1738 ee. gosvami tulasidas (ramacharitamanas k rachayita) ka nidhan.
320 1739–40 ee. dilli par nadirashah ka akraman, kohinoor hira evn takht-e-taoos nadirashah ke qabze men, khurasan men nadirashah ki usake hi senapatiyon ke dvara hatya.
321 1740 ee. sarafaraj khan ki hatya kar alivardi khan bngal ka navab bana, balaji bajirav peshava bane, arakat par marathon ka akraman.
322 1742 ee. bngal par marathon ka akraman, doople panndicheri ka gavarnar niyukt.
323 1744 ee. yoorop men phrans tatha inglaind ke bich yuddh arambh, donon ke vibhinn upaniveshon men tanav tatha sngharsh.
324 1746–48 ee. pratham karnatak (angl-fransisi) yuddh.
325 1745 ee. roohelakhand ruhillon ke adhikar men.
326 1746 ee. la bordane ke netritv men fransisiyon ka chennee par adhikar.
327 1747 ee. ahamadashah abdali ka bharat par akraman.
328 1748 ee. haidarabad ke nizam asafajah ki mrityu, putr nasir jng tatha mujaffar jng men satta ke lie sngharsh, sngharsh ke karan nizam ka prabhav kshin tatha gaddi ke lie karnatak ke navab chnda sahab tatha navab anavaruddin ke bich sngharsh.
329 1748–51 ee. ahamadashah abdali ka afaganistan aur pnjab par adhikar, muhammadashah ki mrityu ke pashchath ahamadashah mugal badashah bana (1748).
330 1749 ee. yoorop men british aur fransisiyon ke bich 'eks-la-shapel' ki sandhi, bharat men angrezi aur fransisi kampaniyon men bhi yuddh viram, fransisiyon dvara chennee angrezon ko vapas, shahoo ki mrityu tatha ramaraj ka chhatrapati ke roop men rajyabhishek.
331 1750–1754 ee. dvitiy karnatak yuddh, doople ki sahayata se chnda sahab ki anavaruddin par vijay, haidarabad ki nizamat mujaffar jng ko dilane ke lie chnda sahab tatha duple ka nasir jng par sammilit hamala, nasir jng ko 600 sainikon ki sahayata, karnatak ki gaddi ke lie muhammad ali ko bhi angrezi madad.
332 1751 ee. arkat ke qile par rabart klaib ka adhikar, jisase fransisi trichanapalli se hate, mujaffar jng ki mrityu, salavat jng nizam bana, alivardi khan ki marathon se sandhi.
333 1754 ee. doople frans vapas, godehoo naya fransisi dayarektar janaral, godehoo tatha angrez gavarnar sandars ke bich sandhi, donon ka bharatiy riyasaton ke antarik mamalon men hastakshep n karane ka nirnay, fransisiyon dvara angrez samarthit muhammad ali karnatak ka navab svikrit, alamagir dvitiy mugal badashah bana.
334 1756 ee. alivardi khan ki mrityu, sirajuddaula bngal ki gaddi par asin tatha kalakatta par adhikar, tisara karnatak yuddh.
335 1757 ee. plasi ke yuddh (23 joon) men angrezon dvara sirajuddaula parajit, mir zafar navab banaya gaya (28 joon), angrezon ka kalakatta par punah adhikar, sirajuddaula ko mrityudand (2 julaee), angrezon ka rajanitik prabhutv sthapit.
336 1758 ee. fransisi gavarnar lali ka bharat agaman, angrezon ke viruddh abhiyan arambh, phort sent devid par qabza, pnjab par marathon ka adhikar.
337 1759 bngal men angrezon dvara dach parajit, bidar ka yuddh, gajiuddin dvara alamagir dvitiy ki hatya, shahalam dvitiy badashah bana (1759-1806).
338 1760 ee. vandivas ke yuddh men angrezon ke hathon fransisi parajit, robart klaib inglaind vapas, mir qasim bngal ka navab bana.
339 1761 ee. ahamadashah abdali tatha marathon ke bich panipat ka tisara yuddh (14 janavari), marathe parajit, fransisiyon dvara panndicheri angrezon ko samarpit, peshava bajirav ka nidhan, madhavarav sinhasanaroodh, haidar ali maisoor ka navab, avadh ka navab shujauddaula vazir bana.
340 1762 ee. madhavarav ke sinhasanaroodh hone ke uparant raghunatharav dvara nizam se madad ki mang.
341 1763 ee. angrezon dvara panndicheri fransisiyon ko vapas, bngal evn bihar par mir qasim ka adhikar samapt, mir qasim nishkasit, mir zafar punah nabab bana, raghunatharav ka satta par qabza, madhavarav bandi.
342 1764 ee. baksar ka yuddh, shahalam, shujauddaula tatha mir qasim ki snyukt senayen angrezon se parajit.
343 1765 ee. robart klaib dvara doosari bar punah bngal ka gavarnar banakar vapas aya, shujauddaula, shahalam tatha eest indiya kampani ke madhy ilahabad ki sandhi, shahalam ne bihar, bngal tatha udisa ki divani eest indiya kampani ko saunpi, mir zafar ki mrityu.
344 1766 ee. nizam ne uttari sarakar kshetr angrezon ko diya.
345 1767 ee. robart klaib inglaind vapas, verelast bngal ka gavarnar bana.
346 1767–69 ee. pratham maisoor yuddh, angrezon ne apamanajanak sharton par haidar ali se sandhi ki, haidar ali ka chennee abhiyan.
347 1769 ee. nizam aur marathon ke sath angrezon ki chennee sandhi.
348 1770 ee. bngal men bhishan durbhiksh, peris men divaliya ho jane ke karan fransisi eest indiya kampani bhng.
349 1771 ee. marathon ka haidar ali par akraman, dilli par marathon ka qabza, shahalam ko angrezon ke bandhan se mukti.
350 1772 ee. varen hestings bngal ka gavarnarh niyukt, marathon ka ruhelakhnd par akraman, bharatiy mamalon ke lie british snsad ki do snsadiy samitiyon ka gathan, peshava madhavarav ki mrityu, narayanarav peshava bana, par hi shighr mrityu, avadh ke navab aur ruhillon ka marathon ke viruddh samajhauta, kampani dvara dvaidh shasan ke samapti ki tatha khud divan ka kary apane hathon men lene ki ghoshana.
351 1772–1833 ee. raja ramamohan ray ka jivanakal.
