राजस्थान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

गोविन्द राम (वार्ता | योगदान) dvara parivartit 13:55, 29 navambar 2017 ka avataran (नृत्य-नाटिका)

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India-flag.gif
rajasthan
Rajasthan Map.jpg
rajadhani jayapur
rajabhasha(en) hindi, rajasthani
sthapana 1 navnbar, 1956
janasnkhya 6,86,21,012 [1]
· ghanatv 165 /varg kimi
kshetraphal 3,42,239 varg kimi
bhaugolik nirdeshank 26°34′22″ uttar 73°50′20″ poorv
· grishm 25-46 °C
· sharad 8-28 °C
zile 33
sabase bada nagar jayapur
bade nagar jayapur, ajamer, udayapur
mukhy aitihasik sthal haldighati, jaisalamer qila, chittaudagadh, amer qila, dilavada jain mndir
mukhy paryatan sthal jayapur, pushkar, jaisalamer, maunt aboo
ling anupat 1000:921[1] ♂/♀
saksharata 68%
rajyapal kalyan sinh[2]
mukhyamntri vasundhara raje sindhiya
vidhanasabha sadasy 200
lokasabha kshetr 25
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
Rajasthan-logo.jpg

rajasthan (angrezi:Rajasthan) bharat ganarajy ke kshetraphal ke adhar par sabase bada rajy hai. rajasthan ki rajadhani jayapur hai. isake pashchim men pakistan, dakshin-pashchim men gujarat, dakshin-poorv men madhy pradesh, uttar men pnjab, uttar-poorv men uttar pradesh aur hariyana hai. rajy ka kshetraphal 3,42,239 varg ki.mi. (1,32,139 varg mil) hai. bhaugolik visheshataon men pashchim men thar marusthal aur ghagghar nadi ka antim chhor hai. vishv ki puratan shreniyon men pramukh aravali shreni rajasthan ki ekamatr pahadi hai jo maunt aboo aur vishvavikhyat dilavada mndir ko sammilit karati hai. poorvi rajasthan men do bagh abhayarany, ranathambhaur evn sariska hain aur bharatapur ke samip kevaladev rashtriy udyan hai, jo pakshiyon ki raksharth nirmit kiya gaya hai. rajasthan bharatavarsh ke pashchim bhag men avasthit hai, jo prachin kal se vikhyat raha hai. tab is pradesh men kee ikaeeyan sammilit thin, jo alag-alag nam se sambodhit ki jati thin.

itihas

rajasthan ka itihas pragaitihasik kal se shuroo hota hai. eesa poorv 3000 se 1000 ke bich yahan ki snskriti sindhu ghati sabhyata jaisi thi. 12vin sadi tak rajasthan ke adhikansh bhag par gurjaron ka rajy raha. gujarat tatha rajasthan ka adhikansh bhag 'gurjaratra' arthat 'gurjaron se rakshit desh' ke nam se jana jata tha.[3][4][5]gurjar pratiharo ne 300 salon tak poore uttari-bharat ko arab akrantao se bachaya tha.[6] bad men jab rajapooton ne is rajy ke vividh bhagon par apana adhipaty jama liya to yah kshetr british kal men 'rajapootana' arthat 'rajapooton ka sthan' kahalane laga. 12vin shatabdi ke bad mevad par guhiloton ne rajy kiya. mevad ke alava jo any riyasaten aitihasik drishti se pramukh rahin, ve thin- bharatapur, jayapur, boondi, maravad, kota, aur alavar. any sabhi riyasaten inhin riyasaton se banin. in sabhi riyasaton ne 1818 ee. men adhinasth gathabndhan ki british sndhi svikar kar li, jisamen rajaon ke hiton ki raksha ki vyavastha thi, lekin is sndhi se am janata svabhavik roop se asntusht thi. varsh 1857 ke vidroh ke bad log 'svatntrata andolan' men bhag lene ke lie mahatma gandhi ke netritv men ekajut hue. sanh 1935 men angrezi shasan vale bharat men prantiy svayattata lagoo hone ke bad rajasthan men nagarik svatntrata tatha rajanitik adhikaron ke lie andolan aur tez ho gaya. 1948 men in bikhari huee riyasaton ko ek karane ki prakriya shuroo huee, jo 1956 men rajy men punargathan qanoon lagoo hone tak jari rahi. sabase pahale 1948 men 'matsy sngh' bana, jisamen kuchh hi riyasaten shamil hueen. dhire-dhire baki riyasaten bhi isamen milati geen. sanh 1949 tak bikaner, jayapur, jodhapur aur jaisalamer jaisi mukhy riyasaten isamen shamil ho chuki thin aur ise 'brihattar rajasthan snyukt rajy' ka nam diya gaya. sanh 1958 men ajamer, aboo rod taluka aur sunel tappa ke bhi shamil ho jane ke bad vartaman rajasthan rajy vidhivat astitv men aya. rajasthan ki samoochi pashchimi sima par pakistan padata hai, jabaki uttar men pnjab, uttar poorv men hariyana, poorv men uttar pradesh, dakshin-poorv men madhy pradesh aur dakshin-pashchim men gujarat hai.

