विद्यापति  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

व्यवस्थापन (वार्ता | योगदान) dvara parivartit 17:44, 27 apral 2018 ka avataran (Text replacement - "इन्होने " to "इन्होंने ")

(अंतर) ← पुराना अवतरण | वर्तमान अवतरण (अंतर) | नया अवतरण → (अंतर)

vidyapati
vidyapati ka kalpanik chitr
poora nam vidyapati thakur
any nam mahakavi kokil
janm sanh 1350 se 1374 ke madhy
janm bhoomi bisapi ganv, madhubani zila, bihar
mrityu sanh 1440 se 1448 ke madhy
abhibhavak shri ganapati thakur aur shrimati hansini devi
karm-kshetr snskrit sahityakar
mukhy rachanaen kirtilata, manimnjara natika, gngavakyavali, bhooparikrama adi
vishay shrringar aur bhakti ras
bhasha snskrit, avahatt aur maithili
puraskar-upadhi mahakavi
nagarikata bharatiy
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
vidyapati ki rachanaen

vidyapati (angrezi:Vidyapati) bharatiy sahity ki bhakti parnpara ke pramukh stnbhon men se ek aur maithili bhasha ke sarvopari kavi ke roop men jane jate hain. inaka snskrit, prakrit apabhrnsh evn matri bhasha maithili par saman adhikar tha. vidyapati ki rachanaen snskrit, avahatt, evn maithili tinon men milati hain. inake kavyon men madhyakalin maithili bhasha ke svaroop ka darshan kiya ja sakata hai. inhen vaishnav aur shaiv bhakti ke setu ke rup men bhi svikar kiya gaya hai. mithila ke logon ko 'desil bayana sab jan mittha' ka sootr de kar inhonne uttari-bihar men lokabhasha ki janachetana ko jivit karane ka mahati prayas kiya hai. mithilanchal ke lokavyavahar men prayog kiye jane vale giton men aj bhi vidyapati ki shrringar aur bhakti ras men pagi rachanaen hain. padavali aur kirtilata inaki amar rachanaen hain.

jivan parichay

maithil kavi kokil, rasasiddh kavi vidyapati, tulasi, soor, kabir, mira sabhi se pahale ke kavi hain. amir khusaro yadyapi inase pahale hue the. 'mahakavi kokil vidyapati' ka poora nam "vidyapati thakur tha. dhany hai unaki mata "hansini devi" jinhonne aise putr ratn ko janm diya, dhany hai visapi ganv jahan kavi kokil ne janm liya. 'shri ganapati thakur' ne kapileshvar mahadev ki aradhana kar aise putr ratn ko prapt kiya tha. kaha jata hai ki svayn bhole nath ne kavi vidyapati ke yahan ugana (naukar ka nam) banakar chakari ki thi.

janm

aise kisi bhi likhit praman ka abhav hai jisase yah pata lagaya ja sake ki mahakavi kokil vidyapati thakur ka janm kab hua tha. yadyapi mahakavi ke ek pad se spasht hota hai ki lakshman-snvath 293, shake 1324 arthath sanh 1402 ee. men devasinh ki mrityu huee aur raja shivasinh mithila naresh bane. mithila men prachalit kinvadantiyon ke anusar us samay raja shivasinh ki ayu 50 varsh ki thi aur kavi vidyapati unase do varsh bade, yani 52 varsh ke the. is prakar 1402 men se 52 ghata den to 1350 bachata hai. at: 1350 ee. men vidyapati ki janmatithi mani ja sakati hai. lakshman-snvath ki pravarttan tithi ke sambandh men vivad hai. kuchh logon ne sanh 1109 ee. se, to kuchh ne 1119 ee. se isaka prarnbh mana hai. sv. nagendranath gupt ne lakshman-snvath 293 ko 1412 ee. manakar vidyapati ki janmatithi 1360 ee. men mani hai. griparsan aur mahamahopadhyay umesh mishr ki bhi yahi manyata hai. parantu brajanandan sahay 'brajavallabh', ramavriksh benipuri, daau. subhadr jha adi sanh 1350 ee. ko unaka janmatithi ka varsh manate hain. daau. shivaprasad ke anusar "vidyapati ka janm sanh 1374 ee. ke asapas snbhav maloom hota hai." apane granth vidyapati ki bhoomika men ek or daau. vimanavihari majumadar likhate hai ki "yah nishchitatapoorvak nahin jana jata hai ki vidyapati ka janm kab hua tha aur ve kitane din jite rahe" aur doosari or anuman se sanh 1380 ee. ke as pas unaki janmatithi manate hain. halanki janashruti yah bhi hai ki vidyapati raja shivasinh se bahut chhote the.

