Makhanchor.jpg bharatakosh ki or se ap sabhi ko krishn janmashtami ki hardik shubhakamanaen Makhanchor.jpg

वैश्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vaishy
vaishy vyapari
vivaran 'vaishy' bharat men hinduon ki jati vyavastha men char varnon men se ek hai. kisan, pashupalak aur vyapari samuday is varn men shamil hain.
desh bharat
shabd utpatti 'vaishy' shabd vaidik 'vishh' se nikala hai.
arth snskrit se nikale is shabd ka mool arth hai- "basana".
karm 'yajan', 'adhyayan' aur 'pashupalan' tatha vriti krishi v vanijy.
vishesh sindhu ghati ki sabhyata ka nirman tatha usaka prasar door-door ke deshon tak vaishyon dvara unake vyaparik karyon ne kiya ya unaki vajah se hua.
snbndhit lekh varn vyavastha, brahman, kshatriy, shoodr, hindoo dharm
any janakari vaidik kal men praja matr ko vishh kahate the. par bad men jab varn vyavastha huee, tab vanijy vyavasay aur gayon ka palan adi karane vale log vaishy kahalane lage.

vaishy ka hinduon ki varn vyavastha men tisara sthan hai. is varn ke log mukhyat: vanijyik vyavasay aur krishi karate the. hinduon ki jati vyavastha ke antargat vaishy varnashram ka tisara mahattvapoorn stnbh hai. is varg men mukhy roop se bharatiy samaj ke kisan, pashupalak, aur vyapari samuday shamil hain.

utpatti

'vaishy' shabd vaidik 'vishh' se nikala hai. arth ki drishti se 'vaishy' shabd ki utpatti snskrit se huee hai, jisaka mool arth "basana" hota hai. manu ke 'manusmriti' ke anusar vaishyon ki utpatti brahma ke udar yani pet se huee hai. jabaki kuchh any vicharon ke anusar brahma ji se paida hone vale brahman, vishnu se paida hone vale vaishy, shnkar se paida hone vale kshatriy kahalae; isaliye aj bhi brahman apani mata sarasvati, vaishy lakshmi, kshatriy man durge ki pooja karate hai.

itihas

vaishy varn[1] ka itihas janane ke pahale yah janana hoga ki vaishy shabd kahan se aya? vaishy shabd vishh se aya hai. vishh ka arth hai- 'praja'. prachin kal men praja (samaj) ko vishh nam se pukara jata tha. isake pradhan snrakshak ko 'vishapati' (raja) kahate the, jo nirvachan se chuna jata tha.

manu maharaj ke char mukhy samajik varn shoodr, vaishy, kshatriy tatha brahman the, jinamen sabhyata ke vikas ke sath-sath naye vyavasay bhi kalantar judate chale ge the. shoodron ke akheti samudayon men anasikhiyon ko bojha dhone ka kam diya jata tha. kalantar men unhin men se jab kuchh logon ne krishi kshetr men chhota-mota mazadoori karane ka kam sikha, to vah akhet ke badale krishi ka kam karane lag gaye. adhikatar aise logon men jigyasa ki kami, agyanata tatha uttaradayitv sambhalane ke prati udasinata ki manasikata rahi. vah apani tatkalik avashyakataon ki poorti ke alava kuchh aur sochane men asamarth aur udasin rahe. unake bhitar vartalap karane ki simit kshamata thi, jis karan vah samuday ki vastuon ka doosare samudayon ke sath adan-pradan nahin kar sakate the.

dhire-dhire akheti samuday krishi apanane lage. samuday ke log krishi tatha krishi se jude any vyavsay bhi sikhane lage. samuday ke logon ne bhojan tatha vastr adi ki niji zarooraton ki apoorti bhi krishi kshetr ke utpadakon se karani shuru kar di thi. unhonne krishi pradhan janavar palane shuroo kiye aur unako apani sampada men shamil kar liya. shram ke badale janavaron tatha krishi utpadakon ka adan-pradan hone laga. manav samuday bnjara jivan chhodakar krishi aur jal strotron ke samip rahane lage. is prakar ka jivan adhik sukhaprad tha.