bharatiy svatntrata andolan men yogadan

bharatiy svatntrata andolan men rajasthan ke anek svatntrata senaniyon ne yogadan diya hai jisamen se pramukh hain- anjana devi chaudhari, chhaganaraj chaupasani vala, gnga sinh, ghanashyam das bidala, ghasi ram chaudhari, jamanalal bajaj, chunnilal chittauda, jayanarayan vyas, abdul hamid kaisar, thakur kesari sinh, mahatma ramachandr vir adi.

arthavyavastha

rajasthan mukhyat: ek krishi v pashupalan pradhan rajy hai aur anaj v sabjiyon ka niryat karata hai. alp v aniyamit varsha ke bavajood, yahan lagabhag sabhi prakar ki fasalen ugaee jati hain. yahan ka adhikansh kshetr shushk ya arddh shushk hai, phir bhi rajasthan men badi snkhya men palatoo pashu hain v rajasthan sarvadhik oon ka utpadan karane vala rajy hai. oonton v shushk ilakon ke pashuon ki vibhinn naslon par rajasthan ka ekadhikar hai.

krishi

rajy men varsh 2006-07 men kul krishi yogy kshetr 217 lakh hekteyar tha aur varsh (2007-08) men anumanit khadyan utpadan 155.10 lakh tan raha. rajy ki mukhy fasalen hain- chaval, jau, jvar, bajara, makka, chana, gehoon, tilahan, dalen ,kapas aur tnbakoo. isake alava pichhale kuchh varsho men sabjiyon aur sntara tatha malta jaise niboo prajati ke phalon ke utpadan men kafi vriddhi huee hai. yahan ki any fasalen hai - lal mirch, sarason, methi, zira, aur hing.

registani kshetr men bajara, kota men jvar v udayapur men mukhyat: makka ugaee jati hain. rajy men gehoon v jau ka vistar achchha-khasa (registani kshetron ko chhodakar) hai, aisa hi dalahan -matar, sem v masoor jaisi khady phaliyan, ganna v tilahan ke sath bhi hai. chaval ki unnat kismon ko laya gaya hai evn chnbal ghati aur indira gandhi nahar pariyojanaon ke kshetron men is fasal ke kul kshetraphal men badhotari huee hai. kapas v tnbakoo mahattvapoorn naqadi fasalen hain.

udyog aur khanij

rajasthan sanskritik roop men samriddh hone ke sath-sath khanijon ke mamale men bhi samriddh raha hai aur ab vah desh ke audyogik paridrishy men bhi teji se ubhar raha hai. rajy ke pramukh kendriy pratishthanon men debari, udayapur men jasta galane ka snyntr, khetadi, jhunjhunoo men tanba pariyojana aur kota men sookshm upakaranon ka karakhana shamil hai. march, 2006 tak rajy men laghu udyogon ki 2,75,400 ikaiyan thi. jinamen 4,336.70 karod rupaye ki poonji lagi thi aur lagabhag 10.55 lakh logon ko rozagar mila hua tha. mukhy udyog hain: vastr, ooni kapade, chini, siment, kanch, sodiyam snyntr, aauksijan, vanaspati, rng, kitanashak, jasta, urvarak, rel ke dibbe, baaul biyaring, pani v bijali ke mitar, telivizan set, salphyoorik esid, sinthetik dhage tatha taparodhi eenten adi. bahumooly aur kam mooly ke ratnon ke alava kastik soda, kailashiyam karbaid, nailon tatha tayar adi any mahattvapoorn audyogik ikaiyan hain. rajy men jink knsntret, panna, garnet, jipsam, khanij, chandi, esbestas, phailsapar tatha abhrak ke prachur bhndar hain. rajy men namak, raauk phasphet, marabal tatha lal patthar bhi kafi matra men milata hai. sitapur, jayapur men desh pahala niryat snvarddhan park banaya gaya hai jisane kam karana prarnbh kar diya hai.

