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व्यवस्थापन (वार्ता | योगदान) dvara parivartit 17:54, 25 aktoobar 2017 ka avataran (Text replacement - "khoj.bharatdiscovery.org" to "bharatkhoj.org")

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knbodiya ka dhvaj

knbodiya ya 'knbuj' ya 'knboj' dakshin-poorv eshiya ka ek pramukh desh hai. 'namapenh' is rajatntriy desh ka sabase bada shahar aur rajadhani hai. pahale is desh ko 'knpoochiya' ke nam se jana jata tha. knbodiya ka avirbhav ek samay bahut shaktishali rahe hindoo evn bauddh 'khamer samrajy' se hua, jisane gyarahavin se chaudahavin sadi ke bich poore hind-chin kshetr par shasan kiya tha. knbodiya ki sima pashchim, pashchimottar men thaeelaind, poorv evn uttar-poorv men laos, viyatanam se, dakshin men thaeelaind ki khadi se lagati hain.

itihas

'knbuj', 'knboj' knbodiya ka prachin snskrit nam hai. bhootapoorv indochin pray:dvip men sarvaprachin bharatiy upanivesh ki sthapana phoonan pradesh men pratham shati ee. ke lagabhag huee thi. lagabhag 600 varshon tak phoonan ne is pradesh men hindoo snskriti ka prachar evn prasar karane men mahatvapoorn yog diya. tatpashchath‌ is kshetr men 'knbuj' ya 'knboj' ka mahanh‌ rajy sthapit hua, jisake adbhut aishvary ki gauravapoorn parnpara 14vin sadi ee. tak chalati rahi. is prachin vaibhav ke avashesh aj bhi angkoravat, angkorathom namak sthanon men vartaman hain.[1]

knboj upanivesh ki ninv

knboj ki prachin dntakathaon ke anusar is upanivesh ki ninv 'aryadesh' ke raja knbu svayanbhuv ne dali thi. vah bhagavan shiv ki prerana se knboj desh men ae aur yahan basi huee nag jati ke raja ki sahayata se unhonne is jngali marusthal men ek naya rajy basaya, jo nagaraj ki adbhut jadoogari se hare bhare, sundar pradesh men parinat ho gaya. knbu ne nagaraj ki kanya mera se vivah kar liya aur knbuj rajavnsh ki ninv dali. yah bhi snbhav hai ki bharatiy knboj[2] se bhi indochin men sthit is upanivesh ka snbndh raha ho. tisari shati ee. men bharat ki uttar-pashchimi sima par basanevo murundon ka ek rajadoot phoonan pahuncha tha aur snbhavat: knboj ke ghode apane sath vahan laya tha.

vibhinn shasak

knboj ke pratham aitihasik rajavnsh ka snsthapak shrutavarman tha, jisane knboj desh ko phoonan ki adhinata se mukt kiya. isake putr shreshthavarman ne apane nam par shreshthapur namak rajadhani basaee, jisake khndahar laos ke vataphoo pahadi (lingaparvat) ke pas sthit hain. tatpashchath‌ bhavavarman ne, jisaka snbndh phoonan aur knboj donon hi rajavnshon se tha, ek naya vnsh (khmer) chalaya aur apane hi nam bhavapur namak rajadhani basaee. bhavavarman tatha isake bhaee mahendravarman ke samay se knboj ka vikas yug prarnbh hota hai. phoonan ka purana rajy ab jirn-shirn ho chuka tha aur shighr hi is ne durgharsh samrajy men vilin ho gaya. mahendravarman ki mrityu ke pashchath‌ unaka putr eeshanavarman gaddi par baitha. is pratapi raja ne knboj rajy ki simaon ka door-door tak vistar kiya. usane bharat aur chnpa ke sath rajanayik snbndh sthapit kie aur eeshanapur nam ki ek nee rajadhani ka nirman kiya. eeshanavarman ne chnpa ke raja jagaddharm ko apani putri byahi thi, jisaka putr prakashadharm apane pita ki mrityu ke pashchath‌ chnpa ka raja hua. isase pratit hota hai ki chnpa is samay knboj ke rajanitik prabhav ke antargat tha.[1]