352 1773 ee. british snsad dvara regyuleting ekt parit, kampani par snsad ka anshik niyntran, chennee tatha bambee presidensiyon par kalakatta presidensi ka anshik niyntran, raghunatharav peshava bana, angrezon aur avadh ke navab ke bich ruhelakhand par snyukt roop se chadhaee ka samajhauta.
353 1774 ee. varen hestings bngal ka gavarnar-janaral bana, kalakatta men pahale uchchatam nyayalay ki sthapana, narayanarav peshava bana.
354 1775 ee. eest indiya kampani aur avadh ke vazir asafuddaula ke bich (ek-doosare ke viruddh karravaee n karane ki) maitri sandhi, navab ne angrezon se sainy sahayata lene ke badale 2,60,000 rupaye pratimah dena svikar kiya, nand kumar par muqadama tatha mrityudand (6 mee), raghunatharav tatha angrezon ke bich soorat ki sandhi.
355 1775–1782 ee. pratham angl maratha yuddh.
356 1776 ee. angrezon (karnal aptan) tatha marathon (raghunatharav ke virodhiyon) ke bich purandar ki sandhi.
357 1777 ee. san 1857 ke vidrohi vir kunvar sinh ka janm.
358 1778 ee. yoorop men angrez-frans yuddh, bharat men fransisi upaniveshon par angrezon ka adhikar.
359 1779 ee. marathon tatha angrezon ke bich badaganv samajhauta marathon ne 1773 men khoe hue kshetr punah prapt kie, haidar ali, haidarabad ke nizam tatha marathon angrezon ka virodh karane ko ekajut.
360 1780 ee. kaiptan popham ke netritv men eest indiya kampani ka gvaliyar par adhikar, dvitiy maisoor yuddh prarambh, haidar ali dvara karnatak dhvast, maharaja ranajit sinh ka janm, jems hikki dvara 'bngal gajat' ka prakashan.
361 1781 ee. eest indiya kampani ne banaras ke raja chetasinh ko gaddi se hataya, portonova men haidar ali parajit, regyuleting ekt men snshodhan, varen hestings dvara 'kalakatta madarasa' ki sthapana, bngal men 'bord aauf revenyoo' ki sthapana.
362 1782 ee. angrez, maratha aur haidar ali ke bich 'salabaee ki sandhi' haidar ali ki mrityu, bngal ki khadi men angrezon tatha fransisiyon ke bich nausenik yuddh, angrezon ki madad se asafuddaula dvara avadh ki begamon se dhan ugahi.
363 1782–99 ee. tipoo sultan maisoor ka shasak bana.
364 1783 ee. phaks ka indiya bil british snsad men asvikrit.
365 1784 ee. tipoo sultan ke sath 'mngalaur ki sandhi', maisoor yuddh dvitiy ki samapti, bharatiy mamalon ke lie 'bord aauf kantrol' ki sthapana hetu pit ka indiya ekt british snsad men parit, 'esiyatik sosaiti af bngal' ki sthapana.
366 1785 ee. varen hestings ka tyagapatr, pnjab men sikhon ka adhipaty, dilli par mahadaji sindhiya ka adhikar.
367 1786–1793 ee. laaurd karnavalis bngal ka gavarnar-janaral, gavarnar-janaral ko apane parishad ke nirnay ko nirast karane ki vyavastha.
368 1787 ee. tipoo sultan ne peris aur kustunatuniya men doot bheja, maratha, nizam tatha tipoo ke bich sandhi, maratha labhanvit, viliyam vilabarafors dvara 'dasata-virodhi lig' ki sthapana.
369 1788 ee. gulam qadir ruhilla ka dilli par qabza, gulam qadir khan dvara shahalam dvitiy ko netrahin banaya gaya, bedar bakht dilli ki gaddi par asin.
370 1788–1795 ee. varen hestings par mahabhiyog.
371 1789–90 ee. tipoo sultan ka shravanakor par adhikar.
372 1789–1802 ee. marathon ka dilli par adhikar.
373 1790–92 ee. tritiy maisoor yuddh (tipoo sultan aur angrez, maratha ki snyukt sena ke bich).
374 1792 ee. shrirngapattanam ki sandhi ke sath tritiy maisoor yuddh samapt, pnjab men ranajit sinh sukarachakiya-misal ke mukhiya, jonathan dnkan dvara varanasi men rajakiy snskrit mahavidyalay (bad men snskrit vishvavidyalay) ki sthapana.
375 1793–1798 ee. bngal ke gavarnar-janaral sar jaaun shor ka karyakal.
376 1793 ee. bngal men bhoo-rajasv ka sthayi bndobast, british snsad dvara bharat men yuddh niyntran vidheyak parit. panndicheri par angrezon ka adhikar, kampani ke chartar ka navinikaran.
377 1794 ee. poona men mahadaji sindhiya (shinde) ka nidhan.
378 1795 ee. kharda ke yuddh men nizam ka marathon ke samaksh samarpan, indaur ki rani ahilyabaee holkar ka nidhan, jonathan dnkan bambee ka gavarnar niyukt.
379 1796 ee. peshava madhavarav narayan ki mrityu, bajirav dvitiy peshava niyukt, angrezon dvara shrilnka ko dachon se mukt karaya gaya.
380 1797 ee. ahamad shah abdali ke pote jaman shah ka pnjab par akraman. lahaur par adhikar. avadh men navab asafuddaula ki mrityu. vazir ali naye navab (avadh), shrirngapattanam men 60 fransisiyon dvara 'jaikobin klab' ki sthapana.
381 1798–1805 ee. laaurd velejali bngal ka gavarnar-janaral.
382 1798 ee. ajid ali ko hatakar sadat ali avadh ka navab bana, nizam dvara ashram-sandhi par hastakshar, tipoo sultan ke viruddh angrez, peshava aur nizam men ekata, tipoo ne fransisi upanivesh marishas ko doot bheja, nepoliyan bonapart ka misr abhiyan.
383 1799 ee. nepoliyan bonapart ke kahira se likhe patr men tipoo sultan ko angrezon se mukti dilane ka ashvasan. chauthe maisoor yuddh men tipoo ki mrityu. maisoor vibhajan. maisoor rajavnshaj krishnaraj gaddi par asin. jaman shah dvara ranajit sinh lahaur ka soobedar niyukt. mailkam ke netritv men angrez dootamnndal eeran pahuncha. viliyam keri dvara seramapur men baiptist mishan sthapit.
384 1800 ee. peshava aur angrezon ke bich basin ki sandhi, angrezon dvara peshava punah poona ki gaddi par adhishthapit.
385 1803 ee. dvitiy angl maratha yuddh (1803-05) men marathon ki parajay. aligadh par angrezon ka adhikar. bhonsale ke sath eest indiya kampani ki 'devaganv ki sandhi' tatha sindhiya ke sath 'surji arjunaganv ki sandhi'.