sinchaee aur bijali

shaaul par kadhaee karata hua karigar, rajasthan

atyadhik shushk bhoomi ke karan rajasthan ko bade paimane par sinchaee ki avashyakata hai. ise zile ki apoorti pnjab ki nadiyon, pashchimi yamuna, hariyana aur agara naharon uttar pradesh tatha dakshin men sabaramati v narmada sagar pariyojana se hoti hai. yah hazaron ki snkhya men jalashay (gramin talab v jhil) hain, lekin ve sookhe v gad se prabhavit hain. rajasthan 'bhakhada pariyojana' men pnjab aur chnbal ghati pariyojana men madhy pradesh ka sajhedar rajy hai; donon pariyojanaon se prapt jal ka upayog sinchaee v peyajal apoorti ke lie kiya jata hai. 1980 ke dashak ke madhy men svargiy pradhanamntri indira gandhi ki smriti men 'rajasthan nahar' ka nam badalakar 'indira gandhi nahar' rakha gaya, jo pnjab ki sataluj aur vyas nadiyon ke pani ko lagabhag 644 kilomitar ki doori tak le jati hai aur pashchimottar v pashchimi rajasthan ki maroobhoomi ki sinchaee karati hai.

  • march 2007 ke ant tak rajy men vibhinn pramukh, madhyam aur chhoti sinchaee pariyojanaon ke madhyam se 34.85 lakh hekteyar ki sinchaee snbhavyata ka srijan kiya gaya (2007-08) aur 92,200 hekteyar (aeejienapi aur siedi ke alava) ki atirikt sinchaee snbhavyata ka srijan march 2007 tak kiya gaya hai.
  • rajy men snsthapit vidyut kshamata disambar 2007 tak 6335.33 megavaaut ho gee hai, jisamen se 4000 megavaaut rajy ki apani pariyojanaon dvara utpann ki jati hai, 521.85 megavaaut sahayogi pariyojanaon se tatha 1813.18 megavaaut kendriy vidyut utpadan steshanon se abntit ki jati hai.

shiksha v jan kalyan

rajasthan men anek shaikshanik snsthan hain, jinamen rajy dvara snchalit jayapur, udayapur, jodhapur v ajamer vishvavidyalay; kota khula vishvavidyalay; pilani men bidala instityoot aauf teknolaauji end sains shamil hain. yahan anek rajakiy aspatal aur davakhane hain. yahan kee ayurvedik, yoonani (jadi-bootiyon par adharit chikitsa paddhati) evn homyopaithi snsthan hain. rajy sarakar shiksha, matritv v shishu kalyan, gramin v shahari jalapoorti evn pichhadon ke kalyan karyon par bhari vyay karati hai.

pramukh shikshan snsthan

  • vanash‍thali vidyapith (manad vishh‍vavidyalay)
  • birala praudyogiki aur snsh‍than snsh‍than (manad vishh‍vavidyalay)
  • aee. aee. es. vishh‍vavidyalay (manad vishh‍vavidyalay)
  • jain vishh‍v bharati vishh‍vavidyalay (manad vishh‍vavidyalay)
  • elenem soochana praudyogiki snsh‍than (manad vishh‍vavidyalay)
  • malaviya rashh‍triy praudyogiki snsh‍than (manad vishh‍vavidyalay)
  • mohan lal sukhadiya vishh‍vavidyalay
  • rashh‍triy vidhi vishh‍vavidyalay
  • rajash‍than krishi vishh‍vavidyalay
  • rajash‍than aryuvaid vishh‍vavidyalay
  • rajash‍than snsh‍krit vishh‍vavidyalay
  • bikaner vishh‍vavidyalay
  • kota vishh‍vavidyalay
  • rajash‍than vishh‍vavidyalay.

