सुब्रह्मण्यम चंद्रशेखर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

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subrahmanyam chndrashekhar
Subrahmanyan-Chandrasekhar.jpg
poora nam daau. subrahmanyam chndrashekhar
janm 19 aktoobar, 1910
janm bhoomi lahaur, pakistan
mrityu 21 agast, 1995
mrityu sthan shikago, snyukt rajy amerika
abhibhavak subrahmanyam ayar, sitalakshmi
pati/patni lalita chandrashekhar
karm-kshetr khagolashastr
vishay khagol bhautik shastri
khoj chndrashekhar sima
vidyalay madras presidensi kaaulej, shikago vishvavidyalay, amerika
puraskar-upadhi nobel puraskar, kaauple padak, neshanal medal aauph sains, padm vibhooshan
nagarikata bharat, amerika
adyatan‎

subrahmanyam chndrashekhar (janm- 19 aktoobar, 1910 - mrityu- 21 agast, 1995) khagol bhautik shastri the aur sanh 1983 men bhautik shastr ke lie nobel puraskar vijeta bhi the. unaki shiksha chennee ke presidensi kaaulej men huee. vah nobel puraskar vijeta sar si. vi. raman ke bhatije the. bad men da. chndrashekhar amerika chale ge. jahan unhonne khagol bhautik shastr tatha sauramndal se snbndhit vishayon par anek pustaken likhin.

  • subrahmanyam chndrashekhar ne 'vhait dvarph', yani 'shvet baune' nam ke nakshatron ke bare men siddhant ka pratipadan kiya.
  • in nakshatron ke lie unhonne jo sima nirdharit ki hai, use 'chndrashekhar sima' kaha jata hai.
  • unake siddhant se brahmand ki utpatti ke bare men anek rahasyon ka pata chala.

20vin shatabdi ke mahanatam vaigyanikon men se ek vaigyanik subrahmanyam chndrashekhar apane jivan kal men hi ek kinvadnti ban ge the. 'kameshvar si. vali' chandrashekhar ke jivan ke bare men likhate hain ki 'vigyan ki khoj men asadharan samarpan aur vigyan ke niyamon ko amali roop dene aur jivan men nikatatam snbhavit sima tak usake manon ko atmasat karane men vah sab se alag dikhaee dete hain.' usake bahusarjak yogadanon ka vistar khagol - bhautik, bhautik - vigyan aur vyaharik ganit tak tha. unaka jivan unnati ka sarvottam udaharan hai jise koee bhi vyakti prapt kar sakata hai basharte ki usamen snkalp, shakti, yogyata aur dhairy ho. usaki yatra asan nahin thi. unhen sab prakar ki kathinaeeyon se joojhana pada. vah ek aisa vyaktitv tha jisamen bharat, jahan unaka janm hua, inglaind aur yoo.es.e. ki tin atyadhik bhinn snskritiyon ki jatilataon dvara akar mila.

vah manavon ki sajhi parampara men vishvas rakhate the. unhonne kaha tha, 'tathy yah hai ki manav man ek hi tarike se kam karata hai. isase ham pun: ashvast hote hai ki jin chizon se hamen anand milata hai, ve vishv ke har bhag men logon ko anand pradan karati hai. ham sabaka sajha hit hai aur is tathy se is bat ko bal milata hai ki hamari ek sajhi parampara hai.' vah ek mahanh vaigyanik, ek kushal adhyapak aur durjey vidvan the.

jivan parichay

subrahmanyam chndrashekhar ka janm lahaur men 19 aktoobar, 1910 ko hua. usake pita subrahmanyam ayar sarakari seva me the. sar si. vi. raman, vigyan men pahale bharatiy nobel puraskar vijeta chandrashekhar ke pita ke chhote bhaee the. chandrashekhar ka balyajivan chennee men bita. gyarah varsh ki ayu men 'madras presidensi kaaulej' men usane dakhila liya jahan pahale do varsh usane bhautiki, kaimistri, angrezi aur snskrit ka adhyayan kiya. chandrashekhar ne 31 julaee 1930 ko uchch shiksha ke lie inglaind ka prasthan kiya aur is prakar ek lamba aur shanadar vaigyanik kairiyar anrabh kiya jo 65 varshon tak vistrit tha. pahale chh: varshon ko chhod, usane 'shikago vishvavidyalay' me kam kiya.