386 1804 ee. jasavntarav holkar ke sath yuddh men karnal monsan parajit. badashah shahalam dvitiy british snrakshan ke adhin.
387 1805 ee. angrezon ka bharatapur ka ghera asaphal, laaurd velejali ko inglainnd vapas bulaya gaya, laaurd karnavalis ki mrityu, holkar ke sath sandhi.
388 1805–1807 ee. sar jaaurj barlo bngal ka gavarnar-janaral.
389 1806 ee. akabar dvitiy shahalam dvitiy ka uttaradhikari bana, vellor sainik vidroh.
390 1807–1813 ee. laaurd minto pratham bngal ka gavarnar-janaral.
391 1807–1808 ee. nepoliyan ki bharat par snyukt fransisi-roosi abhiyan yojana.
392 1808 ee. mailkam ke netritv men faras tatha elphinstan ke netritv men kabul ke lie angrez dootamandal bheja gaya.
393 1809 ee. angrezon aur ranajit sinh ke bich 'amritasar ki sandhi' (25 aprail). satalaj poorv ki pnjabi riyasat angrezon ke snrakshan men. ranajit sinh shasak svikrit.
394 1809–1811 ee. ranajit sinh ka kangada par qabza.
395 1813–1823 ee. laaurd hestings bngal ka gavarnar-janaral.
396 1813 ee. eest indiya kampani ka chartar navinikrit, shiksha par salana ek lakh rupaye kharch karane ka pravadhan.
397 1814–1816 ee. nepal ke sath yuddh. gorakha tatha kampani ke bich 'sngauli ki sandhi' (1816) men.
398 1815 ee. ramamohan ray dvara 'atmiy sabha' ki sthapana. vataraloo ka yuddh.
399 1817 ee. kalakatta men 'hindoo kaaulej' ki sthapana (devid heyar tatha ramamohan ray dvara).
400 1817–1818 ee. seramapur eesaee mishanari snstha dvara bharatiy bhasha (bangla) men 'samachar darpan' nam ka pahala saptahik prakashit. peshava bajirav dvitiy ka samarpan.
401 1819–1827 ee. elaphinstan bambee ke gavarnar.
402 1819 ee. peshava pad ki samapti. british vrittibhogi ki haisiyat se peshava bajirav dvitiy ko bithoor nivas, rajapootana ke rajaon ke sath surakshatmak sandhi. tatya tope ka janm.
403 1820 ee. munaro madras ka gavarnar bana. (dakshin bharat)
404 1821 ee. poona men snskrit kaaulej ki sthapana.
405 1822 ee. bambee men 'netiv ejukeshan sosaiti' ki sthapana. 'bambee samachar' prakashit.
406 1823–1828 ee. laaurd emaharst bngal ka gavarnar-janaral niyukt.
407 1823 ee. pres ardinens ke viruddh rajaramamohan ray ka gyapan. (isake bad karyavahak gavarnar-janaral edams ne mudranalayon ke lie laisens anivary kiya tha).
408 1824 ee. bairakapur men sainik vidroh (adhik bhatte ki mang par).
409 1824–26 ee. pratham angl-barma yuddh. yandaboo ki sandhi. arakan tatha tenasarim british samrajy men shamil.
410 1824–1883 ee. svami dayanand sarasvati ka jivanakal, ary samaj ki sthapana (1875 men).
411 1825 ee. prasiddh svatntrata senani dadabhaee nauroji ka janm (4 sitambar).
412 1826 ee. bharatapur par angrezon ka adhikar.
413 1827 ee. pahala vashpachalit yuddhapot 'intarapraij' madras pahuncha. (dakshin bharat)
414 1828–1833 ee. laaurd viliyam baintik bngal ka gavarnar-janaral.
415 1828 ee. ramamohan ray dvara 'brahm samaj ki sthapana'. aikedamik esosieshan sthapit.
416 1829 ee. laaurd viliyam baintik dvara sati pratha gairaqanooni ghoshit.
417 1829–1837 ee. baintik dvara thagon ka daman.
418 1830 ee. raja ramamohan ray dvara inglainnd bhraman. dharmasabha dvara kalakatta men sati pratha par pratibandh lagane ke virodh men sabha. eeshvarachandr gupta dvara bngal masik 'snvad prabhakar' prakashit.
419 1831 ee. maisoor ka raja padachyut. shasan british sarakar ke hath men, ropad men laaurd viliyam baintik aur ranajit sinh ki bhent.
420 1832 ee. asam ke jaintiya kshetr par angrezon ka adhipaty.
421 1833 ee. eest indiya kampani ke chartar ka navinikaran, vaidhanik shakti ka kendriyakaran. bngal ka gavarnar-janaral pahali bar bharat ke gavarnar-janaral ke nam se jane laga, bharatiy vidhi ayog ki niyukti, briten men das-pratha par pratibndh lagaya gaya.
422 1833–1835 ee. laaurd viliyam baintik bharat ka gavarnar-janaral.
423 1834 ee. kurg par angrezon ka adhipaty. laaurd maikale suprim kaunsil men pahala vidhi sadasy niyukt. sarakar dvara chay baganon ki sthapana. agara prant ki sthapana.
424 1835–1836 ee. sar charls metakaauf karyakari gavarnar-janaral.
425 1835 ee. metakaauf dvara samachar patron par se pratibandh samapt. laaurd maikale ka shiksha niti par prastav. angrezi (farasi ke sthan par) pahali bar sarakari bhasha bani. kampani ne pahali bar apane sikke jari kie (bina mugal samrat ke nam ke). kalakatta medikal kaaulej ki sthapana. kalakatta ke hindoo kaaulej men dharmasabha ke tatvadhan men pashchimi dhng ki pahali sarvajanik sabha (30 janavari) jisamen ramakamal sen ne mang ki thi ki sabhi zamidaron tatha raiyyaton ke jivan ke moolabhoot samajik arthik prashnon par vichar-vimarsh kare.
426 1836–1842 ee. laaurd akalaind gavarnar-janaral.
427 1837 ee. akabar dvitiy ka uttaradhikari bahadurashah dvitiy 'jafar' gaddi par asin, maharani viktoriya gaddi par asin.
428 1838 ee. afaganistan ke bhoo. poo. shasak shahashuja, ranajit sinh tatha angrezon ke bich 'tripakshiy sandhi'. kabul-kndhar par angrezon ka adhikar. 'kalakatta sosaiti phaaur d ekyoojishan af janaral nalej' nam ki sahityik vaicharik snstha ki sthapana, keshavachandr sen ka janm (19 navambar).