shailendr rajaon ka adhipaty

eeshanavarman ke bad bhavavarman dvitiy aur jayavarman pratham knboj nareshon ke nam milate hain. jayavarman ke pashchath‌ 674 ee. men is rajavnsh ka ant ho gaya. kuchh hi samay ke uparant knboj ki shakti kshin hone lagi aur dhire-dhire 8vin sadi ee. men java ke shailendr rajaon ka knboj desh par adhipatay sthapit ho gaya. 8vin sadi ee. ka knboj itihas adhik spasht nahin hai, kintu 9vin sadi ka arnbh hote hi is prachin samrajy ki shakti manon pun: jivit ho uthi. isaka shrey jayavarman dvitiy (802-854 ee.) ko diya jata hai. usane angakor vnsh ki ninv dali aur knboj ko java ki adhinata se mukt kiya. usane snbhavat: bharat se hiranyadas namak brahman ko bulavakar apane rajy ki suraksha ke lie tantrik kriyaen karavaeen. is vidvanh brahman ne devaraj namak snpraday ki sthapana ki, jo shighr hi knboj ka rajadharm ban gaya. jayavarman ne apani rajadhani kramash: kuti, hariharalay aur amarendrapur namak nagaron men banaee, jisase spasht hai ki vartaman knbodiya ka pray: samast kshetr usake adhin tha aur rajy ki shakti ka kendr dhire-dhire poorv se pashchim ki or badhata hua antat: angkor ke pradesh men sthapit ho gaya tha.

knboj samrajy ka vistar

jayavarman dvitiy ko apane samay men knbujarajendr aur usaki maharani ko knbujarajalakshmi nam se abhihit kiya jata tha. isi samay se knbodiya ke prachin nam 'knbuj' ya 'knboj' ka videshi lekhakon ne bhi prayog karana prarnbh kar diya tha. jayavarman dvitiy ke pashchath‌ bhi knboj ke samrajy ki nirntar unnati aur vriddhi hoti gee aur kuchh hi samay ke bad samast indochin pray:dvip men knboj samrajy ka vistar ho gaya. maharaj indravarman ne anek mndiron aur tadagon ka nirman karavaya. yashovarman (889-908 ee.) hindoo shastron aur snskrit kavyon ka gyata tha aur usane anek vidvanon ko rajashray diya. usake samay ke anek sundar snskrit abhilekh prapy hain. is kal men hindoo dharm, sahity aur kal ki abhootapoorv pragati huee. yashovarman ne knbupuri ya yashodharapur nam ki nee rajadhani basaee. dharm aur snskriti ka vishal kendr angkor thom bhi isi nagari ki shobha badhata tha. 'angkor snskriti' ka svarnakal isi samay se hi pranrabh hota hai. 944 ee. men knboj ka raja rajendravarman tha, jisake samay ke kee brihadh abhilekh sundar snskrit kavy shaili men likhe milate hain. 1001 ee. tak ka samay knboj ke itihas men mahatvapoorn hai, kyonki is kal men knboj ki simaen chin ke dakshini bhag chhooti thin, laos usake antargat tha aur usaka rajanitik prabhav syam aur uttari malaya tak phaila hua tha.

sooryavarman pratham ka adhikar

sooryavarman pratham (mrityu 1049 ee.) ne pray: samast syam par knboj ka adhipaty sthapit kar diya aur dakshin brahmadesh par bhi akraman kiya. vah sahity, nyay aur vyakaran ka pndit tha tatha svayn bauddh hote hue bhi shaiv aur vaishnav dharmon ka premi aur snrakshak tha. usane rajyasin hone ke samay desh men chale hue grihayuddh ko samapt kar rajy ki sthiti ko pun: sudridh karane ka prayatn kiya. uttari chnpa ko jitakar sooryavarman ne use knboj ka karad rajy bana liya, kintu shighr hi dakshin chnpa ke raja jayahari varman se har manani padi. is samay knboj men grihayuddhon aur padosi deshon ke sath anaban ke karan kafi ashanti rahi.[1]