chandrashekhar sima

apani shanadar khoj 'chandrashekhar sima' ke lie vah atyadhik prasiddh hai. unhonne dikhaya ki ek atyadhik dravyaman hai jise ilektraaunon aur paramanu nabhikon dvara banaye dab dvara gurutv ke viruddh sahara diya ja sakata hai. is sima ka man ek saur dravyaman se lagabhag 1.44 guna hai. 1930 men chandrashekhar ne isaki vyutpatti ki jabaki vah ek vidyarthi hi the. tarakiy vikas ki janakari prapt karane men 'chandrashekhar sima' ek nirnayak bhoomika nibhati hai. yadi ek tare ka dravyaman is sima se badhata hai, to tara ek safed bauna nahin banega. yah gurutvakarshan ki shaktiyon ke atyadhik dab ke antargat tootata rahega. chandrashekhar sima ke pratipadan ke phalasvaroop nyootron taron aur kale gaddhon ka pata chala. yah pata chala ki tare sthir hote hain aur ve samapt nahin hote kyonki bhitari dab paramanu nabhikon aur ilaiktranon ke tapiy snchalan aur nabhakiy pratikriyaon dvara utpann vikiran ke dab se bhi gurutv ko santulit karate hain. tathapi, pratyek tare ke lie ek aisa samay ayega jab nabhakiy pratikriyaen band ho jaegi aur isaka arth yah hoga ki gurutvakarshan ka mukabala karane ke lie bhitari dab nahin honge. dravyaman ke adhar par ek tare ke tin snbhavit charan hote hain -

  1. safed bona
  2. nyootran tara
  3. kale gaddhe

chandrashekhar ko snyukt roop se nabhakiy khagol bhautiki 'dablyoo.e.phaular' ke sath 1983 men bhautiki men nobel puraskar pradan kiya gaya. unake kam ke vistar men bhautik - vigyan, khagol - bhautik aur vyavaharik ganit shamil hain. unake apane shabdon men 'mere jivan men sat kal aye aur ve snkshipt roop se hain-

  1. tarakiy dhancha, safed baunon ke siddhant sahit (1929-39)
  2. tarakiy gatik, braumin snchalanon ke siddhant sahit (1938-473)
  3. vikirani antaran ka siddhant, pradipti aur saur prakashit akash ke dhruvan ka siddhant, grihiy aur tarakiy vatavaran ke siddhant aur haidrojan ke nakaratmak ayan ka pariman siddhant
  4. haidro-gatik aur haidro-chunbakiy sthirata (1952-61)
  5. samyavastha ki dirghavrittajiy akritiyon ka santulan aur sthayitv. (1961-68)
  6. sapekshata aur apekshikiy khagol-bhautiki ke samany siddhant (1962-71)
  7. kale gaddhon ka ganitiy siddhant (1974-73)'

anusndhan kary

unaka anusadhan kary apoorv hai. chandrashekhar dvara prakashit pratyek monograph ya pustak gauravagranth ban ge hain. snbndhit kshetron ka koee bhi gambhir vidyarthi chandrashekhar ke kam ki upeksha nahin kar sakata. vah kisi ekal samasya se nahin balki is ichchha se prerit the ki samast kshetr par sapeksh mahatv ya mahatvahinata ke bare men vah kabhi chintit nahin the. unhen is bat ki jara bhi chinta nahin thi ki unaka kam unake lie prasiddhi aur manyata lane vala hai. unhonne kaha - 'pahali taiyari ke varshon ke bad, mera vaigyanik kary ek nishchit paitarn par chala hai jo mukhyatah sndarsho (pariprekshyon) ki talash dvara prerit hai. vyavahar men is khoj men ek nishchit kshetr ka mere dvara ( kuchh janchon aur kashton ke bad) chayan shamil hai jo snvardhan ke lie parikshaniy dikhaee diya aur meri ruchi, mizaj aur yogyataon ke anukool tha aur jab kuchh varshon ke adhyayan ke bad, main mahasoos karata hoon ki maine gyan ki paryapt matra snchit kar li hai aur mainne apana drishtikon prapt kar liya hai to meri ichchha hai ki apane drishtikon ko main ne sire se susngat tarike se kram, roop aur dhanche ko prastut karoon.'