429 1839 ee. maharaja ranajit sinh ki mrityu. kalakatta tatha dilli ke bich ji. ti. rod ka kary arambh. angrezon dvara shahashuja ko kabul ka amir (bad men yoonaited indiya esosiyashan) ki sthapana (9 faravari). landan men british indiya sosaiti ki sthapana.
430 1839–1842 ee. pratham angl-afagan yuddh.
431 1840 ee. afagan kabailiyon ka vidroh, dost muhammad padachyut, mainchestar men 'nardan sentral british indiya sosaiti' ki sthapana.
432 1841 ee. kalakatta men 'desh hiteshani sabha' ki sthapana (3 aktoobar).
433 1841–1844 ee. laaurd elanabaro gavarnar-janaral.
434 1842 ee. afaganistan men angrezi sena ka snhar. kabul par punah adhipaty. dost muhammad punah amir bana. elanabaro ki shimala ghoshana. afaganistan se angrezi sainik vapas.
435 1843 ee. sindh par angrezon ka adhipaty. dasapratha par pratibandh. 'bngal british indiya sosaiti' ki sthapana.
436 1844–1848 ee. laaurd harding gavarnar-janaral.
437 1844 ee. laaurd harding dvara sarakari naukariyon men angrezi shikshit bharatiyon ko niyukti dene ka nirnay. kangres neta dinasha edulaji vacha ka janm.
438 1845–46 ee. pratham angl-sikh yuddh men sikh parajit.
439 1846 angrezon tatha sikhon ke bich lahaur ki sandhi.
440 1847 ee. rudaki men pratham injiniyaring kaaulej ki sthapana.
441 1848–1856 ee. laaurd dalahauzi gavarnar-janaral.
442 1848 ee. satara british samrajy men sammilit. god lene ki pratha par pratibandh. bambee men 'stoodents litareri end saintiphik sosaiti' ki sthapana.
443 1848–1849 ee. doosare angl sikh yuddh men sikh parajit.
444 1849 ee. pnjab, jaitapura tatha snbhalapur ka british samrajy men vilay. kalakatta men bethun dvara pahali kanya pathashala ki sthapana. dalahauzi dvara mugal rajavnsh ki samapti par vichar.
445 1850 ee. sikkim ka ek bhag angrezon ke qabze men.
446 1851 ee. kalakatta men 'british indiyan esosiyashan' ki sthapana.
447 1852 ee. dvitiy angl-barma yuddh. rngoon (vartaman yangoon) tatha pegoo par adhipaty. bhootapoorv peshava bajirav dvitiy ki mrityu tatha usaki penshan samapt. poona men 'dakkan ejukeshan sosayati' ki sthapana. nizam dvara barar angrezon ka samarpit. kampani ke chartar ka navinikaran tatha pahali bar aee si es. (bharatiy prashasanik seva) pariksha prarambh. sasti dak seva prarambh.
448 1854 ee. bngal men nil vidroh.
449 1855 ee. snthal vidroh. patasan udyog ki shuruat. kalakatta men 'anjumane islami' (ya mohammadan esosieshan) ki sthapana (mee 6).
450 1856 ee. avadh british samrajy men sammilit. bharatiy vishvavidyalay adhiniyam. bngal vidhan parishadh dvara hindoo vidhava punarvivah adhiniyam parit. yoorop men krimiya yuddh samapt. bharatiy sainikon ko inaphild rayaphal aur charbiyukt karatoos prayog ke lie diye gaye. kalakatta men injiniyaring kaaulej ki sthapana.
451 1856–62 ee. laaurd kaining gavarnar-janaral.
452 1857 ee. kalakatta, bambee tatha madras vishvavidyalayon ki sthapana. 1857 ka vidroh, keshavachandr sen brahm samaj men shamil, mngal pande dvara lephtinent bag ki goli marakar hatya.
453 1858 ee. bharat ka shasan eest indiya kampani se british sarakar ke hathon men. maharani viktoriya ka ghoshana patr. laaurd kaining ko vayasaray ki ek atirikt upadhi (tatpashchath gavarnar janaral ke sath vayasaray ka bhi prayog prarambh). samaj sudharak di. ke. karve ka janm (18 aprail). jagadish chandr bos ka janm (30 navambar), lakhanoo par angrezon ka punah adhikar.
454 1859 ee. god-pratha ki samapti ki ghoshana radd. bngal men nil vidroh. kastoori rnga ayngar ka janm (15 disambar). jems vilsan (suprim kaunsil ka pratham vitt sadasy) dvara ayakar lagoo. kagaz ke not jari.
455 1861 ee. bharatiy parishadh adhiniyam tatha bharatiy haeekorts adhiniyam lagoo. arkiyolajikal sarve af indiya (e. es. aee.) ka gathan. dinabndhu mitr ka natak 'nil-darpan' prakashit. ravindranath thakur ka janm.
456 1862 ee. sadar nyayalay uchch nyayalayon ke sath ekikrit. bharatiy dnd snhita lagoo.
457 1862–63 ee. laaurd elgin pratham ka vayasaray kal.
458 1863 ee. kalakatta men abdul latif ki prerana se 'mohammadan esosieshan' ki sthapana. patana kaaulej ki sthapana.
459 1863–1902 ee. svami vivekanand.
460 1864–69 ee. sar jaaun larens vayasaray.
461 1864 ee. saiyyad ahamad dvara 'mohammadan saintiphik sosayati' ki sthapana. madras men brahmasamaj ki prerana se saman uddeshyon vali snstha sthapit. bnkimachandr chatarji dvara 'durgesh nandani' upanyas ki rachana. (dakshin bharat)
462 1865 ee. yoorop ke sath door snchar vyavastha ka udaghatan. udisa men durbhiksh.
463 1866 ee. keshavachandr sen dvara 'bharatiy brahm samaj' ki sthapana. gopal krishn gokhale ka janm. 'eest indiya esosieshan' ki sthapana tatha bad men 'landan indiya sosaiti' ka isamen viley.
464 1867 ee. brahmasamaj ki prerana se bambee men prarthana samaj ki sthapana. navagopal mitr dvara kalakatta men svadeshi vastuon ke prachar ke lie varshik mele ka udaghatan. ayakar punah lagoo kie jane ka virodh. 'poona sarvajanik sabha: sthapit.
465 1868 ee. ambala se dilli tak relave lain ka udaghatan. shishir kumar ghosh dvara 'amrit bazar patrika' prakashit. bharat ka pratham sndhya samachar patr 'madras-mel' prakashit.
