आश्रम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

रविन्द्र प्रसाद (वार्ता | योगदान) dvara parivartit 15:32, 8 apral 2018 ka avataran

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Disamb2.jpg ashram ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- ashram (bahuvikalpi)

jin snsthaon ke oopar hindoo samaj ka sngathan hua hai, ve hain - varn aur ashram. varn ka adhar manushy ki prakriti athava usaki mool pravrittiyan hain, jisake anusar vah jivan men apane prayatnon aur kartavyon ka chunav karata hai. ashram ka adhar snskriti athava vyaktijat jivan ka snskar karana hai. manushy janmana anagadh aur asnskrit hota hai; kramash: snskar se vah prabuddh aur susnskrit ban jata hai.

ashram (manav avasthaen)

sampoorn manavajivan mote taur par char vikasakramon men banta ja sakata hai-

  1. baly aur kishoravastha
  2. yauvan
  3. praudhavastha aur
  4. vriddhavastha

char ashram

manav ke char vikasakramon ke anuroop hi char ashramon ki kalpana ki gee thi, jo nimn prakar hain-

  1. brahmachary- isaka palanakarta brahmachari apane guru, shikshak ke prati samarpit aur agyakari hota hai.
  2. garhasthy- isaka palanakarta grihasth apane parivar ka palan karata hai aur eeshvar tatha pitaron ke prati kartavyon ka palan karate hue purohiton ko avalnb pradan karata hai.
  3. vanaprasth- isaka palanakarta bhautik vastuon ka moh tyagakar tap aur yogamay vanaprasth jivan jita hai.
  4. sannyas- isaka palanakarta snnyasi sabhi vastuon ka tyag karake deshatan aur bhiksha grahan karata hai tatha keval shashvat ka manan karata hai.

shastriy paddhati men moksh (sansarik lagavon se sv ki mukti) ki gahan khoj jivan ke antim do charanon se guzar rahe vyaktiyon ke lie surakshit hai. lekin vastut: kee snnyasi kabhi vivah nahin karate tatha bahut kam grihasth hi antim do ashramon men pravesh karate hain.

nam aur kram men antar

ashramon ke nam aur kram men kahin-kahin antar paya jata hai. apastamb dharmasootr[1] ke anusar garhasthy, acharyakul (brahmachary), maun aur vanaprasth char ashram the. gautam dharmasootr[2] men brahmachari, grihasth, bhikshu aur vaikhanas char ashramon ke nam hain. vasishthadharmasootr [3] brahmachari, grihasth, vanaprasth aur parivrajak ka ullekh karata hai.

ashram sambandh

ashramon ka sambandh vikas karm ke sath-sath jivan ke maulik uddeshy dharm, arth, kam aur moksh se bhi tha-brahmachary ka sambandh mukhyat: dharm arthath snyam-niyam se, garhasthy ka sambandh arth-kam se, vanaprasth ka sambandh uparam aur moksh ki taiyari se aur sannyas ka sambandh moksh se tha. is prakar uddeshyon athava purusharthon ke sath ashram ka abhinn sambandh hai.

ashram shabd ka chunav

jivan ki is prakriya ke lie ashram shabd ka chunav bahut hi upayukt tha. yah shabd shramh dhatu se bana hai, jisaka arth hai shram karana athava paurush dikhalana (amarakosh, bhanuji dikshit). samanyat: isake tin arth prachalit hain-

  1. vah sthiti athava sthan jisamen shram kiya jata hai
  2. svayn shram athava tapasya aur
  3. vishramasthan

ashram (snstha)

vastav men ashram jivan ki ve avasthaen hain, jinamen manushy shram, sadhana aur tapasya karata hai aur ek avastha ki upalabdhiyon ko prapt kar leta hai tatha inase vishram lekar jivan ke agami padav ki or prasthan karata hai.

ashram ka arth

ashram vyavastha ne eesa ke bad pahali shatabdi men ek dharmashastriy dhanche ki rachana ki. yah oonchi jati ke purushon ke lie adarsh thi, jise vastut: vyaktigat ya samajik roop se kabhi-kabhi hi prapt kiya ja sakata tha. doosare arth men ashram shabd ka tatpary sharanasthal hai, visheshakar shahari jivan se door, jahan adhyatmik v yog sadhana ki jati hai. aksar ye ashram ek kendriy shikshak ya guru ki upasthiti se sambaddh hote hain, jo ashram ke any nivasiyon ki aradhana ya shraddha ka kendr hota hai. guru aupacharik roop se sngathit kram ya adhyatmik samuday se sambandhit ho bhi sakata hai aur nahin bhi.