sanskritik jivan

maunt aboo men rajasthani gramin

rajasthan men mushkil se koee mahina aisa jata hoga, jisamen dharmik utsav n ho. sabase ullekhaniy v vishisht utsav ganagaur hai, jisamen mahadev v parvati ki mitti ki moortiyon ki pooja 15 din tak sabhi jatiyon ki striyon ke dvara ki jati hai, aur bad men unhen jal men visarjit kar diya jata hai. visarjan ki shobhayatra men purohit v adhikari bhi shamil hote hain v baje-gaje ke sath shobhayatra nikalati hai. hindoo aur musalaman, donon ek-doosare ke tyoharon men shamil hote hain. in avasaron par utsah v ullas ka bolabala rahata hai. ek any pramukh utsav ajamer ke nikat pushkar men hota hai, jo dharmik utsav v pashu mele ka mishrit svaroop hai. yahan rajy bhar se kisan apane oont v gay-bhains adi lekar ate hain, evn tirthayatri mukti ki khoj men ate hain. ajamer sthit soofi adhyatmavadi khvaja muinuddin chishti ki daragah bharat ki musalamanon ki pavitratam daragahon men se ek hai. urs ke avasar par pratyek varsh lagabhag tin lakh shraddhalu desh-videsh se daragah par ate hain.

nrity-natika

rajasthan ka vishisht nrity ghoomar hai, jise utsavon ke avasar par keval mahilaon dvara kiya jata hai. ger nrity- mahilaon aur purushon dvara kiya jane vala, panihari- mahilaon ka lalityapoorn nrity, v kachchi ghodi, jisamen purush nartak vanavati ghodi par baithe hote hain bhi lokapriy hai. sabase prasiddh git ‘khurja’ hai, jisamen ek stri ki kahani hai, jo apane pati ko khurja pakshi ke madhyam se sndesh bhejana chahati hai v usaki is seva ke badale use beshaqimati puraskar ka vayada karati hai. rajasthan ne bharatiy kala men apana yogadan diya hai aur yahan sahityik parampara maujood hai, visheshakar bhat kavita ki. chndabaradaee ka kavy prithviraj raso ya chnd rasa, vishesh ullekhaniy hai, jisaki prarambhik hastalipi 12vin shatabdi ki hai. manornjan ka lokapriy madhyam khyal hai, jo ek nrity-natika hai aur jisake kavy ki vishay-vastu utsav, itihas ya pranay prasngon par adharit rahati hai. rajasthan men prachin durlabh vastuen prachur matra men hain, jinamen bauddh shilalekh, jain mandir, qile, shanadar riyasati mahal aur masjid v gumbad shamil hain.

tyohar

rajasthan melon aur utsavon ki dharati hai. holi, dipavali, vijayadashami, krisamas jaise pramukh rashtriy tyoharon ke alava anek devi-devataon, snton aur lokanayakon tatha nayikaon ke janmadin manae jate hain. yahan ke mahattvapoorn mele hain tij, ganagaur jayapur, ajamer sharif aur galiyakot ke varshik urs, beneshvar (doongarapur) ka janajatiy kunbh, shri mahavir ji savaee madhopur mela, ramadeura (jaisalamer), jnbheshvar ji mela (mukam-bikaner), kartik poornima aur pashu-mela (pushkar-ajamer) aur shyam ji mela (sikar) adi.

rajy pakshi

rajasthan ka rajy pakshi 'godavan' hai, jo akar men kafi bada tatha vajan men bhari hota hai. godavan rajasthan tatha simavarti pakistan ke kshetron men paya jata hai. yah ek durlabhatam pakshi hai. rajy sarakar ke van vibhag ne godavan ki raksharth 'godavan snrakshan projekt' ki shurooat bhi ki hai, jisase is pakshi ko lupt hone se bachaya ja sake aur isaki snkhya bhi badh sake. rajasthan ka rajy pakshi godavan udane vale pakshiyon men sabase adhik vajani hai. bade akar ke karan yah shuturamurg jaisa pratit hota hai. bharat men godavan jaisalamer ke maroo udyan v ajamer ke shokaliya kshetr men paya jata hai. yah pakshi atynt hi sharmila hota hai aur saghan ghas men rahana isaka svabhav hai. yah 'sohan chidiya' tatha 'sharmila pakshi' ke upanamon se bhi prasiddh hai.