jayavarman saptam ka rajyakal

jayavarman saptam (abhishek 1181) ke rajyakal men pun: ek bar knboj ki prachin yash:pataka phaharane lagi. usane ek vishal sena banaee, jisamen syam aur brahmadesh ke sainik bhi sammilit the. jayavarman ne anam par akraman kar use jitane ka bhi prayas kiya, kintu nirntar yuddhon ke karan shanai: shanai: knboj ki sainik shakti ka hras hone laga, yahan tak ki 1220 ee. men knbojon ko chnpa se hatana pada. kintu phir bhi jayavarman saptam ki ganana knboj ke mahanh rajy nirmataon men ki jati hai, kyonk usake samay men knboj ke samrajy ka vistar apani charam sima par pahuncha hua tha. jayavarman saptam ne apani nee rajadhani vartaman angkorathom men banaee thi. isake khndahar aj bhi snsar ke prasiddh prachin avasheshon men gine jate hain. nagar ke chaturdik ek ooncha parakota tha aur 110 gaj chaudi ek parikha thi. isaki lnbaee sadhe ath mil ke lagabhag thi. nagar ke parakote ke panch sinhadvar the, jinase panch vishal rajapath (100 phut chaude, 1 mil lnbe) nagar ke andar jate the. ye rajapath, beyon ke virat hindoo mndir ke pas milate the, jo nagar ke madhy men sthit tha. mndir men 66,625 vyakti niyukt the aur isake vyay ke lie 3,400 gramon ki ay lagi huee thi. is samay ke ek abhilekh se gyat hota hai ki knboj men 789 mndir tatha 102 chikitsalay the aur 121 vahani (vishram) grih the.

jayavarman saptam ke pashchath knboj ke itihas ke anek sthal adhik spasht nahin hain. 13vin sadi men knboj men sudridh rajanitik shakti ka abhav tha. kuchh itihas lekhakon ke anusar knboj ne 13vin sadi ke antim charan men chin ke samrat kubale khan ka adhipaty manane se inakar kar diya tha. 1296 ee. men chin se ek dootamndal angkorathom aya tha, jisake ek sadasy shoo-tan-kuan ne tatkalin knboj ke vishay men vistrit tatha manornjak vrittant likha hai, jisaka anuvad fransisi bhasha men 1902 ee. men hua tha. 14vin sadi men knboj ke padosi rajyon men nee rajanitik shakti ka uday ho raha tha tatha syam aur chnpa ke thaee log knboj ki or badhane ka nirntar prayas kar rahe the. parinam yah hua ki knboj par do or se bhari dabav padane laga aur vah in donon deshon ki chakki ke paton ke bich pisane laga. dhire-dhire knboj ki prachin mahatta samapt ho gee aur ab yah desh indochin ka ek sadharan pichhada hua pradesh banakar rah gaya.

fransisiyon ka prabhav

19vin sadi men fransisi ka prabhav indochin men badh chala tha; vaise ve 16vin sadi men hi is pray:dvip men a ge the aur apani shakti badhane ke avasar ki tak men the. vah avasar ab aur 1854 ee. men knboj ke nirbal raja ankaduong ne apana desh fransisiyon ke hathon saunp diya. noradam (narottam) pratham (1858-1904) ne 11 agast, 1863 ee. ko is samajhaute ko pakka kar diya aur agale 80 varshon tak knboj ya knbodiya phrench-indochin ka ek bhag bana raha.[3] 1904-1941 men syam aur fransisiyon ke bich hone vale yuddh men knbodiya ka kuchh pradesh syam ko de diya gaya, kintu dvitiy vishvayuddh ke pashchath‌ 1945 ee. men yah bhag use pun: prapt ho gaya. is samay knbodiya men svatntrata andolan bhi chal raha tha, jisake parinamasvaroop frans ne knbodiya ko ek naya snvidhan 6 mee, 1947 ko pradan kiya. kintu isase vahan ke rashtr premiyon ko sntosh n hua aur unhonne 8 navambar, 1949 ee. men fransisiyon ko ek ne samajhaute par hastakshar karane par vivash kar diya, jisase unhonne knbodiya ki svatntr rajanitik satta ko svikar kar liya, kintu ab bhi desh ko phrench yooniyan ke antargat hi rakha gaya tha. isake viruddh knbodiya ke prabhavashali raja noradam sinhanuk ne apana rashtriy andolan jari rakha. inake prayatn se knbodiya shighr hi svatntr rashtr ban gaya aur ye apane desh ke pratham pradhanamntri chune ge.[1]