vibhinn mat

manu ke anusar manushy ka jivan sau varsh ka hona chahie (shatayurve purush:) atev char ashramon ka vibhajan 25-25 varsh ka hona chahie. pratyek manushy ke jivan men char avasthaen svabhavik roop se hoti hain aur manushy ko charon ashramon ke kartavyon ka yathavath palan karana chahie. parantu kuchh aise sampraday prachin kal men the aur aj bhi hain, jo niyamat: inaka palan karana avashyak nahin samajhate. inake mat ko badh kaha gaya hai. kuchh sampraday ashramon ke palan men vikalp manate hain arthath unake anusar ashram ke kram athava snkhya men herapher ho sakata hai. parantu sntulit vicharadhara ashramon ke samuchchay men karati aee hain. isake anusar charon ashramon ka palan kram se hona chahie. jivan ke pratham chaturthansh men brahmachary, dvitiy chaturthansh men garhasthy, tritiy chaturthansh men vanaprasth aur antim chaturthansh men sannyas ka palan karana chahie. isake abhav men samajik jivan ka sntulan bhng hokar mithyachar athava bhrashtachar ki vriddhi hoti hai.

ashram kartavy

vibhinn ashramon ke kartavyon ka vistrit varnan ashramadharm ke roop se smritiyon men paya jata hai. snkshep men manusmriti se ashramon ke kartavy niche die ja rahe hain-

  1. brahmachary ashram men gurukul men nivas karate hue vidyarjan aur vrat ka palan karana chahie [4].
  2. doosare ashram garhasthy men vivah karake ghar basana chahie; santan utpatti dvara pitririn, ygy dvara devrin aur nity svadhyay dvara rishirin chukana chahie [5].
  3. vanaprasth ashram men sansarik karyon se udasin hokar tap, svadhyay, ygy, dan adi ke dvara van men jivan bitana chahie [6].
  4. vanaprasth samapt karake sannyas ashram men pravesh karana hota hai. isamen sansarik sambandhon ka poornat: tyag aur parivrajan (anagarik hokar ek sthan se doosare sthan par ghoomate rahana) vihit hai [7].

paninikalin ashram vyavastha

ashram - charon ashram ke liye katyayan ne 'chaturashramy' pad diya hai. sootr men unake ye nam hain- brahmachari[8], grihapati[9], bhikshu[10] aur paribrajak[11]. panini ke samay men ashram pranali unnat dasha men thi, visheshat: brahmachary-shiksha-pranali jisaka kuchh vistar se varnan hua hai.

brahmachari

brahmachari ke liye 'varni' yah nee sngya prayog men ane lagi thi[12] jo sahinta aur brahman sahity men avidit thi. kashika ke anusar tin uchch varnon ke brahmachari varni kahalate the[13].

chhatr do prakar ke the, manav aur antevasi[14]. manavon ko panini ne 'dnd-manav' bhi kaha hai[15]. chhoti avastha ke sikhatar brahmachari manav hote the. matng jatak men dandamanavon ko bal kaha gaya hai[16]. brahmachari palash ka dand ya ashadh[17] aur ajin rakhate the.

brahmachary ki avadhi

tadasy brahmacharyamh[18] sootr men brahmachariyon ke namakaran ki vidhi bataee gee hai. jitane din ke liye chhatr brahmachary vrat ki diksha lete the, us avadhi ke anusar unaka nam padata tha. sootr ke udaharanon se gyat hota hai ki pndrah din (ardhamasik: brahmachari), ek mahina (masik:) ya ek varsh (sanvatsarik:) brahmachary ka samay ho sakata tha. vastut: parimit avadhi ke liye charanon men pravisht hokar adhyayan karane vale brahmachariyon ki ye sngyaen thin. adhunik vishvavidyalayon ke alpakalik vyakhyan prabndh ya laghu pathyakram ke dhng par vaidik charanon men bhi adhyayan ki suvidhaen milane lagi thin: tabhi masik aur ardhamasik brahmachari jaise prayog astitv men ae honge.

sab prakar ke chhote-bade adhyayan aur grnth-parayanon men bhag lene ki vidyarthiyon ko chhoot thi. kisi ygy vishesh ki vidhi janane ki ichchha se ya vishesh sam-gan kanth karane ki liye ya kuchh richaon ka parayan sikhane ke lie ek pakhavade ya ek mahine jaise thode samay ke lie bhi chhatr adhyayan ka niyam lekar ardhamasik ya masik brahmachari ban sakate the. adatalis varsh tak brahmachary ka vrat lene vale chhatr 'ashtachatvarinshak' ya 'ashtachatvarinshi' kahalate the.[19] grihy sootron se gyat hota hai ki gurukulavas ki yah adhikatam avadhi thi. adatalis varsh ka brahmachary vrat 'adity vrat' kahalata tha, jisake dharan karane vale brahmachariyon ki sngya adityavratik thi. gobhilagrihyasootr ke anusar 'adity sam' parynt adhyayan ka vrat 'adity vrat' tha.[20][21]

