आख्यान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

यशी चौधरी (वार्ता | योगदान) dvara parivartit 15:58, 10 joon 2018 ka avataran

(अंतर) ← पुराना अवतरण | वर्तमान अवतरण (अंतर) | नया अवतरण → (अंतर)

akhyan usako kahate hain jise varnan karane vale ne nij netron se dekha ho. akhyan shabd arnbh se hi samanyat: katha athava kahani ke arth men prayukt hota raha hai. taranath krit 'vachaspatyamh‌' namak kosh ke pratham bhag men, isaki vyutpatti 'akhyayate anenetiakhyanamh‌' di hai. sahityadarpan men akhyan ko 'puravrit kathan' (akhyann poorvavritokti) kaha gaya hai. da.es.ke.de ke matanusar rigved ke kathatmak sookt vastut: pauranik aur nijndhari akhyan hi hai.[1] yask ne nirukt (11.15) men sarama panis ki katha ko akhyan kaha hai.

'akhyan' aur snskrit 'akhyayika' donon ke varnavinyason men sadrishy hone ke karan hi snbhavat: hindi ke kuchh vidvanh‌ 'akhyayika' ke shastriy lakshanon ko 'akhyan' ke oopar lagoo karake usake svaroopasnpadan ka prayas karate rahe hain. kintu snskrit ke lakshanashastron men paraspar kuchh aise maulik virodh vartaman hain ki unhen ek doosare ka samanarthak nahin mana ja sakata. snskrit men akhyayika ki shreni ki ek gadyabaddh rachana aur bhi hoti thi, jise katha kahate the. bhamah ne kavyalnkar[2] men sundar gady men rachit saras kahani ko 'akhyayika' kaha hai. yah uchchhh‌vason men bnti hoti thi or isamen nayak apane vritt tatha cheshta ka varnan svayn karata tha. bich-bich men vaktr aur apavaktr chhnd a jate the, jabaki katha men vaktr aur apavaktr chhnd nahin hote the, n hi isaka vibhajan uchchhh‌vason men hota tha.

shri parashuram chaturvedi ne likha hai ki 'akhyayika' ki visheshata is bat men paee jati hai ki vah svayn kisi apane patr dvara hi kahi gee hoti hai jis karan usaki bahut si baten atmodgaraparak ban jati hain. premakhyanavale 'akhyan' shabd ka mool arth bhi kisi aisi visheshata ki hi or snket karata jana padata hai. 'mahabharat' evn 'ramayan' ke 'akhyan' kahe jane ki sarthakata bhi kadachith‌ isi bat men nihit hogi ki unake rachayita kramash: vyas evn valmiki ne apani dekhi suni baten hin likhi thin, unamen kalpana ka vaisa ansh nahin rahata, jo katha ke snbndh men pray: avashyak mana jaea karata hai. akhyan shabd ko isi karan apekshakrit adhik 'vrittantaparak' aur tadanusar vishuddh bhi kah sakate hain. atev premakahani ke bhi mool roop men vastut: 'apabiti' jaisi hi hone se 'prem' shabd ke sath kie ge isake prayog ko sarvatha upayukt samajhana chahie (bharatiy premakhyan ki parnpara, tritiy anuchchhed).

uparyukt pnktiyon men chaturvedi ji ne sidhe n kahakar kathanalaghav ke madhyam se akhyan ko akhyayika ka sadrisharthak siddh karane ka prayatn kiya hai. ek any sthal (hindi sahity, dvitiy khnd, sn. dhirendr varma tatha brajeshvar varma, pri. 245) par bhi, kintu jara adhik spasht dhng se, vah yahi bat duharate hain, premakhyan' ka 'akhyan' shabd moolat: akhyayika ka hi ek roopantar sa pratit hota hai.

