छत्रपति साहू महाराज  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

रविन्द्र प्रसाद (वार्ता | योगदान) dvara parivartit 11:48, 26 julaee 2018 ka avataran

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chhatrapati sahoo maharaj
chhatrapati shahoo maharaj
poora nam chhatrapati shahoo maharaj
any nam yashavntarav
janm 26 julaee, 1874
mrityu 10 mee, 1922
mrityu sthan mumbee
abhibhavak pita- shrimnt jayasinh rav abasahab ghatage
pati/patni lakshmibaee
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr samaj seva
prasiddhi samaj sudharak v dalit hiteshi
vishesh yogadan apane garib chhatron ke chhatravas sthapit kiye aur bahari chhatron ko sharan pradan karane ke adesh die.
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari sahoo maharaj ne dalit aur shoshit varg ke kasht ko samajha aur sada unase nikatata banae rakhi. unhonne dalit varg ke bachchon ko muft shiksha pradan karane ki prakriya shuroo ki.

chhatrapati sahoo maharaj (angrezi: Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj, janm- 26 julaee, 1874; mrityu- 10 mee, 1922, mumbee) ko bharat men sachche prajatntravadi aur samaj sudharak ke roop men jana jata tha. ve kolhapur ke itihas men ek amooly mani ke roop men aj bhi prasiddh hain. chhatrapati sahoo maharaj aise vyakti the, jinhonne raja hote hue bhi dalit aur shoshit varg ke kasht ko samajha aur sada unase nikatata banae rakhi. unhonne dalit varg ke bachchon ko muft shiksha pradan karane ki prakriya shuroo ki thi. garib chhatron ke chhatravas sthapit kiye aur bahari chhatron ko sharan pradan karane ke adesh die. sahoo maharaj ke shasan ke dauran 'bal vivah' par eemanadari se pratibndhit lagaya gaya. unhonne antarajatiy vivah aur vidhava punarvivah ke paksh men samarthan ki avaz uthaee thi. in gatividhiyon ke lie maharaj sahoo ko kadi alochanaon ka samana karana pada. sahoo maharaj jyotiba phule se prabhavit the aur lnbe samay tak 'saty shodhak samaj', phule dvara gathit snstha ke snrakshan bhi rahe.

janm parichay

chhatrapati sahoo maharaj ka janm 26 julaee, 1874 ee. ko hua tha. unake pita ka nam shrimnt jayasinh rav abasahab ghatage tha. chhatrapati sahoo maharaj ka bachapan ka nam 'yashavntarav' tha. chhatrapati shivaji maharaj (pratham) ke doosare putr ke vnshaj shivaji chaturth kolhapur men rajy karate the. british shadayntr aur apane brahman divan ki gaddari ki vajah se jab shivaji chaturth ka katl hua to unaki vidhava anndibaee ne apane jagiradar jayasinh rav abasaheb ghatage ke putr yashavntarav ko march, 1884 ee. men god le liya. baly-avastha men hi yashavntarav ko sahoo maharaj ki haisiyat se kolhapur riyasat ki rajagaddi ko sambhalana pada. yadyapi rajy ka niyntran unake hath men kafi samay bad arthath 2 aprail, san 1894 men aya tha.[1]

vivah

chhatrapati sahoo maharaj ka vivah badauda ke maratha saradar khanavikar ki beti lakshmibaee se hua tha.

shiksha

sahoo maharaj ki shiksha rajakot ke 'rajakumar mahavidyalay' aur dharavad men huee thi. ve 1894 ee. men kolhapur riyasat ke raja bane. unhonne dekha ki jativad ke karan samaj ka ek varg pis raha hai. atah unhonne daliton ke uddhar ke lie yojana banaee aur us par amal arnbh kiya. chhatrapati sahoo maharaj ne dalit aur pichhadi jati ke logon ke lie vidyalay khole aur chhatravas banavae. isase unamen shiksha ka prachar hua aur samajik sthiti badalane lagi. parantu uchch varg ke logon ne isaka virodh kiya. ve chhatrapati sahoo maharaj ko apana shatru samajhane lage. unake purohit tak ne yah kah diya ki- "ap shoodr hain aur shoodr ko ved ke mntr sunane ka adhikar nahin hai. chhatrapati sahoo maharaj ne is sare virodh ka dat kar samana kiya.