videshi sahity men ruchi

vigyan men poori tarah vyast hote hue bhi, unaki any vishayon men bhi dilachaspi thi arnbh se hi usaki sahity men ruchi thi. unhonne kaha, 'varsh 1932 ke asapas kaimbrij men sahity men meri gambhir ruchi utpann huee. us samay mere lie vastavik khoj roosi lekhak the. mainne yojanabaddh tarike se 'turganev' ke sab upanyas, 'dostyovaski' ke 'kraim end panishament', 'brardas karamazov', aur 'posesd' upanyas 'kanstans garnet' anuvad men padhe. 'chekhav' ki sab kahaniyon aur natakon ko padha. 'taaulastaauy' ke sab to nahin lekin 'anna keranina' zaroor padha. angreji lekhakon men se mainne 'virajina vulph', 'ti es eeliyat', 'thamas hardi', 'jaaun galsavardi' aur 'barnad shaau' ko padhana arnbh kiya. 'henarik ibasen' bhi mere priy lekhakon men se ek tha.'

doosaron ki prerana

doosaron men parishram ke lie utsah utpann karane ki chandrashekhar men vilakshan yogyata thi. unake margadarshan me 50 se zyada vidyarthiyon ne Ph.D. kary kiya. apane vidyarthiyon ke sath unake snbndh hamen purane zamane ki 'guru shishy' parnpara ki yad dilate hai. vidyarthiyon se vah adar prapt karate the lekin vah unhen utsahit bhi karate the ki ve apane drishtikon nirbhik ho kar rakhen. unhonne kaha - 'mere vidyarthi, aise vidyarthi jinake sath mainne nikat se kam kiya hai, ve ek prakar se shrriddhalu hai jo purane jamane ki yad dilate hai jinhen ham pustakon men padhate hain. isake sath hi jo main kahata hoon usase ve bilkul bhayabhit nahin hote. unaki pratikriya sakaratmak hogi ya nakaratmak, ve charcha karate hain aur tark vitark bhi karate hain. jo ap kahate hain yadi koee vyakti usase poori tarah sahamat hota hai to vichar - vimarsh ka koee bindu nahin hoti.' apane samagr jivan men yuva logon ke sath unhonne parichay banae rakha. ek bar unhonne kaha - 'main asani se kalpana kar sakata hoon ki yadi mainne 'pharmi' ya 'vaaun nyooman' ke sath kam nahin kiya to kuchh bhi nahin khoya, lekin apane vidyarthiyon ke bare men main vaisi bat nahin kar sakata.'

patrikaon ka sampadan

vah 1952 se 1971 tak 'khagol-bhautiki patrika' ke prabandh sampadak rahe. 'shikago vishvavidyalay' ki ek niji patrika ko unhonne 'amerikan estronamikal sosaiti' ki ek rashtriy patrika ke roop men parivartit kar diya. pahale barah varshon tak patrika ki prabandh - vyavastha chandrashekhar aur ek anshakalik sachiv ke hath men thi. 'ham milajul kar sare kam karate the. hamane vaigyanik patrachar par dhyan diya. ham bajat, vigyapan aur prishth prabhar taiyar karate the. ham ri - print ardar dete the aur bil bhejate the.' jab chandrashekhar sampadak bane to patrika varsh me chhah bar nikalati thi aur kul prishth snkhya 950 thi lekin chandrashekhar ke sampadakatv ki samapti ke samay patrika 'varsh men chaubis bar' prakashit hoti thi aur kul prishth snkhya 12,000 thi. unake netritv men patrika shikago vishvavidyalay se vittiy roop se svatantr ho gee. unhonne patrika ke lie apane pichhe '500,000 yoo es daaular' ki arakshit nidhi chhodi.