kisi kathakriti ko akhyan sngya dene ke lie yadi yah nitant avashyak ho ki usake rachayita ne katha ko svayn 'dekha suna' ho to ramayan evn mahabharat ke sndarbh men abhi tak aise praman athava sakshy upalabdh nahin hain ki unake adhar par nishchint hokar yah kah diya je ki unake rachayitaon ne vahi sab kuchh likha jo svayn unhonne 'dekha suna' tha. sath hi 'dekha suna' pad kya apane men aspasht evn anishchit arth ka dyotak nahin hai? astu, ramayan evn mahabharat ko 'akhyan' nam dene ka avashy hi koee doosara karan raha hoga. vaidik sahity se lekar hindi sahity tak jitane bhi akhyan grnth milate hain ya jinhen akhyanak grnth mana jata hai, unamen se koee ekadh 'apekshakrit adhik vrittantaparak aur tadanusar vishuddh' ho to ho, shesh kalpanapradhan hi hai. katha aur akhyanak grnthon ki to bat hi kya, charitagrnthon aur charitakavyon tak men kalpana ne itihas ko buri tarah akrant kar rakha hai.

da. shnbhunath sinh (hindi mahakavy ka svaroopavikas, pri. 6) ne adikalin akhyanak nrityagiton se nrity, sngit aur akhyan tinon ka vikas mana hai. age chalakar (pri. 10) unhonne yah bhi kaha hai ki in akhyanon ka vastutatv pauranik, nijndhari, samasamayik tatha kalpit; in char prakar ke patron, ghatanaon aur paristhitiyon ko lekar gathit hua hai. pn. hajari prasad dvivedi (hindi sahity ki bhoomika, pri. 48) ne bhi akhyan ko akhyayika se prithakh‌ ek lokavidha mana hai, yatha parntu janasadharan ka ek aur vibhag, jisamen dharm ka sthan nahin tha, jo apabhrnsh sahity ke pashchimi akar se sidhe chala a raha tha, jo ganvon ki baithakon men kathanak roop se aur gan roop se chal raha tha, upekshit hone laga tha. in soophi sadhakon ne pauranik akhyanon ke badale hue lokaprachalit kathanakon ka ashray lekar hi apani bat janata tak pahunchaee. vastut: akhyan ko akhyayika siddh karane ke karan hi chaturvedi ji ko ukt sab kuchh kahana karana pada. itana hi nahin, bhamahakalin 'akhyayika' ke is lakshan-usamen nayak apane vritt tatha cheshta ka varnan svayn karata tha-ko akhyan par ghatane ke lie unhen 'prem kahani ke mool roop men apabiti jaisi' bhavana ki klisht kalpana tak karani padi.

sahity nirntar gatishil hai. at: vah yuganuroop apani vidhaon men parivartan, parivardhan, snshodhan tatha parishkar karata chalata hai aur lakshan sahityik vidhaon ko lekar hi nishchit kie jate hain, unapar jabaradasti ghatae nahin ja sakate. isilie bhamah ke bad dndi ne kavyadarsh (1.23-28) men katha aur akhyayika ko ek hi shreni ki rachanaen manate hue kaha hai ki kahani nayak kahe ya koee aur kahe, adhyay ka vibhajan ho ya n ho, adhyayon ka nam uchchhh‌vas rakha jae ya lnb, bich men vaktr, apavaktr chhnd aen athava n aen, kahani men koee antar nahin padata. at: in oopari bhedon ke karan 'katha' aur 'akhyayika' men antar karana chahie. navin shati (lagabhag) men achary rudrat ne to tatkalin prachalit sahity ke adhar par yahan tak kah diya tha ki keval snskrit men nibaddh kathaon ke lie gady men likhane ka bndhan hai; parntu any bhashaon men likhi janevali rachanaen pady men bhi likhi ja sakati hain. yahan 'any bhashaon' se prakrit aur apabhrnsh ki or ishara kiya gaya hai. at: siddh hai ki yuganuroop sahityik vidhaon ke manadnd badalate rahate hain.

dndi ne bhi katha aur akhyayika ke antargat samast akhyan jati (khndakatha, parikatha adi) ko antarbhukt mana hai, yatha-

tath‌ kathakhyayiketyeka jati: sngya dvayankita.

atraivantarbhavishynti sheshashchakhyan jatay: ..