467 1869–72 ee. laaurd meyo ka vayasaray kal.
468 1869 ee. dyook af edinabara ki bharat yatra. svej nahar ka udaghatan. mahatma gandhi ka janm. thakkar bapa ka janm.
469 1870 ee. meyo ka prantiy bndobast. lal sagar teligraf ki shuruat. deshabandhu chitarnjanadas ka janm (5 navambar). mahadev govind ranade prarthana sabha men shamil.
470 1872 ee. kooka vidroh. laaurd meyo ki hatya (port bleyar men). anand mohan bos dvara landan men 'indiyan sosayati' ki sthapana. janaganana prarambh.
471 1872–76 ee. laaurd narthabruk vayasaray.
472 1873 ee. lahaur men svadeshi vastuon ke prachar ke lie 'svadeshi sabha' sthapit.
473 1874 ee. bihar men durbhiksh.
474 1875 ee. svami dayanand sarasvati dvara 'ary samaj' ki sthapana. prins af vels edavard ki bharat yatra. saiyyad ahamad khan dvara 'mohammadan ainglo-oriental kaaulej' (aligadh) ki sthapana. ajamer men 'meyo kaaulej' ki sthapana. amerika men thiyosaauphikal sosayati ki sthapana. kalakatta men 'indiya lig' ki sthapana.
475 1876–80 ee. laaurd litan pratham ka vayasaray kal.
476 1876 ee. kketa par angrezi sena ka adhikar. kalakatta men 'indiyan esosieshan' ki sthapana. aee.si.es. (bharatiy prashasanik seva) pariksha men shamil hone ke lie ayu sima men katauti.
477 1877 ee. laaurd litan ka dilli darabar. maharani viktoriya bharat ki samragyi ghoshit. surendranath banarji dvara dilli men 'dilli darabar' ke avasar par pahali 'netiv pres aisosieshan' ki sthapana (ve svayn isake sachiv bane). aee.si.es. ki pariksha landan ke sath-sath bharat men bhi ayojit kie jane ki mang. saiyyad amir ali ne 'neshanal mohammadan esosieshan' ki sthapana ki.
478 1878 ee. litan ka varnakyoolar pres ekt lagoo, doosara afagan yuddh arambh. kalakatta men bharatiy patrakaron ki 'netiv pres kanphrens' ka pahala sammelan. 'sadharan brahm samaj' ki sthapana.
479 1879 ee. adayar (madras) men maidam blavatsaki (roosi) tatha karnal alkaaut (amerika) dvara 'thiyosofikal sosaiti' ki sthapana. chakravarti rajagopalachari ka janm (7 disambar). litan dvara inglainnd se ayatit sooti mal par ayat kar hataya gaya.
480 1880–84 ee. durbhiksh ayog ki sthapana. afaganistan ke prati british niti men parivartan. daau. pattabhi sitaramaiyya ka janm (24 disambar).
481 1881 ee. pahala phaiktri adhiniyam. maisoor rajy usake mool shasakon ko saunpa gaya. 'trabiyoon', 'kesari' tatha 'maratha' ka prakashan.
482 1882 ee. varnakyoolar pres ekt nirast. hntar ayog, bharatiy shiksha ayog, pnjab vishvavidyalay ki sthapana. soorat men 'prajahitavardhak sabha' ka gathan, purushottam das tndan ka janm.
483 1883 ee. ilbart bil gavarnar-janaral ki vidhan parishadh men prastut. bharatiy rashtriy sammelan ka ayojan.
484 1884–88 ee. laaurd dafarin vayasaray.
485 1884 ee. keshavachandr sen ki mrityu (8 janavari). daau. rajendr prasad ka janm (3 disambar). madras men 'mahajan sabha' sthapit. (dakshin bharat)
486 1885 ee. bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana tatha pahala adhiveshan bambee ke gokuladas tejapal snskrit skool men. bngal tenensi ekt parit, bngal sthaniy svashasan. adhiniyam parit, angl-barma yuddh. bambee presidensi esosieshan ki sthapana.
487 1886 ee. uttari barma ka british samrajy men vilay. afaganistan ki uttari sima ka nirdharan. ramakrishn paramahns ki mrityu. kangres ke doosare adhiveshan men pnjab ke pratinidhi lala muralidhar ka hindi men bhashan. kangres ke mnch se hindi men yah pahala bhashan tha.
488 1887 ee. maharani viktoriya ke shasanakal ki svarn jayanti. ilahabad vishvavidyalay ki sthapana. shivanarayan agnihotri dvara 'dev samaj' ki sthapana.
489 1888 ee. karnal thiyodor baink dvara 'yoonaited indiyan paitriyaautik esosieshan' ki sthapana.
490 1888–94 ee. laaurd lainsadaun vayasaray.
491 1889 ee. prins af vels ki bharat ki doosari yatra. jamanalal bajaj, khudiram bos tatha javaharalal neharoo ka janm.
492 1891 ee. dvitiy phaiktri adhiniyam. sahavas varsh adhiniyam (ej aauf kaaunasent ekt), manipur men vidroh, daau. bhimarav ambedakar ka janm (14 aprail).
493 1892 ee. bharatiy parishadh adhiniyam, chunav ki pranali nirdharat.
494 1893 ee. eni besent ka bharat agaman, svami vivekanand shikango sammelan ke lie amerika ravana.
495 1894 ee. natal (dakshin afrika) men bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana (kangres ke lahaur (1893) adhiveshan se prabhavit hokar).
496 1894–99 ee. laaurd elgin dvitiy ka vayasaray kal.
497 1896 ee. bambee men pleg.
498 1897 ee. bharatiy shiksha seva ka gathan. subhashachandr bos ka janm. lokamany tilak ko shivaji se sambodhit desh ke bhakti ke pady likhane ke arop men 18 mah ki kadi qaid.
499 1898 ee. 'prarthana samaj' (bambee) dvara ek dalit varg mishan prarambh.
500 1899–1905 ee. laaurd karzan vayasaray.
501 1900 ee. bhoomi svamitv-parishadh adhiniyam, durbhiksh ayog, kangres ke mnch se pahali mahila shrimati kadambini ganguli ka bhashan.
502 1901 ee. maharani viktoriya ki mrityu, edavard saptam sinhasanaroodh, uttar-pashchim sima prant ka gathan.
503 1904 ee. koaparetiv sosayati adhiniyam, puratattv vibhag ki sthapana, bharatiy vishvavidyalay adhiniyam, jatindradas ka janm.
504 1905 ee. bngal vibhajan, laaurd marle bharatiy mamalon ke sachiv niyukt.