samarpit bharatiy

chandrashekhar ne mukhyatah videsh men aur vahin kam kiya. 1953 men vah amariki nagarik ban gaye. tathapi bharat ki behatari ki unhen gahari chinta thi. bharat men bahut se vigyan snsthanon aur javan vaigyanikon ke sath unaka gahara snbndh tha. apane bachapan men unhen ramanujam ke vigyan ke prati sampoorn samaparn ke udaharan se prerana mili thi. ramanujam men usaki dilachaspi jivan bhar bani rahi. 1940 ke uttarardh men madras men 'ramanujam instichyoot aauph maithimaitiks' sthapit karane men sahayak ki bhoomika ada ki aur jab instichyoot ko arthik snkat ka samana karana pada to unhonne is mamale ko neharoo ji ke samane rakha. ramanujam ki vidhava jo garibi ki halat men rah rahi thin, unake lie penshan rashi men vriddhi karane ki vyavastha ki. 'richard aske' dvara ramanujam ki ardhapratimaen dhalavane ke lie bhi vah uttaradayi the.

vigyan ki khoj men lage rahane men chandrashekhar ke lie kya prerana thi ? usake ek vidyarthi 'yoovooz nootakoo' ne kaha - 'har samay sikhate hue 'chandr snsthapan' ke bare men tanik bhi chinta nahin karate the. jo kuchh unhonne kiya vah isalie kiya kyonki vah upajaoo tarike se jigyasu the. unhonne keval ek karan se hi yah kiya - isase unhen shanti aur antarik shanti milati thi.'

jo vigyan ki khoj men lage hain ya aisa karane ki yojana bana rahe hain unake lie ham chandrashekhar ko uddhrit karate hue kah sakate hain - 'vigyan ki khoj ki tulana kee bar parvaton oonche lekin zyada oonchen nahin, ke arohan ke sath ki gee hai, lekin hamamen se kaun asha, ya kalpana hi, kar sakata hai ki asim tak phaili evarest par chadhaee kare aur usake shirsh par pahunche jab ki akash nila ho aur hava rooki huee ho aur hava ki stabdhata men barf ke saphe़d chamakilepan men samast himalay ghati ka sarvekshan kare. hamamen se koee apane ird gird vishv aur prakriti ke tulanatmak drishti ke lie asha nahin kar sakata. lekin niche ghati men khade hona aur knchanajnga ke oopar sooryoday hone ki pratiksha karane men kuchh bhi buraee ya hinata nahin hai.'

poorv rashtrapati kalam apani kitab ‘vings aauph phayar’ men yad karate hain ki kis tarah pro. subrahmanyam chndrashekhar ne kaimbrij men grejueshan ke dauran 1930 men hi ‘chndrashekhar limit’ ki khoj kar li thi lekin nobel puraskar hasil kar manyata milane ke lie unhen 50 sal intazar karana pada.

nidhan

chandrashekhar ka nidhan 21 agast, 1995 ko hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani

  1. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Kameshwar C. Wali, Current Science pp. 477-479, 1998;
  2. Chandrasekhar and His Limit by G. Venkataraman, Universities Press, 1992;
  3. Truth and Beauty : Aesthetics and Motivation in science by S. Chandrasekhar, University of Chicago Press, 1987;
  4. Chandra : A Biography of S. Chandrasekhar by Kameshwar C. Wali, Penguin Books, 1990;
  5. Eddington : The Most Distinguished Astrophysicist of His Time by S. Chandrasekhar, Cambridge University Press, 1983;
  6. Resonance (a journal of science education published by the Indian Academy of Science, Bangalore) April 1997 Issue.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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