bachapan

ek kinvadanti ke anusar balak vidyapati bachapan se tivr aur kavi svabhav ke the. ek din jab ye ath varsh ke the tab apane pita ganapati thakur ke sath shivasenh ke rajadarabar men pahunche. raja shivasinh ke kahane par inhonne nimnalikhit de pnktiyon ka nirman kiya:

pokhari rajokhari aru sab pokhara.
raja shivasinh aru sab chhokara..

yadyapi mahakavi ki balyavastha ke bare men vishesh janakari nahin hai. vidyapati ne prasiddh harimishr se vidya grahan ki thi. vikhyat naiyayik jayadev mishr urph pakshadhar mishr inake sahapathi the. janashrutiyon se aisa gyat hota hai. logon ki dharana yah hai ki mahakavi apane pita ganapati thakur ke sath bachapan se hi rajadarabar men jaya karate the. kintu chaudahavin sadi ka sheshardh mithila ke lie ashanti aur kalah ka kal tha. raja ganeshvar ki hatya asalan namak yavan-saradar ne kar di thi. kavi ke samavayask evn raja ganeshvar ke putr kirtisinh apane khoye rajy ki prapti tatha pita ki hatya ka badala lene ke lie prayatnashil the. snbhavat: isi samay mahakavi ne nasaratashah aur giyasuddin ashramashah jaise mahapurushon ke lie kuchh padon ki rachana ki. raja shivasinh vidyapati ke balasakha aur mitr the, at: unake shasan-kal ke lagabhag char varsh ka kal mahakavi ke jivan ka sabase sukhad samay tha. raja shivasinh ne unhen yatheshth samman diya. bisapi ganv unhen dan men paritoshik ke rup men diya tatha 'abhinavajayadev' ki upadhi se navaja. kritgy mahakavi ne bhi apane giton dvara apane abhinn mitr evn ashrayadata raja shivasinh evn unaki sul patni rani lakhima devi (lalimadeee) ko amar kar diya. sabase adhik lagabhag 250 giton men shivasinh ki bhanita milati hai.

parivarik jivan

mahakavi vidyapati thakur ke parivarik jivan ka koee svalikhit praman nahin hai, kintu mithila ke utedhapothi se gyat hota hai ki inake do vivah hue the. pratham patni se narapati aur harapati namak do putr hue the aur doosari patni se ek putr vachaspati thakur tatha ek putri ka janm hua tha. snbhavat: mahakavi ki yahi putri 'dullahi' nam ki thi jise mrityukal men rachit ek git men mahakavi amar kar gaye hain. kalantar men vidyapati ke vnshaj kisi karanavash visapi ko tyagakar sada ke lie saurath ganv (madhubani zila men sthit samagachhi ke lie prasiddh gan) akar bas ge. vartaman samay men mahakavi ke sabhi vnshaj isi ganv men nivas karate hain.

vidyapati ki rachanaen

mahakavi vidyapati snskrit, avahatth, maithili adi anek bhashaon ke prakand pndit the. karmakand ho ya dharm, darshan ho ya nyay, saundary shastr ho ya bhakti rachana, virah vyatha ho ya abhisar, raja ka krititv gan ho ya samany janata ke lie gaya men pindadan, sabhi kshetron men vidyapati apani kalajayi rachanaon ke badaulat jane jate hain. shastr aur lok donon hi snsar men unaka asadharan adhikar tha. kavy aur sahity ke kshetr men mahakavi ne nimnalikhit granthon ki rachana ki

  1. purush pariksha
  2. bhooparikrama
  3. kirtilata
  4. kirti pataka
  5. goraksh vijay
  6. manimnjara natika

dharmashastr ke kshetr men bhi mahakavi vidyapati ka asadharan yogadan hai. is vishay par inhonne nimnalikhit 7 granthon ki rachana ki hai:

  1. gngavakyavali
  2. danavakyavali
  3. varshakrity
  4. durgabhaktitarngini
  5. shaivasarvasvasar
  6. gayapattalak
  7. vibhagasar

nidhan

vidyapati ke samman men jari dak tikat

janmatithi ki tarah mahakavi vidyapati thakur ki mrityu ke sambandh men bhi vidvanon men matabhed hai. nagendranath gupt sanh 1440 ee. ko mahakavi ki mrityu tithi ka varsh manate hain. mahamahopadhyay umesh mishr ke anusar sanh 1466 ee. ke bad tak bhi vidyapati jivit the. daau. subhadr jha ka manana hai ki "vishvast abhilekhon ke adhar par ham yah kahane ki sthiti men hai ki hamare kavi ka masay 1352 ee. aur 1448 ee. ke madhy ka hai. sanh 1448 ee. ke bad ke vyaktiyon ke sath jo vidyapati ki samasamayikata ko jod diya jata hai vah sarvatha bhramak hain." daau. vimanabihari majumadar sanh 1460 ee. ke bad hi mahakavi ka virodhakal manate hain. daau. shivaprasad sinh vidyapati ka mrityukal 1447 manate hai. itana spasht hai aur janashrutiyan batati hai ki adhunik begoosaray zila ke mubajidapur (vidyapatinagar) ke pas gngatat par mahakavi ne pran tyag kiya tha. unaki mrityu ke sambandh men yah pad janasadharan men aj bhi prachalit hai:

'vidyapatik ayu avasan

katik dhaval trayodasi jan.'

yahan ek bat spashat karana anivary hai. vidyapati shiv evn shakti donon ke prabal bhakt the. shakti ke rup men unhonne durga, kali, bhairavi, gnga, gauri adi ka varnan apani rachanaon men yatheshth kiya hai. mithila ke logon men yah bat aj bhi vyapt hai ki jab mahakavi vidyapati kafi umr ke hokar rugn ho ge to apane putron aur parijanon ko bulakar yah adesh diya:

"ab main is sharir ka tyag karana chahata hoon. meri ichchha hai ki main gnga ke kinare gngajal ko sparsh karata hua apane dirgh jivan ki antim sans loon. at: ap log mujhe gngalabh karane ki taiyari men lag jaen. kahariya ko bulakar us par baithakar aj hi hamen simariya ghat (gngatat) le chalen."

ab parivar ke logon ne mahakavi ka agya ka palan karate hue char kahariyon ko bulakar mahakavi ke jirn sharir ko palaki men sulakar simariya ghat gngalabh karane ke lie chal pade - age-age kahariya palaki lekar aur pichhe-pichhe unake sage-sambandhi. rat-bhar chalate-chalate jab sooryoday hua to vidyapati ne poochha: "bhaee, mujhe yah to batao ki gnga aur kitani door hai?"

"thakuraji, qarib paune do kos." kahariyon ne javab diya. is par atmavishvas se bhare mahakavi yakaek bol uthe: "meri palaki ko yahin rok do. gnga yahin aengi."

"thakuraji, aisa snbhav nahin hai. gnga yahan se paune do kos ki doori par bah rahi hai. vah bhala yahan kaise aaigi? ap thodi dhairy rakhen. ek ghnte ke andar ham log simariya ghat pahunch jaenge."

"nahin-nahin, palaki roke" mahakavi kahane lage, "hamen aur age jane ki jarurat nahin. gnga yahin aegi. agar ek beta jivan ke antim kshan men apani man ke darshan ke lie jirn sharir ko lekar itane door se a raha hai to kya gnga man paune do kos bhi apane bete se milane nahin a sakati? gnga aegi aur jarur aegi."

itana kahakar mahakavi dhyanamudra men baith ge. pandrah-bis minat ke andar gnga apani uphanati dhara ke pravah ke sath vahan pahunch gayi. sabhi log ashchary men the. mahakavi ne sarvapratham gnga ko donon hath jodakar pranam kiya, phir jal men pravesh kar nimnalikhit git ki rachana ki:

bad sukhasar paol tua tire.
chhodit nikat nayan bah nire..
karanori bilamo bimal tarnge.
puni darasan hoe punamati gnge..
ek aparadh ghamab mor jani.
paramal mae pae tum pani..
ki karab jap-tap jog-dheane.
janam kritarath ekahi sanane..
bhanee vidyapati samadajon tohi.
antakal janu bisarah mohi..

is gnga stuti ka arth kuchh is prakar spasht kiya ja sakata hai:

"he man patit pavani gnge, tumhare tat par baithakar mainne snsar ka apoorv sukh prapt kiya. tumhara samipy chhodate hue ab ankhon se ansoo bah rahe hain. nirmal tarngovani poojyamati gnge! main kar jod kar tumhari vinati karata hoon ki pun: tumhare darshan hon."

"thamere ek aparadh ko janakar bhi sama kar dena ki he man! mainne tumhen apane pairon se sparsh kar diya. ab jap-tap, yog-dhyan ki kya avashyakata? ek hi snan men mera janm kritarth ho gaya. vidyapati tumase (bar-bar) nivedan karate hai ki mrityu ke samay mujhe mat bhoolana."



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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