rajy pashu

rajasthan ka rajy pashu chinkara hai. yah ek chhota hiran hai, jo dakshin eshiya men paya jata hai. chinkara sharmila jiv hai aur manav abadi se door rahana hi pasnd karata hai. yadyapi yah akela rahane vala jiv hai, kintu kabhi-kabhi yah prani ek se char ke jhund men bhi dikhaee de jata hai. grishm ritu men is prani ki khal ka rng lal-bhoora ho jata hai aur pet tatha andarooni pairon ka rng halka bhoora liye huye safed hota hai.

rajasthani kala

itihas ke sadhanon men shilalekh, puralekh aur sahity ke samanantar kala bhi ek mahattvapoorn sthan rakhati hai. isake dvara hamen manav ki manasik pravritiyon ka gyan hi prapt nahin hota varanh nirmitiyon men unaka kaushal bhi dikhalaee deta hai. yah kaushal tatkalin manav ke vigyan tatha takanik ke sath-sath samaj, dharm, arthik aur rajanitik vishayon ka tathyatmak vivaran pradan karane men itihas ka srot ban jata hai. isamen sthapaty, moorti, chitr, mudra, vastrabhooshan, shrringar-prasadhan, ghareloo upakaran ityadi jaise kee vishay samahit hai jo pun: vibhinn bhagon men vibhakt kie ja sakate hain.

sthapaty kala

rajasthan men prachin kal se hi hindoo, bauddh, jain tatha madhyakal se muslim dharm ke anuyayiyon dvara mndir, stambh, math, masjid, maqabare, samadhiyon aur chhatariyon ka nirman kiya jata raha hai. inamen kee bhagnavesh ke roop men tatha kuchh sahi halat men abhi bhi vidyaman hai. inamen kala ki drishti se sarvadhik prachin devalayon ke bhagnavashesh hamen chittaud ke uttar men nagari namak sthan par milate hain. prapt avasheshon men vaishnav, bauddh tatha jain dharm ki takshan kala jhalakati hai. tisari sadi eesa poorv se panchavi shatabdi tak sthapaty ki visheshataon ko batalane vale upakaranon men devi-devataon, yaksh-yakshiniyon ki kee moortiyan, bauddh, stoop, vishal prastar khandon ki chahar divari ka ek bada, 36 phut aur niche se 14 phul chaud divar kaha jane vala 'garud stambh' yahan bhi dekha ja sakata hai. 1567 ee. men akabar dvara chittaud akraman ke samay is stambh ka upayog sainik shivir men prakash karane ke lie kiya gaya tha. guptakal ke pashchath kalika mandir ke roop men vidyaman chittaud ka prachin 'soory mandir' isi zile men chhoti sadadi ka bhramaramata ka mandir kota men, badauli ka shiv mandir tatha inamen lagi moortiyan tatkalin kalakaron ki takshan kala ke bodh ke sath jan-jivan ki abhikriyaon ka snket bhi pradan karati hain. chittaud zile men sthit menal, doongarapur zile men amajhera, udayapur men dabok ke devalay avasheshon ki shiv, parvati, vishnu, mahavir, bhairav tatha nartakiyon ka shilp inake nirman kal ke samajik-sanskritik vikas ka kramik itihas batalata hai.

mudra kala

rajasthan ke prachin pradesh mevad men majjhamika (madhyamika) namadhari chittaud ke pas sthit nagari se prapt tamramudra is kshetr ko 'shivi janapad' ghoshit karati hai. tatpashchath chhathi-satavin shatabdi ki svarn mudra prapt huee. janaral kaningham ko agara men mevad ke snsthapak shasak 'guhil' ke sikke prapt hue tatpashchath aise hi sikke aujhaji ko bhi mile. isake urdhvapatal tatha adhovat ke chitran se mevad rajavnsh ke shaivadharm ke prati astha ka pata chalata hai.
oont gadi, maunt aboo
rana kumbhakalin (1433-1468 ee.) sikkon men tamr mudraen tatha rajat mudra ka ullekh janaral kaningham ne kiya hai. in par utkirn vikram samvath 1510, 1512, 1523 adi tithiyon 'shri kubhnlameru maharana shri kubhnkarnasy', 'shri ekalingasy prasadat' aur 'shri' ke vakyon sahit bhale aur damaru ka bindu chihn bana hua hai. yah sikke vargakriti ke jinhen 'taka' pukara jata tha. yah prabhav saltanat kalin mudra vyavastha ko prakat karata hai jo ki mevad men rana sanga tak prachalit rahi thi. sanga ke pashchath shanai: shanai: mugalakalin mudra ki chhaya hamen mevad aur rajasthan ke tatkalin anyatr rajyon men dikhalaee deti hai. sanga kalin (1509-1528 ee.) prapt tin mudraen tamr tatha tin pital ki hai. inake urdhvapatal par nagari abhilekh tatha nagari ankon men tithi tatha adhopatal par 'sultan vin sultan' ka abhilekh utkirn kiya hua milata hai. pratik chihnon men svastik, soory aur chandr pradarshit kiye ge hain. is prakar sanga ke uttaradhikariyon rana ratnasinh dvitiy, rana vikramadity, banavir adi ki mudraon ke snlagn mugal-mudraon ka prachalan bhi mevad men raha tha jo taka, rupy adi kahalati thi.