-kavyadarsh (1.28)

at: spasht hai ki dndi ke samay men bhi akhyan jativachak shabd tha. mahabharat men anek akhyanon evn upakhyanon ka snkalan hai, isalie ise akhyanakavy kaha gaya hoga. ramayan ko bhi akhyan sngya dene ka karan snbhavat: yahi raha hoga.

hindi men 'akhyan' shabd pray: sadharan katha ya vrittant ke roop men hi prayukt hota hai. isilie premakhyanak kavyon ke antargat katha (satyavati katha), charit (chhitaee charit), varta (madhumalati varta), dooha (dhola maroora dooha), chaupaee ya chaupee (madhavanal kamakndala chupee), ras (bisaladev ras) adi sabhi kavyavidhaen prapy hain.[3]

akhyanon ki satta ka praman rigved ki snhita men hi hamen upalabdh hota hai. atharvaved men[4] itihas tatha puran ka ullekh maukhik sahity ke roop men n hokar likhit grnth ke roop men kiya gaya milata hai. vedon ki vyakhyanapranali ke vibhinn snpradayon men yask ne aitihasikon ke snpraday ka anek bar ullekh kiya hai jinake anusar 'vritr' tvashtr asur ki sngya hai aur devon ke adhipati indr ke sath usake ghor sngharsh aur tumul sngram ka varnan rigved ke mntron men kiya gaya hai. is snpraday ke vyakhyakaron ki sammati men vedon men mahatvapoorn akhyan vidyaman hain. rigved men akhyanon ki snkhya kam nahin hai. inamen se kuchh akhyan to vaiyaktik devata ke vishay men hain aur kuchh kisi samoohik ghatana ko lakshy kar pravritt hote hain. rigved men indr tatha ashvin ke vishay men bhi anek akhyan milate hain jinamen in devon ki virata, parakram tatha upakar ki bhavana spasht ankit ki gee hai. rigved ke bhitar 30 akhyanon ka spasht nirdesh kiya gaya hai jinamen se katipay prakhyat akhyan ye hain-shun:shep (1.24), agasty aur lopamudra,[5] gritsamad (2.12), vasishth aur vishvamitr (3.53, 7.33 adi), som ka avataran (3.43), thhrayaroon aur vrishajan (5.2), agni ka janm (5.11), shyavashv (5.32), brihaspati ka janm (6.71), raja sudas (7.18), nahush (7.95), apala (8.91), nabhanedishth (10.61.62), vrishakapi (10.86), urvashi aur puroorava (10.95), sarama aur pani (10.108), devapi aur shntanu (10.98), nachiketa (10.135),. inake atirikt danastutiyon men anek rajaon ke nam upalabdh hain jinase dan pakar anek rishiyon ko unaki stuti men mntr likhane ki prerana mili. in stutiyon men bhi katipay akhyanon ki or spasht snket vidyaman hain.

rigved se bhinn vaidik grnthon men bhi akhyanon ka vivaran diya gaya hai. inamen se katipay akhyan to ekadam navin hain, parntu kuchh rigved men snketit akhyanon ke hi paribrinhit roop hain. rigved se snbaddh 'anukramani sahity' men, visheshat: brihaddevata aur sarvanukramani men, nirukt, nitimnjari aur sayan bhashy men in akhyanon ko vistrit ghatanaon ka bhi varnan hua hai. puranon men bhi ye akhyan varnit hain, parntu inaki ghatanaon men kahin hras aur kahin paribrinhan drishtigochar hota hai. brahman tath shrautasootr bhi inake vikas ke adhyayan ke lie avashyak samagri prastut karate hain. udaharanarth sobhari kanv ka akhyan, jo rigved ke anek sookton[6] men snketit hai, bhagavat men vistar se varnit hai (bhagavat, skndh 9, a. 6.38--55). shyavashv atrey ka akhyan rigved men (5.61) ullikhit hone ke atirikt sankhyayan shrotasootr[7] men bhi nirdisht hai. chyavan (puranon men 'chyavan') bhargav tatha sukanya manavi ka akhyan rigved ke anek sookto[8] men snketit hokar tandy brahman,[9] nirukt (4.19), shatapath brahman (kand 4) tatha shrimadbhagavat puran (9.3) men vistar ke sath varnit hai. is prakar vaidik akhyanon ke vikas ki vipul samagri ramayan, mahabharat aur puranon ke bhitar rochak vistar ke sath upalabdh hoti hai.