ygyopavit snskar

sahoo maharaj har din bade sabere hi pas ki nadi men snan karane jaya karate the. parampara se chali a rahi pratha ke anusar, is dauran brahman pndit mntrochchar kiya karata tha. ek din bnbee se padhare prasiddh samaj sudharak rajaram shastri bhagavat bhi unake sath ho lie the. maharaja kolhapur ke snan ke dauran brahman pndit dvara mntrochchar kiye ge shlok ko sunakar rajaram shastri achambhit rah ge. poochhe jane par brahman pndit ne kaha ki- "choonki maharaja shoodr hain, isalie ve vaidik mntrochchar n kar pauranik mntrochchar karate hai." brahman pndit ki baten sahoo maharaj ko apamanajanak lagin. unhonne ise ek chunauti ke roop men liya. maharaj sahoo ke sipahasalaron ne ek prasiddh brahman pndit narayan bhatt sevekari ko maharaja ka ygyopavit snskar karane ko raji kiya. yah san 1901 ki ghatana hai. jab yah khabar kolhapur ke brahmanon ko huee to ve bade kupit hue. unhonne narayan bhatt par kee tarah ki pabndi lagane ki dhamaki di. tab is mamale par sahoo maharaj ne raj-purohit se salah li, kintu raj-purohit ne bhi is disha men kuchh karane men apani asamarthata pragat kar di. is par sahoo maharaj ne gussa hokar raj-purohit ko barkhast kar diya.[1]

arakshan ki vyavastha

san 1902 ke madhy men sahoo maharaj inglaind ge hue the. unhonne vahin se ek adesh jari kar kolhapur ke antargat shasan-prashasan ke 50 pratishat pad pichhadi jatiyon ke lie arakshit kar diye. maharaj ke is adesh se kolhapur ke brahmanon par jaise gaj gir gayi. ullekhaniy hai ki san 1894 men, jab sahoo maharaj ne rajy ki bagador sambhali thi, us samay kolhapur ke samany prashasan men kul 71 padon men se 60 par brahman adhikari niyukt the. isi prakar lipikiy pad ke 500 padon men se matr 10 par gair-brahman the. sahoo maharaj dvara pichhadi jatiyon ko avasar upalabdh karane ke karan san 1912 men 95 padon men se brahman adhikariyon ki snkhya ab 35 rah gee thi. san 1903 men sahoo maharaj ne kolhapur sthit shnkarachary math ki sampatti japt karane ka adesh diya. darasal, math ko rajy ke khazane se bhari madad di jati thi. kolhapur ke poorv maharaja dvara agast, 1863 men prasarit ek adesh ke anusar, kolhapur sthit math ke shnkarachary ko apane uttaradhikari ki niyukti se pahale maharaja se anumati leni avashyak thi, parantu tatkalin shnkarachary ukt adesh ko darakinar karate hue snkeshvar math men rahane chale ge the, jo kolhapur riyasat ke bahar tha. 23 faravari, 1903 ko shnkarachary ne apane uttaradhikari ki niyukti ki thi. yah ne shnkarachary lokamany bal gngadhar tilak ke qaribi the. 10 julaee, 1905 ko inhin shnkarachary ne ghoshana ki ki- "choonki kolhapur bhosale vnsh ki jagir rahi hai, jo ki kshatriy gharana tha. isalie rajagaddi ke uttaradhikari chhatrapati sahoo maharaj svabhavik roop se kshatriy hain."[1]

skoolon v chhatravason ki sthapana

mntri brahman ho aur raja bhi brahman ya kshatriy ho to kisi ko koee dikkat nahin thi. lekin raja ki kursi par vaishy ya phir shoodr shakhs baitha ho to dikkat hoti thi. chhatrapati sahoo maharaj kshatriy nahin, shoodr mani gayi jatiyon men ate the. kolhapur riyasat ke shasan-prashasan men pichhadi jatiyon ka pratinidhitv ni:sndeh unaki abhinav pahal thi. chhatrapati sahoo maharaj ne sirph yahi nahin kiya, apitu unhonne pichhadi jatiyon samet samaj ke sabhi vargon maratha, mahar, brahman, kshatriy, vaishy, eesaee, muslim aur jain sabhi ke lie alag-alag sarakari snsthaen kholane ki pahal ki. sahoo maharaj ne unake lie skool aur chhatravas kholane ke adesh jari kiye. jatiyon ke adhar par skool aur chhatravas asahaj lag sakate hain, kintu ni:sndeh yah anoothi pahal thi un jatiyon ko shikshit karane ke lie, jo sadiyon se upekshit thin. unhonne dalit-pichhadi jatiyon ke bachchon ki shiksha ke lie khas prayas kiye the. uchch shiksha ke lie unhonne arthik sahayata upalabdh karaee. sahoo maharaj ke prayason ka parinam unake shasan men hi dikhane lag gaya tha. skool aur kaaulejon men padhane vale pichhadi jatiyon ke ladake-ladakiyon ki snkhya men ullekhaniy pragati huee thi. kolhapur ke maharaja ke taur par sahoo maharaj ne sabhi jati aur vargon ke lie kam kiya. unhonne 'prarthana samaj' ke lie bhi kafi kam kiya tha. 'rajaram kaaulej' ka prabndhan unhonne 'prarthana samaj' ko diya tha.