505 1905–10 ee. laaurd minto dvitiy ka vayasaray kal.
506 1906 ee. kangres (kalakatta adhiveshan) mnch se dadabhaee nauroji dvara 'svaraj' shabd ka pahali bar prayog. dhaka men 'muslim lig' ki sthapana.
507 1907 ee. soorat adhiveshan men kangres vibhajit. eni besent thiyosophikal sosayati ki adhyaksh bani. tata ispat karakhane se ispat ka utpadan prarambh.
508 1908 ee. samachar patr adhiniyam. khudiram bos ko phansi. tilak par rajadroh ka mukadama.
509 1909 ee. maaurle minto sudhar. bharatiy parishadh adhiniyam parit. vayasaray ke karyakari parishadh men pratham bharatiy (ech. pi. sinha) ki niyukti. madan lal dhingara dvara landan men karzan vaili ki hatya. dakshin afrika jate hue jahaz par gandhi ji ne 30 hazar shabdon ki 'hindi svaraj' namak pustak likhi.
510 1910–16 ee. laaurd harding dvitiy ka vayasaray kal.
511 1910 ee. edavard tritiy ki mrityu, jarj pncham sinhasanaroodh.
512 1911 ee. dvitiy dilli darabar. samrat jarj pncham ki bharat yatra. bngal vibhajan radd. rajadhani kalakatta se dilli sthanantarit karane ki ghoshana. janaganana.
513 1912 ee. rajadhani kalakatta se dilli sthanantarit. dilli prant ka gathan. laaurd harding dilli men bam visphot men ghayal. javahar lal neharoo pahali bar kangres adhiveshan (bankipur) men upasthit. inslingtan kamishan ka gathan. abulakalam azad dvara 'al-hilal' akhabar prakashit.
514 1913 ee. ravindranath taigor ko nobel puraskar. firojashah mehata dvara 'd bambee kraaunikal' ki shuruat. sain fransisko men gadar parti ka gathan.
515 1914 ee. tilak mandale jel se riha. 'phaaurest risarch instityoot' ki sthapana. panama nahar ki shuruat. eni besent dvara 'nyoo indiya' prakashit.
516 1914–18 ee. pratham vishv yuddh. briten dvara turki ke viruddh hamala.
517 1915 ee. bharatiy suraksha adhiniyam. gandhi ji dakshin afrika se laute. ahamadabad men satyagrah ashram ki sthapana. gopal krishn gokhale ka nidhan. eni besent dvara 'homarool lig' ke gathan ki ghoshana (25 sitambar).
518 1916 ee. lokamany tilak dvara 'homarool lig' ki sthapana (26 aprail). kangres-muslim lig ke bich 'lakhanoo samajhauta'. poona men pratham mahila vishvavidyalay ki sthapana. banaras hindoo vishvavidyalay ki sthapana. dadabhaee nauroji ka nidhan.
519 1916–1921 ee. laaurd chemsaphord ka vayasaray kal.
520 1917 ee. mantegyoo bharat-mntri niyukt tatha inaki bharat yatra. kangres tatha muslim lig ki bambee men pahali snyukt baithak. 'mantegyoo ghoshana'. bharat men svayattashasi snsthaon ka kramik vikas tatha uttaradayi sarakar ki sthapana. gandhi ji dvara champaran satyagrah arambh. homarool andolan ke silasile men eni besent bndi. shiksha se sambandhit saidalar ayog ki niyukti. raulat ekt kameti ka gathan.
521 1918 ee. raulat ekt riport tatha mantegyoo-chemsaphord riport prakashit. senamen afasaron ke pad par niyukti ke lie bharatiy arh ghoshit. rasabihari bos ki adhyakshata men 'bngiy janasabha' ki sthapana. surendranath banarji ki adhyakshata men bambee men al indiya maaudaret kanphrens ayojit. gandhi ji ke dvara ahamadabad kapada majadooron ki mang ke samarthan men satyagrah ke roop men pahali bar bhookh hadatal ka prayog kiya gaya. surendranath banarji neshanal libaral lig ke adhyaksh nirvachit.
522 1919 ee. mantegyoo-chemsaphord sudhar parit. raulat ekt parit. jaliyanvala bag narasnhar. khilaphat kameti ki sthapana. ravindranath thakur dvara sar ki upadhi vapas. bambee men mil majadooron ka pahala sammelan. eni besent ki adhyakshata men dilli men pahala akhil bharatiy mahila sammelan ayojit. ilahabad men 'lidar samachar patr' ke karyalay men 'uttar pradesh libareshan esosieshan' ki sthapana. tritiy afagan yuddh. bharatiy sarakar adhiniyam 1919 parit.
523 1920 ee. khilafat tatha asahayog andolan arambh. gandhi ji dvara boar yuddh men mila 'kesar-e-hind' padak sarakar ko vapas. laaurd sinha bihar-udisa ke gavarnar. kangres ka netritv gandhiji ke hath men. 'akhil bharatiy tred yooniyan kangres' ki sthapana. aligadh muslim vishvavidyalay ki sthapana. tilak ki mrityu. hantar samiti ki riport prakashit.
524 1921–1926 ee. laaurd riding ka vayasaray kal.
525 1921 ee. prins af vels edavard ki bharat yatra. 'chembar af prinses' ki sthapana. vijayavada akhil bharatiy kangres kameti sammelan men tilak svaraj kosh ke lie ek karod rupaye ekatrit karane ka nirnay (1 aprail). dilli akhil bharatiy kangres kameti men gandhi ji ka savinay avgya andolan prastap parit (4 navambar). mopala vidroh (20 navambar). gurudvara sudhar andolan, bolapur ([[pashchim bngal]) men 'vishvabharati shanti niketan vishvavidyalay' ki sthapana. hadappa men utkhanan prarambh. bharat sarakar adhiniyam 1919 lagoo.
526 1922 ee. kalakatta men savinay avgya andolan arambh (15 joon). chauri-chaura kand (5 faravari). baradoli men kangres karyasamiti dvara savinay avgya andolan sthagit karane ka nirnay (12 faravari). kangres dvara samoohik savinay avgya andolan sthagit (31 disambar). motilal neharoo tatha chitarnjan das dvara 'svaraj parti' ki sthapana. mantegyoo ka istifa.