akhyanon ka tatpary kya hai, is prashn ke uttar ke snbndh men vidvanon men paryapt matabhed hai. amariki vidvanh‌ da. bloomaphild ne un vidvanon ke mat ka khndan kiya hai jinhonne in akhyanon ki rahasyavadi vyakhya prastut ki hai. udaharanarth ye rahasyavadi vidvanh‌ puroorava ke akhyan ke bhitar ek gnbhir rahasy ka darshan karate hain. unaki drishti men puroorava soory aur urvashi usha hai. usha aur soory ka paraspar snyog kshanik hi hota hai. unake viyog ka kal bada hi dirgh hota hai. viyogi hone par soory usha ki khoj men din bhar ghooma karata hai, tab kahin jakar phir doosare din prat:kal donon ka samagam hota hai. prachin bharat ke vaidikon (kumaril bhatt, sayan adi) ki vyakhya ka yahi roop tha. parntu akhyanon ko unake manaviy mooly se vnchit rakhana nyayy aur upayukt nahin pratit hota.

in akhyanon ke anushilan ke vishay men do tathyon par dhyan dena avashyak hai: (k) rigvediy akhyan aise vicharon ko agrasar karate hain aur aise vyaparon ka varnan karate hain jo manav samaj ke kalyanasadhan ke nitant samip hain. inaka adhyayan manav mooly ke drishtikon se hi karana chahie. rigvediy rishi manav ki kalyanasiddhi ke lie upadey tatvon ka samavesh in akhyanon ke bhitar karate hain. (kh) usi yug ke vataran ko dhyan men rakhakar inaka mooly aur tatpary nirdharit karana chahie jis yug men in akhyanon ka avirbhav hua tha. arvachin tatha navin drishtikon se inaka moolyanirdharan karana itihas ke prati anyay hoga. in tathyon ki adharashila par akhyanon ki vyakhya samuchit aur vaigyanik hogi.

akhyanon ki shiksha manav samaj ke samoohik kalyan tatha vishvamngal ki abhivriddhi ke nimitt hai. bharatiy snskriti ke anusar manav aur dev donon paraspar snbaddh hain. manushy ygyon men devon ke lie ahuti deta hai, jo prasann hokar usaki abhilasha poorn karate hain aur apane prasadon ki vrishti unake oopar nirntar karate rahate hain. indr tatha ashvin vishayak akhyan isake vishad drishtant hain. yajaman ke dvara die ge somaras ka pan kar indr nitant prasann hote hain aur usaki kamana ko saphal banate hain. avarshan ke daity (vritr) ko apane vajr se chhinn-bhinn kar ve sab nadiyon ko pravahit karate hain. vrishti se manav apyayit hote hain. snsar men shanti virajane lagati hai. kalidas ne is vaidik tathy ko badi sundarata se abhivyakt kiya hai (raghuvnsh, chaturth sarg).

pratyek akhyan ke antastal men manavon ke shikshanarth tathy antarnihit hain. apala atreyi[10] ka akhyan naricharitr ki udattata tatha tejasvita ka vishad pratipadak hai. raja thhrayarun traivrishn aur vrishajan ka akhyan;[11] rigvidhan 12.52; brihaddevata 5.14.23 vaidik kalin purohit ki mahatta aur garima ka spasht snket karata hai. sobhari kanv ka akhyan[12] sngati ke mahatv ka pratipadan karata hai. ushasti chakrayan[13] ka akhyan ann ke samoohik prabhav tatha gaurav ki kamaniy katha hai. shyavashv atrey ki katha (ri. 5.61) rishi ke gaurav ko, prem ki mahima ko tatha kavi ki sadhana ko badi sundar riti se abhivyakt karati hai. rigvediy yug ki yah prakhyat pranayakahani hai, jisamen prem ki siddhi ke lie shyavashv tapasya ke bal par mntradrashta rishi ban jate hain. dadhyng atharvan ka akhyan[14] rashtr ke mngal ke lie apane jivanadan ki shiksha dekar hamen kshudr svarth se oopar uthane ka aur rashtr ka kalyan karane ka gauravamay upadesh deta hai. puran men inhin ka nam rishi dadhichi hai, jinhonne vritr ko marane ke lie indr ko apani haddiyan vajr banane ke lie dekar ary sabhyata ki raksha ki thi. anadhikari ko rahasyavidya ke upadesh ka visham parinam is vaidik akhyan men dikhalaya gaya hai. in sab akhyanon ke pichhe upadesh hai-eeshvar men atoot shraddha tatha manav se ghanishth prem.