kathan

  • chhatrapati sahoo maharaj ke karyon se unake virodhi bhayabhit the aur unhen jan se marane ki dhamakiyan de rahe the. is par unhonne kaha tha ki- "ve gaddi chhod sakate hain, magar samajik pratibaddhata ke karyon se ve pichhe nahin hat sakate."
  • sahoo maharaj ji ne 15 janavari, 1919 ke apane adesh men kaha tha ki- "unake rajy ke kisi bhi karyalay aur ganv pnchayaton men bhi dalit-pichhadi jatiyon ke sath samanata ka bartav ho, yah sunishchit kiya jaye. unaka spasht kahana tha ki- "chhuachhoot ko bardast nahin kiya jayega. uchch jatiyon ko dalit jati ke logon ke sath manaviy vyavahar karana hi chahie. jab tak adami ko adami nahin samajha jayega, samaj ka chautarapha vikas asambhav hai."
  • 15 aprail, 1920 ko nasik men 'udoji vidyarthi' chhatravas ki niv ka patthar rakhate hue sahoo maharaj ne kaha tha ki- "jativad ka ant zaroori hai. jati ko samarthan dena aparadh hai. hamare samaj ki unnati men sabase badi badha jati hai. jati adharit sngathanon ke nihit svarth hote hain. nishchit roop se aise sngathanon ko apani shakti ka upayog jatiyon ko majaboot karane ke bajay inake khatme men karana chahie.[1]

samanata ki bhavana

chhatrapati sahoo maharaj ne kolhapur ki nagarapalika ke chunav men achhooton ke lie bhi siten arakshit ki thi. yah pahala mauka tha ki rajy nagarapalika ka adhyaksh asprishy jati se chun kar aya tha. unhonne hamesha hi sabhi jati vargon ke logon ko samanata ki nazar se dekha. sahoo maharaj ne jab dekha ki achhoot-pichhadi jati ke chhatron ki rajy ke skool-kaaulejon men paryapt snkhya hain, tab unhonne ek adesh se inake lie khulavaye ge prithakh skool aur chhatravason ko bnd kara karava diya aur unhen samany v uchch jati ke chhatron ke sath hi padhane ki suvidha pradan ki.

bhimarav ambedakar ke madadagar

ye chhatrapati sahoo maharaj hi the, jinhonne 'bharatiy snvidhan' ke nirman men mahattvapoorv bhoomika nibhane vale bhimarav ambedakar ko uchch shiksha ke lie vilayat bhejane men aham bhoomika ada ki. maharajadhiraj ko balak bhimarav ki tikshn buddhi ke bare men pata chala to ve khud balak bhimarav ka pata lagakar mumbee ki siment parel chal men unase milane ge, taki unhen kisi sahayata ki avashyakata ho to di ja sake. sahoo maharaj ne daau. bhimarav ambedakar ke 'mookanayak' samachar patr ke prakashan men bhi sahayata ki. maharaja ke rajy men kolhapur ke andar hi dalit-pichhadi jatiyon ke darjanon samachar patr aur patrikaen prakashit hoti thin. sadiyon se jin logon ko apani bat kahane ka hak nahin tha, maharaja ke shasan-prashasan ne unhen bolane ki svatntrata pradan kar di thi.[1]

nidhan

chhatrapati sahooji maharaj ka nidhan 10 mee, 1922 mumbee men hua. maharaj ne punarvivah ko qanooni manyata di thi. unaka samaj ke kisi bhi varg se kisi bhi prakar ka dvesh nahin tha. sahoo maharaj ke man men dalit varg ke prati gahara lagav tha. unhonne samajik parivartan ki disha men jo krantikari upay kiye the, vah itihas men yad rakhe jayenge.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 chhatrapati sahoo maharaj 21 julaee (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 2013, .

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