527 1923 ee. madan mohan malaviy dvara 'indiyan parti' ki sthapana. bambee men kapada majadooron ki 'girani kamagar yooniyan' sthapit. 'hindustan ripablikan esosiesan' ki sthapana. namak-kar qanoon parit. sena ki kuchh bataliyanon ki qaman ka bharatiyakaran. praphull chandr dvara ahamadabad men gujarat vidyapith ki adharashila, kamal pasha dvara turki ko dharmanirapeksh rajy ghoshit karane se khilafat andolan svatah samapt. svarajiyon ka parishadon men pravesh.
528 1924 ee. kanapur kaaunsipiresi kes. gandhi ji pahali bar evn antim bar kangres adhyaksh (belaganv).
529 1925 ee. akhil bharatiy dalit varg esosieshan ki sthapana. antaravidyalay bord gathit. akhil bharatiy kangres kameti ki karyavahiyon ke lie hindustani bhasha ki svikriti (26 disambar). sikh gurudvara parit. chitarnjan das ka nidhan. vitthalabhaee patel vidhanasabha men pratham bharatiy adhyaksh niyukt. shanti niketan men gandhi ji tatha ravindranath thakur men samajik samasyaon par batachit (30 mee). laaurd litan dvitiy sthanapann vayasaray.
530 1926–31 ee. laaurd iravin vayasaray.
531 1926 ee. tred yooniyan ekt parit. rupaye ka avamoolyan. dilli men 'al indiya prohibeshan lig' (akhil bharatiy nashabandi lig) ki sthapana (31 janavari). akhil bharatiy kangres kameti dvara svaraj parti ke sadasyon ko kendriy vidhanasabha se tyagapatr dene ka prastav parit (6 march). gandhi ji dvara guvahati adhiveshan men svadhinata prastav ka virodh (26 disambar).
532 1927 ee. saiman kamishan ki niyukti. bharatiy nausena adhiniyam. kangres ke madras adhiveshan men svatntrata ke lakshy ki ghoshana. poona men badauda ki maharani ki adhyakshata men 'akhil bharatiy sammelan' ayojit (5 joon). ilahabad men pndit madan mohan malaviy ki adhyakshata men ayojit sarvadaliy sammelan dvara saiman kamishan ka bahishkar karane ka nirnay (11 disambar). muslim lig ka vibhajan (29 disambar).
533 1928 ee. daau. ansari ki adhyakshata men sarvadaliy bahishkar sammelan banaras men ayojit. saiman kamishan ke bharat agaman par 3 faravari ko hadatal ka ahvan (15 janavari). saiman kamishan bharat men aya (3 faravari). neharoo riport, hindustan ripablikan ki vibhinn shakhaon ko sngathit kar 'hindustan soshalist ripablik' ki sthapana (8-9 disambar) (isaka nirnay sukhadev, shivavarma, phanindranath bos, bhagat sinh, vijay kumar sinha tatha kundanalal vidyarthi dvara firozashah kotala stediyam, dilli men ek gupt baithak men liya gaya. chandrashekhar azad baithak men nahin the, parantu unhen esosieshan ke sashastr vibhag ka pradhan niyukt kiya gaya.) saiman kamishan ka virodh karate samay pulis lathicharj men lala lajapat ray ghayal (17 navambar). kalakatta men javahar lal neharoo ki adhyakshata men 'akhil bharatiy samajavadi yuva kanges' ka pahala sammelan (27 disambar). kangres adhiveshan men gandhiji ki ghoshana—"yadi ap mere sath sahayog karen aur eemanadari tatha buddhimata se kam karen to sal bhar men svaraj mil jaega" (31 disambar). kangres adhiveshan men dominiyan stets ke paksh men prastav parit tatha subhashachandr bos ka poorn svadhinata prastav asvikrit. 'indipendens lig' ki sthapana. krishi ke lie shahi ayog ki niyukti.
534 1929 ee. ilahabad men abulakalam azad ki adhyakshata men 'akhil bharatiy muslim soshalist parti' ki sthapana (isase pahale rashtravadi musalaman neta saiyyad ahamad barelavi tatha yusoof muhar ali dvara 'kanges muslim parti ki sthapana) (27-28 julaee). kendriy asembali men bhagatasinh v batukeshvar datt dvara bam phenka gaya (8 aprail). krishi shodh parishadh ka gathan. merath shadayntr ke abhiyukton par mukadama arambh. lahaur shadayntr ke abhiyukt jatin das ki 64 dinon ki bhookh hadatal ke bad mrityu. 166 din ki bhookh hadatal ke bad rngoon jel men phoonji vijaja ki mrityu. laaurd iravin ki ghoshana. bharat ka snvaidhanik pragati ka lakshy aupacharik rajy ki sthapana (31 aktoobar). lahaur men kanges ke 44ven adhiveshan men javahar lal neharoo ki adhyakshata men svarajy ka prastav parit (29 disambar). 31 disambar ki madhyaratri ke samay pndit javaharalal neharoo ne ravi tat par tirnga phaharaya.
535 1930 ee. javahar lal neharoo dvara 26 janavari ko svadhinata divas ke roop men manane ka ahvan (7 janavari). hindustan ripablikan sosayati dvara 'bam ka darshan' namak parchi prakashit (2 faravari). akhil bharatiy kangres parti dvara savinay avgya andolan (namak) ka karyakram svikrit (19 faravari). dandi yatra arambh (12 march). namak qanoon toda gaya (6 aprail). 28 march ko 'anand bhavan' desh ko samarpit tatha 11 aprail ko 'svaraj bhavan' ke roop men namakaran. subhashachandr bos kalakatta nagar nigam ke meyar nirvachit (22 agast). si. vi. raman ko bhautiki ka nobel puraskar (14 navambar). pratham golamej sammelan landan men. kangres karyasamiti gairaqanooni ghoshit (25 agast).
536 1931–1936 ee. vayasaray laaurd vilingatan ka vayasaray kal.
537 1931 ee. kangres karyasamiti par se pratibndh hata (26 janavari). lakhanoo men motilal neharoo ka nidhan (5 faravari). ilahabad men pulis muthabhed men chandrashekhar azad ki mrityu (27 faravari). gandhi-iravin samajhauta (march). lahaur men ravi tat par bhagat sinh, rajaguru tatha sukhadev ko phansi (23 march). shok svaroop gandhi ji ko karachi adhiveshan men yuva krantikariyon dvara kale phool bhent (31 march). bambee kangres haus men sarojini nayadoo dvara rashtriy jhnda divas ka udaghatan (26 aprail). kangres karyasamiti ki or se gandhiji ko golamej sammelan men kangres ka pratinidhi niyukt kiya gaya (10 joon). gandhiji dvara prastavit charakha yukt jhnda rashtriy kangres ka dhvaj bana (1 agast). snyukt prant men lagan-roko andolan (11 disambar). raauyal lebar kamishan ki riport prakashit.