katipay rishiyon ki charitrik trutiyon tatha anaitik acharanon ka bhi varnan vaidik tatha unaka anusaran karanevale mahabharat aur puranon men pae janevale akhyanon men upalabdh hota hai. e kathanak anaitikata ke gart men girane se bachane ke lie hi nirdisht hain.

puranon men bhi ye hi akhyan bahush: varnit hain, parntu inake roop men vaishamy hai. tulanatmak adhyayan se pratit hota hai ki anek akhyan kalantar men parivartit manovritti athava vibhinn samajik tatha dharmik paristhiti ke karan apane vishuddh vaidik roop se nitant vikrit roop dharan kar lete hain. vikas ki prakriya men anek avantar ghatanaen bhi us akhyan ke sath snshlisht hokar use ek naya roop pradan karati hain, jo kabhi-kabhi mool akhyan ke nitant viruddh siddh hota hai. shun:shep tatha vasishth vishvamitr ke kathanakon ka anushilan is siddhant ke pradarshan men drishtant prastut karata hai. rigved men nirdisht shun:shep ka yah akhyan aitarey brahman men ne roop men, navin ghatanaon se snvalit hokar upalabdh hota hai. ab yahan yah akhyan arnbh men raja harishchndr ke putr rohitashv ke sath tatha kathant men rishi vishvamitr ke sath snbaddh hokar ek navin roop dharan kar leta hai. usake any do bhaiyon ki satta, usake pita ka daridray, usake vikray adi ki samast ghatanaen kathanak men rochakata lane ke pichhe se gadhi gee pratit hoti hain. 'shun:shep' ka arth bhi kutte se koee snbndh nahin rakhata. 'shun' ka arth hai sukh, kalyan tatha 'shep' ka arth hai stnbh ya khnbha. at: 'shun:shep' ka arth hi hai 'saukhy ka stnbh'. is prakar yah kathanak varun ke pash se mukti ka sndesh deta hua kalyan ke marg ko prashast banata hai.

vasishth vishvamitr ka akhyan rigved men svat: snketit hai. e donon rishi snbhavat: bhinn-bhinn samay men raja sudas ke purohit the. ye us yug ke rishi hain jo chaturvarny ke kshetr se bahar mana ja sakata hai. donon men param sauhardr tatha maitri ki bhavana ka samrajy virajata hai. donon tapasya se poot, tej ke punj tatha alaukik shaktishali mahapurush hain. parntu avantar grnthon-ramayan, puran, brihaddevata adi-men donon ke bich ek mahanh‌ sngharsh, vaimanasy tatha virodh dikhalaya gaya hai. vishvamitr kshatriy se brahman banane ke lie lalayit aur vasishth ke dvara angikrit n hone par unake putron ke vinashak ke roop men chitrit kie ge hain.[15]

prakhyat akhyan shun:shep ka akhyan rigved ke anek sookton men][16] bahush: snketit hone se saty ghatana ke oopar ashrit pratit hota hai. aitarey brahman (7.3) men yah akhyan bahut vistar ke sath varnit hai, jisake adi men raja harishchndr ka aur ant men vishvamitr ka snbndh jodakar ise parivardhit kiya gaya hai. varun ki kripa aikshvaku naresh harishchndr ko putr utpann hona, samarpan ke samay usaka jngal men bhag jana, harishchndr ko udararog ki prapti, raste men ajigart ke madhyam putr shun:shep ka kray karana, devataon ki kripa se usaka vadhyapashu hone se bach jana, vishvamitr ke dvara usaka kritakaputr banaya jana, adi ghatanaen prakhyat hain.