bharatiy upanivesh

knboj vastavik arth men bharatiy upanivesh tha. vahan ke nivasiyon ka dharm, unaki snskriti evn sabhyata, sahityik parnparaen, vastukala aur bhasha, sabhi par bharatiyata ki amit chhap thi, jisake darshan aj bhi knboj ke darshak ko anayas hi ho jate hain. hindoo dharm aur vaishnav snpraday aur tatpashchath‌ (1000 ee. ke bad) bauddh dharm knboj ke rajadharm the aur yahan ke anek snskrit abhilekhon ko unaki dharmik tatha pauranik sanskritik prishthabhoomi ke karan bharatiy abhilekhon se alag karana kathin hi jan padega. udaharan ke lie rajendravarman ke ek vishal abhilekh ka keval ek ansh yahan prastut hai, jisamen shiv ki vndana ki gee hai-

roopn yasy navendumnditashikhn trayh‌ya: pratitn parn
bijn brahmaharishvarodayakarn bhinnn kalabhistridha.
saksharadaksharamamananti munayo yogodhigamyn namash‌
snsiddhyai pranavatmane bhagavate tasmai shivayastu vamh‌..

snskriti

purane arab paryatakon ne knboj ko hindoo desh ke nam se thik hi abhihit kiya. knbuj ki rajabhasha prachin kal men snskrit thi, usaka sthan dhire-dhire bauddh dharm ke prachar ke karan pali ne le liya aur aj bhi yah dharmik kshetr men yahan ki mukhy bhasha bani huee hai. knbuj bhasha men snskrit ke hajaron shabd apane knbuji ya khmer roop men aj bhi pae jate hain, jaise- teph‌da u devata, shats u shasan, suor u svarg, phimean u viman adi. khmer lipi dakshin bharat ki pallav aur poorvi chaluky lipiyon ke mel se bani hai. knboj ki vastukala, moortikala tatha chitrakala par bharatiy prabhav spasht hai. angkorathom ka beyon mndir dakshin bharat ke mndiron se bahut milata-julata hai. isake shikhar men bhi bharatiy mndiron ke shikharon ki spasht jhalak milati hai. is mndir aur elora ke kailash mndir ke kalatatv, visheshat: moortikari tatha alekhy vishayon aur drishyon men adbhut samy hai.[1]

samajik dasha

knboj ki samajik dasha ka sundar chitran 'shoo-tan-kutan' ke varnan[4] is prakar hai-

vidvanon ko yahan 'pnki' (pndit), bhikshuon ko 'shoo-koo' (bhikshu) aur brahmanon ko 'pa-sho-veee' (pashupat) kaha jata hai. pndit apane knth men shvet dhaga (ygyopavit) dale rahate hain, jise ve kabhi nahin hatate. bhikshu log sir mudate aur pit vastr pahanate hain. ve mans machhali khate hain par mady nahin pite. unaki pustaken talapatron par likhi jati hain. bauddh bhikshuniyan yahan nahin hai. pashupat apane keshon ko lal ya safed vastron se dhake rahate hain. knboj ke samany jan shyam rng ke tatha hasht-pusht hain. rajaparivar ki striyan gaur varn hain. sabhi log kati tak sharir vivastr rakhate hain aur nnge panv ghoomate hain. raja patarani ke sath jharokhe men baithakar praja ko darshan deta hai. likhane ke lie krishn mrig ka chamada bhi kam men ata hai. log snan ke bahut premi hain. yahan striyan vyapar ka kam bhi karati hain. gehoon, haldi, chini, resham ke kapade, ranga, chini bartan, kagaz adi yahan vyapar ki mukhy vastuen hain. ganvon men prabndh karane ke lie ek mukhiya ya 'mayichi' rahata hai. sadakon par yatriyon ke vishram karane ke lie avas bane hue hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 knbodiya (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 18 mee, 2014.
  2. kashmir ka rajauri zila tatha snvarti pradesh-dr. 'knboj'
  3. knbodiya, phrench ka roopantar hai. phrench nam knboj ya knbujiy se bana hai.
  4. 13vin sadi ka ant

snbndhit lekh

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