moorti kala

rajasthan men kale, safed, bhoore tatha halke saleti, hare, gulabi patthar se bani moortiyon ke atirikt pital ya dhatu ki moortiyan bhi prapt hoti hain. gnga nagar zile ke kalibnga tatha udayapur ke nikat ahad-sabhyata ki khudaee men paki huee mitti se banaee huee khilaunakriti ki moortiyan bhi milati hain. kintu adikal se shasroky moorti kala ki drishti se eesa poorv pahali se doosari shatabdi ke madhy nirmit jayapur ke lalasot nam sthan par 'banazare ki chhatari' nam se prasiddh char vedika stambh moortiyon ka lakshan drashtaty hai. padamak ke dharmachakr, mrig, mats, adi ke ankan marahut tatha amaravati ki kala ke samanurup hain. rajasthan men gupt shasakon ke prabhavasvaroop gupt shaili men nirmit moortiyon, abhaneri, kamavan tatha kota men kee sthalon par upalabdh huee hain.

dhatu moorti kala

dhatu moorti kala ko bhi rajasthan men prayapt prashray mila. poorv madhy, madhy tatha uttaramadhy kal men jain moortiyon ka yahan bahutayat men nirman hua. sirohi zile men vasootagadh pindavada namak sthan par kee dhatu pratimaen prapt huee hain jisamen sharada ki moorti shilp ki drishti se drastavy hai. bharatapur, jaisalamer, udayapur ke zile is tarah ke udaharan se paripoorn hai. athaharavin shatabdi se moortikala ne shanai: shanai: ek udyog ka roop lena shuroo kar diya tha. at: inamen kalatmak shailiyon ke sthan par vyavasayikrit svaroop jhalakane laga. isi kal men chitrakala ke prati logon ka rujhan dikhalaee deta hai.

chitrakala

rajasthan men yon to ati prachin kal se chitrakala ke prati logon men ruchi rahi thi. mukandara ki pahadiyon v aravali parvat shreniyon men kuchh shail chitron ki khoj isaka praman hai. kota ke dakshin men chambal ke kinare, madhopur ki chattanon se, alaniya nadi se prapt shail chitron ka jo byora milata hai usase lagata hai ki yah chitr bagair kisi prashikshan ke manav dvara vatavaran prabhavit, svabhavik ichchha se banae ge the. inamen manav evn javanaron ki akritiyon ka adhiky hai. kuchh chitr shikar ke kuchh yantr-tantr ke roop men jyamitik akar ke lie pooja aur tona totaka ki drishti se ankit hain. kota ke jalavada ganv ke pas vilas nadi ke kanya dah tal se baila, hathi, ghoda sahit ghudasavar evn hathi savar ke chitr milen hain. yah chitr us adim parampara ko prakat karate hain aj bhi rajasthan men 'mandala' namak lok kala ke roop men ghar ki divaron tatha angan men bane hue dekhe ja sakate hain. is prakar inamen adim lok kala ke darshan sahit tatkalin manav ki antarik bhavanaon ki abhivyakti sahaj prapt hoti hai.