snatak

adhyayan samapt karane par brahmachari achary ki anumati se snatak banata tha. snat ved samaptau ganasootr[22] ke anusar vedadhyayan ki samapti par snatak banane ka uchit kal samajha jata tha. vidya vishesh men atishay pravin snatak 'nishnat' kahe jate the. pichhe chal kar yah shabd kaushal ke lie prayukt hone laga[23]. 'sragvi' pad bhi[24] sambhavat: snatak ke liye prayukt hota tha[25]. srakh‌ brahmachary-vrat-samapti ka vishesh chihn thi. akal men vrat chhod kar grihasth ban jane vale chhatron ko vyangy se 'khatvaroodh' kaha jata tha.[26] brahmachari ke liye khat ka prayog nishiddh hone ke karan 'khatvaroodh' pad nindarthak mana gaya tha.

grihapati

vivah karake grihasth ashram men pravisht hone vale vyakti ke liye prachin sngya 'grihapati' thi. vivah ke samay prajjvalit huee agni 'garhapaty' kahalati thi, kyonki grihapati usase snyukt rahata tha[27]. agni sakshik vivah se arambh hone vale grihasth jivan men grihapati log jis agni ko grihaygyon ke dvara nirntar prajvalit rakhate the, us agni ke liye hi 'grihapatina snyukt:' yah visheshan charitarth hota hai. vivah ke samay ka agnihom ek ygy tha. us ygy men pati ke sath vidhipoorvak snyukt hone ke karan vivahita stri ki sngya 'patni' hoti thi[28]. pati-patni donon milakar vaivahik agni ki paricharya karate the[29]. grihm agni men ahut hone vale anek sthalipak us samay kiye jate the. panini ne vastoshpati ke atirikt 'grihamedh' devata ka bhi ullekh kiya hai[30]. putr-pautron se sukhi sampann pati-patni supraj[31] aur putrapautrin[32] kahalate the.

bodh pradata

varn aur ashram manushy ke sampoorn kartavyon ka samahar karate hain. parantu jahan varn manushy ke samajik kartavyon ka vidhan karata hai, vahan ashram vyaktigat kartavyon ka. ashram vyaktigat jivan ki vibhinn vikas saraniyon ka nideshan karata hai aur manushy ko is bat ka bodh karata hai ki usake jivan ka uddeshy kya hai. usako prapt karane ke lie usako jivan ka kis prakar snghathan karana chahie. vastav men jivan ki yah anupam aur uchchatam kalpana aur yojana hai. any deshon ke itihas men is prakar ki jivan-yojana nahin paee jati hai. prasiddh vidvanh daauyasan ne isake sambandh men likha hai-

ham yah nahin kah sakate ki manusmriti tatha any smritiyon men varnit jivan ki yah yojana kahan tak vyavaharik jivan men karyanvit huee thi. parantu ham yah svikar karane men svatntr hain ki hamare mat men manav jati ke sampoorn itihas men aisi koee vicharadhara nahin hai, jo is vichar ki mahatta ki samata kar sake.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  • pustak ‘hindoo dharmakosh’ prishth snkhya-92
  • pustak ‘bharat gyanakosh’ prishth snkhya-143
  1. apastamb dharmasootr 2.9.21,1
  2. gautam dharmasootr 3.2
  3. vasishthadharmasootr 7.1-2
  4. manusmriti, 4.1
  5. manusmriti, 5.169
  6. manusmriti 6. 1-2
  7. manusmriti 6. 33
  8. 5.2.134
  9. 4.4.90
  10. 3.2.168
  11. 6.1.154
  12. varnadh brahmacharini, 5.2.134
  13. brahmanadayastrayo varna varnin uchynte
  14. gotrantevasimanavabrahmaneshu kshepe 6.2.69
  15. 4.3.1130
  16. 4.372,387
  17. 5.1.110
  18. 5.1.94
  19. katyayan
  20. 3.128-30
  21. paninikalin bharat |lekhak: vasudevasharan agraval |prakashak: chaukhamba vidyabhavan, varanasi-1 |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 95 |
  22. 5.4.29
  23. ninadibhyan snate: kaushale, 8.3.89
  24. 5.2.121
  25. manu 3.3
  26. khatva kshepe 2.1.26
  27. grihapatina snyukte try:, 4.4.90
  28. patyurno ygysnyoge, 4.1.33
  29. manu 3.67
  30. 4.2.32
  31. 5.4.123
  32. putr pautr manubhavati, 5.2.10

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