urvashi aur puroorava ka akhyan vaidik yug ki ek romanchak pranayagatha hai. devi hone par bhi urvashi ka raja puroorava ke pranayapash men baddh hona, prithvital par maharani ke roop men nivas tatha ant men raja ko apane virah se sntapt kar antardhan hona adi ghatanaen nitant prakhyat hain. rigved ke prakhyat sookt[17] men puroorava aur urvashi ka kathanopakathan matr hai; parntu shatapath brahman[18] men yah kathanak rochak vistar ke sath nibaddh kiya gaya hai tatha is pranayakatha ke ankan men sahityik saundary ka bhi parichay milata hai. vishnupuran (4.6), matsyapuran (adhyay 24) tatha bhagavat (9.14) men isi katha ka rochak vivaran ham pate hain. kalidas ne 'vikramorvashiy' trotak men is kathanak ko nitant mnjul natakiy roop pradan kiya hai. is akhyan ke vikas men ek vishesh tathy ki satta milati hai. puranon ne matsyapuran ka adhar lekar ise pranayagatha ke roop men hi ankit kiya hai. parntu vaidik akhyan men puroorava pagal premi n hokar ygy ka pracharak narapati hai. vah pahala vyakti hai jisane shraut agni (ahavanayi, garhapaty aur dakshinagni namak medha agni) ki sthapana ka rahasy janakar ygy snstha ka pratham vistar kiya. puroorava ke is paropakari roop ki abhivyakti vaidik akhyan ka vaishishty hai.

chyavan bhargav tatha sukanya manavi ka akhyan bharatiy naricharitr ka ek nitant ujjval drishtant upasthit karata hai. yah katha rigved ke ashvin se snbaddh anek sookton men snketit hai[19] men shatapath (kand 4) men tatha bhagavat[20] men bhi vistar se di gee hai. chyavan ka vaidik nam 'chyavan' hai. sukanya ki vaidik kahani usaki pauranik kahani ki apeksha kahin adhik udatt aur adarshamayi hai. puran men sukanya rishi ki chamakati huee ankhon ko chhedakar svayn aparadh karati hai aur isake lie use dnd milana svabhavik hai. parntu ved men usaka tyag uchch koti ka hai. sainik balakon dvara kie ge aparadh ke nivaran ke lie sukanya vriddh chyavan rishi ko atmasamarpan karati hai. usake divy prem se prabhavit hokar ashvinon ne chyavan ko vardhaky se mukt kar diya aur unhen nootan yauvan pradan kiya.[21]

inhen bhi dekhen: upakhyan, gatha evn kalpasiddhi


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. e histri aauv snskrit litarechar, es.en. dasagupt aind es.ke. de, pri. 43
  2. 1.25, 28
  3. kailashachndr sharma
  4. 10.7.26
  5. 1.179
  6. 9.19, 20, 21, 22
  7. 16.11.9
  8. 1.116, 117, 118,; 10.39
  9. 14.6.11
  10. rigved 8.91
  11. ri. 5.2; tandy brahman 13.3.12
  12. ri. 8.19, 8.81; nirukt 4.15; bhagavat 9.6
  13. chhandogy, pratham prapathak, khnd 10-11
  14. ri. 1.116.123; shatapath 14.4.5.13; brihadaranyak 2.5; bhagavat puran 6.10
  15. sn.gr.-hariyappa: rigvedik lijends thraoo di ejez, poona, 1953; baladev upadhyay: vaidik sahity aur snskriti, kashi, 1958; maikdonald: di vaidik maitholaji, strasabarg, 19181
  16. 1.24, 25
  17. 10.95
  18. 1.1.5.1
  19. 1.116 tatha 1.117
  20. skndh 9, adhyay 3
  21. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 348-50 |

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