538 1932 ee. sarakar dvara prastavit snvaidhanik shasan sudharon par shvetapatr prakashit. merath shadayntr kes ke 27 abhiyukton ko saza (16 janavari). gandhi ji dvara vyaktigat satyagrah arambh (26 joon). eni besent ka dehant (20 sitambar). pahali bar 'pakistan' shabd ka prayog. gandhiji dvara saptahik 'harijan' ki shuruat. raimje maikdonald dvara 16 agast ko sampradayik nirnay ki ghoshana. 24 sitambar ko gandhiji aur ambedakar ke madhy poona samajhauta sampann.
539 1934 ee. savinay avgya andolan vapas. patana men achary narendradev ki adhyakshata men 'kangres samajavadi parti' ke gathan ki ghoshana (17 mee). kangres chunav ghoshana patr prakashit (14 joon). gandhi ji kuchh samay ke lie kangres se alag (17 sitambar). bambee men sampoornanand ki adhyakshata men 'akhil bharatiy kangres soshalist parti' ka aupacharik udaghatan (21 aktoobar). uttari bharat men bhari bhookamp. bihar men bhishan tabahi.
540 1935 ee. bharat sarakar adhiniyam 1935 parit (agast). bharat-briten vyapar samajhauta. gandhi ji ke sathi tatha satyagrah andolan men jel jane vale pratham vyakti mohan lal pandya ka nidhan (18 mee). gandhiji dvara mira ben ke lie vardha ke pas seva ganv ke ashram (sevashram) ki sthapana (22 aktoobar).
541 1936–44 ee. laaurd linalithago ka vayasaray kal.
542 1936 ee. samrat jaaurj pncham ka nidhan (21 janavari). jaaurj shashtam samrat bane. akhil bharatiy kangres kameti adhiveshan men kangres karravaee ki bhasha hindi banae jane sambandhi prastav asvikrit (23 agast).
543 1937 ee. snghiy nyayalay ki sthapana. prantiy svashasan ka udaghatan (aprail). 11 men se 7 pranton men kangres mntrimandal gathit. madhy prant men daau. en. ji. khare dvara desh ka pahala mntrimandal gathit (9 joon). kendriy vidhanasabhi men chintamani deshamukh dvara prastut pati ki sampatti men vidhavaon ko uttaradhikar dilane vala vidheyak parit (5 faravari). gandhi ji ke netritv men akhil bharatiy shiksha kanfrens dvara nee shiksha niti ka niyojan.
544 1938 ee. subhashachandr bos kangres ke adhyaksh nirvachit. bi. di. savarakar hindoo mahasabha ke adhyaksh nirvachit. sharatachandr chatarji tatha mohammad iqabal ki mrityu.
545 1939 ee. tripura adhiveshan men subhashachandr bos kangres ke adhyaksh pad par dubara nirvachit tatha bad men tyagapatr (28 aprail). bos dvara 'pharavard blak' ki sthapana (3 mee). dvitiy vishvayuddh arambh (3 sitambar). vishvayuddh men bharat ko bina ijazat shamil karane ke virodhasvaroop prantiy kangres mntrimandalon ka tyagapatr. jinna dvara kangres shasan se mukti ke lie 22 disambar ko 'mukti divas' ke roop men manane ka ahvan (8 aktoobar).
546 1940 ee. maulan abulakalam azad kangres adhyaksh. muslim lig ke lahaur adhiveshan men jinna dvara musalamanon ke lie prithak desh ki mang (22 march). kangres karyasamiti dvara gandhi ji ka vyaktigat satyagrah svikrit (13 aktoobar). vinoba bhave pahale vyaktigat satyagrahi.
547 1941 ee. japan dvara yuddh ki ghoshana. jinna dvara pakistan ki parikalpana par kangres ki svikriti ki mang (17 aprail). subhashachandr bos nazarabandi se bhagakar kalakatta se jarmani pahunche.
548 1942 ee. barma men angrezon ka atmasamarpan. akhil bharatiy kangres kameti ke bambee adhiveshan men 'angrezon, bharat chhodo' prastav parit tatha deshavyapi andolan shuroo (8 agast).
549 1943 ee. muslim lig ne apane karachi adhiveshan men 'divaid end kkit' (banton aur chhodo) slogan ko parit kiya.
550 1944–47 ee. laaurd vevel ka vayasaray kal.
551 1944 ee. asam par japani akraman. lahaur men pramukh akali neta sherasinh ki ghoshana ki desh vibhajan ya pakistan ki mang ko svikriti di gee to sikh bhi alag svatntr rashtr ki mang karenge (1 sitambar). si. rajagopalachari ke sujhavon par snvaidhanik adachan ke lie gandhiji-jinna varta (9 sitambar). azad hind fauj bharat ke nikat pahunchi.
552 1945 ee. briten men lebar parti ki sarakar. dvitiy vishvayuddh ki samapti. laaurd vevel ki ghoshana. azad hind fauj ka atmasamarpan tatha un par pahali bar mukadama.
553 1946 ee. kaibinet mishan bharat men. nausena vidroh (18 faravari). muslim lig ne 16 agast ko 'sidhi karravaee' divas manaya. antarim sarakar ka gathan (2 sitambar). javahar lal neharoo pradhanamntri niyukt. muslim lig antarim sarakar men shamil (26 aktoobar). snvidhan sabha ki pahali baithak (disambar). kaibinet mishan yojana ki ghoshana (16 joon).
554 1947–48 ee. laaurd mauntabetan ka vayasaray kal (24 march se).
555 1947 ee. british snsad men pradhanamntri kliment richard hedali dvara joon, 1948 tak angrezon ke bharat chhodane ke nirnay ki ghoshana (20 faravari). maunt betan dvara joon, 1948 ke sthan par 15 agast, 1947 ko satta hastantaran karane ka nirnay (3 joon). akhil bharatiy kangres samiti dvara vibhajan prastav parit (15 joon). british snsad men bharat-pakistan vibhajan parit tatha 15 agast, 1947 ko satta hastantaran sambandhi 'bharatiy svadhinata adhiniyam' 4 julaee, 1947 ko snsad men pesh kiya gaya. bharatiy svadhinata adhiniyam ko british samprabhu (samrat) ki svikriti (18 julaee). 14 agast ko pakistan bana tatha 15 agast ko bharat svadhin. javaharalal neharoo pradhanamntri tatha laaurd mauntabetan gavarnar-janaral bane.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1975 ee. men purtagali shasan ne vastavikata ko samajhakar isako vaidhanik manyata de di hai.