jaise-jaise kshamata badhi, usi ke anusar naye krishak vyavasayi samuday ke pas shoodron se adhik sadhan ate gaye aur vah ek hi sthan par tikakar sukhamay jivan bitane lage. ab unaka mukhy lakshy snsadhan jutana tatha unako
vaishy vyapari
prayog men lakar adhik sukh-sampada ekatrit karana tha. is vyavasay ko karane ke liye vyaparik soojhaboojh, vyavahar-kushalata, parivartanashilata, vakpatuta, jokhim uthane tatha sahane ki kshamata, dhairy, parishram tatha chaturata ki avashyakata thi.

jin logon men yah gun the ya jinhonne aisi kshamata prapt kar li thi, vah vaishy varg men pravesh kar gaye. vaishy krishi, pashupalan, utpadak vitaran tatha krishi sambandhi auzaron ke rakharakhav tatha kray-vikray ka dhandha karane lage. unaka jivan shoodron se adhik sukhamay ho gaya tatha unhonne shoodron ko anaj, vastr, rahavas adi ki suvidhayen dekar apani sahayata ke liye niji adhikar men rakhana shuroo kar diya. is prakar sabhyata ke vikas ke sath jab anaj, vastr, rahavas adi ke badale shulk dene ki pratha vikasit hone lagi to usi ke sath hi ‘sevak’ vyavsay ka janm bhi hua. nissndeh samaj men vaishyon ka jivan star tatha samman shoodron se uttam tha. aj sabhi deshon men vaishy ‘skild ’ ya prashikshashit varg ban gaya hai.[2]

panini ka ullekh

panini ne vaishy ke lie 'ary' pad ka ullekh kiya hai.[3] grihasth ke lie 'grihapati' shabd hai. maury-shung yug men 'grihapati' samriddh vaishy vyapariyon ke liye prayukt hone laga tha, jo bauddh prabhav ko svikar kar rahe the. unhin se 'gahoee' vaishy prasiddh hue. yah arth 'ashtadhyayi' men avidit hai.[4] malavaputr hi vartaman 'malotre' ho sakate hain.[5]

sindhu sabhyata se sambandh

sindhu ghati ki sabhyata ka nirman tatha prasar door-door ke deshon tak vaishyon ne kiya ya unaki vajah se hua hai. sindhu ghati ki sabhyata men jo vishalakay bandaragah the, ve uttari amarika tatha dakshini amarika, yoorop ke alag-alag bhag tatha eshiya (jamboo dvip) adi se jahaz dvara vyapar tatha agaman ka kendr the.[6]

vyavasay

vaidik kal men praja matr ko vishh kahate the. par bad men jab varn vyavastha huee, tab vanijy vyavasay aur gayon ka palan adi karane vale log vaishy kahalane lage. inaka dharm yajan, adhyayan aur pashupalan tatha vriti krishi aur vanijy tha. ajakal adhikansh vaishy prayah vanijy, vyavasay karake hi jivika nirvah karate hain. vaishy samaj men vyapar se rozagar ke avasar pradan karata hai. samajik kary men dan se samaj ki avashyakata ki poorti karata hai, jisase use samaj men shuroo se hi vishisht sthan prapt hai.


inhen bhi dekhen: hindoo dharm, varn vyavastha, jati, jat, kayasth, brahman, kshatriy evn shoodr


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bhattachary, sachchidannd bharatiy itihas kosh (hindi). lakhanoo: uttarapradesh hindi snsthan, 442.

  1. 'varn' shabd ka arth hai- "jisako varan kiya jae vo samuday."
  2. hindoo samaj ka gathan (hindi) hindoo mahasagar. abhigaman tithi: 27 march, 2015.
  3. ary: svami vaishyayo:, 3.1.103
  4. mahabharat vanaparv, 297.60
  5. paninikalin bharat |lekhak: vasudevasharan agraval |prakashak: chaukhamba vidyabhavan, varanasi-1 |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 92 |
  6. ham medataval aur hamara vaishy vnsh (hindi) jay man phaladi.kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 27 march, 2015.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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