oont savari, jaisalamer

kalibnga aur ahar ki khudaee se prapt mitti ke bartanon par kiya gaya alnkaran bhi prachinatam manav ki lok kala ka parichay pradan karata hai. jyamitik akaron men chaukor, gol, jalidal, ghumavadar, trikon tatha samanantar rekhaon ke atirikt kali v safed rekhaon se phool-patti, pakshi, khajoor, chaupad adi ka chitran bartanon par paya jata hai. utkhanit-sabhyata ke pashchath mitti par kie jane vale lok alnkaran kumbhakaron ki kala men nirntar prapt hote rahate hain kintu chitrakala ka chihn gyaharavi shadi ke poorv nahin hua hai. sarvapratham vi.sn. 1117/1080 ee. ke do sachitr grnth jaisalamer ke jain bhandar se prapt hote hain. aughaniryukti aur dasavaikalik sootrachoorni namak yah hastalikhit granth jain darshan se sambandhit hai. isi prakar tad evn bhoj patr ke grnthon ko surakshit rakhane ke lie banaye ge lakadi ke pustak avaran par ki gee chitrakari bhi hamen tatkalin kal ke drishtant pradan karati hai.

dhatu evn kashth kala

isake antargat top, bandook, talavar, myan, chhuri, katari, adi astr-shastr bhi itihas ke srot hain. inaki banavat in par ki gee khudaee ki kala ke sath-sath in par prapt sanh evn abhilekh hamen rajanitik soochanaen pradan karate hain. aisi hi top ka udaharan hamen jodhapur durg men dekhane ko mila jabaki rajasthan ke sngrahalayon men abhilekh vali kee talavaren pradarshanarth bhi rakhi huee hain. palaki, kathiyan, bailagadi, rath, lakadi ki tebal, kursiyan, kalamadan, sandook adi bhi manushy ki abhivrittiyon ka digdarshan karane ke sath tatkalin kalakaron ke shram aur dashaon ka byaura prastut karane men hamare lie mahattvapoorn srot samagri hai.

lokakala

antat: lokakala ke antargat vady yntr, lok sngit aur naty ka havala dena bhi avashyak hai. yah sabhi sanskritik itihas ki amooly dharoharen hain jo itihas ka amooly ang hain. bisavin sadi ke poorvarddh tak rajasthan men logon ka manornjan ka sadhan lok naty v nrity rahe the. ras-lila jaise natyon ke atirikt pradesh men khyal, rammat, rasadhari, nrity, bhavaee, dhala-maru, turra-kalngi ya mach tatha adivasi gavari ya gauri nrity naty, ghoomar, agni nrity, kota ka chakari nrity, didavana pokaran ke teratali nrity, maravad ki kachchi ghodi ka nrity, pabooji ki phad tatha kathaputali pradarshan ke nam ullekhaniy hain. pabooji ki phad chitrankit parde ke sahare pradarshanatmak vidhi dvara gaya jane vala gey-naty hai. lok vadyon men nagada dhol-dholak, madal, ravan hattha, poongi, basali, sarngi, tadoora, tasa, thali, jhanjh pattar tatha khadatal adi hain.

kathaputali

rajasthan ki kathaputali kafi prasiddh hai. yahan dhage se bandhakar kathaputali nachaee jati hai. lakadi aur kapade se banin aur madhyakalin rajasthani poshak pahane in kathaputaliyon dvara itihas ke prem prasng darshae jate hain. amarasinh rathaur ka charitr kafi lokapriy hai, kyonki isamen yuddh aur nrity dikhane ki bharapoor snbhavanaen hain. isake sath ek siti-jise boli kahate hain- jise tej dhun bajaee jati hai.

paryatan sthal

rajasthan ke registani ilake men bhraman karana hai to oont saphari se qatee achhoote n rahen. registan ke is jahaj par hichakole le-lekar ki gee yatra ap qatee bhula nahin paenge kyonki registan ka maja usake maharathi ki pith par baithakar kuchh alag hi ata hai. rajy men paryatan ke pramukh kendr hain:

maunt aboo
himalay se maunt aboo ka vihngam drishy

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 Rajasthan State Profile (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 23 mee, 2014.
  2. rajyapal (hindi) bharat ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 30 agast, 2014.
  3. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977) The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
  4. (1984) Desa, videsa me? Gurjara kya hai? tatha kya the?: Gurjara itihasa. Akhila Bharatiya Gurjara Samaja Sudhara Sabha.
  5. Surajanasi?ha Shekhavata (1989) Sekhava?i pradesa ka pracina itihasa. Sri Sardula Ejyukesana ?ras?a.
  6. John Keay (2001) India: a history. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0, ISBN 978-0-8021-3797-5.

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