अंग्रेजी साहित्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

angreji sahity ke prachin evn arvachin kal kee ayamon men vibhakt kie ja sakate hain. yah vibhajan keval adhyayan ki suvidha ke lie kiya jata hai; isase angreji sahity pravah ko akshunnata par koee prabhav nahin padana chahie. prachin yug ke angreji sahity ke tin spasht ayam hai: ainglo-saiksan; narman vijay se chaausar tak; chaausar se punarjagaran kal tak.

ainglo-saiksan

inglaind men basane ke samay ainglo-saiksan kabile barbarata aur sabhyata ke bich ki sthiti men the. akhet, samudr aur yuddh ke atirikt unhe krishi jivan ka bhi anubhav tha. apane sath ve apane viron ki kathaen bhi lete ae. tyootan jati ke sare kabilon men ye kathaen samany roop se prachalit thin. ve deshon ki simaon men nahin bndhi thin. inhin bhashaon se satavin shatabdi men kavita ke roop men angreji sahity ka prarnbh hua. isalie dablyoo.pi. kar ke shabdon men ainglo-saiksan sahity purani duniya ka sahity hai. lekin is samay tak ainglo-saiksan log eesaee ban chuke the. in bhashaon ke rachayita bhi am taur se purohit hua karate the. isalie in bhashaon men varnit shaury aur parakram par dharmik rahasy, vinay, karuna, seva ityadi ke bhav bhi aropit hue. ainglo-saiksan kavita ka shuddh dharmavishayak ansh bhi in gathaon ke roop se prabhavit hai

in gathaon men shaury ke sath shaili ka bhi atirnjan hai. ainglo-saiksan bhasha kaphi anagadh thi. gathaon men kavi use atynt kritrim bana dete the. chhnd ke anuprasik adhar ke karan bharati ke shabdon ka a jana anivary tha. mukhar vynjanon ki prachurata se sngit ya lay men kathorata hai. vishayon aur shaili ko snkirnnta ke bich angreji kavita ka vikas asnbhav tha. narman vijay ke bad isaka aisa kayakalp hua ki anek vidvanon ne isamen aur bad ki kavita men vnshagat snbndh jodana anuchit kaha hai.

doosari or angreji gady men, jisaka uday kavita ke bad hua, vikas ki kramik aur atoot parnpara hai. eesaee snsar ki bhasha latini thi aur is kal ka prasiddh gady lekhak bid isi bhasha men likhata tha. ainglo-saiksan men gady ka prarnbh alaphred ke jamane men latini ke anuvadon tatha upadeshon aur vartaon ki rachana se hua. gady ki rachana shiksha aur gyan ke lie huee thi. isalie isamen ainglo-saiksan kavita ki kritrimata aur any shailigat dosh nahin hain. unaki bhasha lokabhasha ke adhik samip thi. ainglo-saiksan kavita ki tarah bad vale yugon men usaka snbndh vichchhed karana asnbhav hai. lekin is yug ke poore sahity men lality ka abhav hai

narman vijay se chaausar tak

chaausar poorv madhyadeshiy angreji kal n keval inglaind men hi balki yoorop ke any deshon men bhi phrans ke sahityik netritv ka kal hai. 12vin se lekar 14vin shatabdi tak phrans ne in deshon ko vichar, snskriti, kalpana, kathaen aur kavita ke roop die. dharmayuddhon ke is yug men sare eesaee deshon ko bauddhik ekata sthapit huee. yah samnti vyavastha tata shaury aur audary ki kendriy manyataon ke vikas ka yug hai. nari ke prati prem aur poojabhav, sahas aur parakram, dharm ke lie pranotsarg, asahayon ke prati karuna, vinay adi eesaee naiton (sooramaon) ke jivan ke abhinn ang mane ge. isi samay phrans ke charanon ne prachinakalin parakram gathaon (chanson dageste) aur prem giton ki rachana ki, tatha latini, tyootanon, kelti, ayari, karni aur phrench gathaon ka vyapak upayog hua. phrans ki gathaon men karm ki, briten ki gathaon men bhavukata aur shrringar ki or latini gathaon men in sabhi tatvon ki pradhanata thi. sahity men komalata, madhury aur giton par jor diya jane laga.

is yug men angreji bhasha ne apana roop snvara. usamen romans bhashaon, visheshat; phrench ke shabd ae, usane kavita men karnakatu anuprasik chhnd rachana ki jagah turkon ko apanaya, usake vishay vyapak hue-snkshep men, usane chaausar yug ki poorvapithika taiyar ki.

gady ke lie bhasha ke mnje-mnjae aur sthir roop ki avashyakata hoti hai. purani angreji ke roop men vighatan ke karan is yug ka gady purane gady jaisa sntulit aur svasth nahin hai. lekin roopagat asthirata ke bavajood is yug ke dharmik aur romani gady men vicharon ki drishti se ainglo-saiksan gady ki parnpara ko vikasit kiya.

chaausar se punarjagaran tak

chaausar ne is yug ki kavy parnpara ko adhunik yug se samanvit kiya. usane phrench kavita se lality aur itali ki samakalin kavita se adhunik bodh’ liya. kavita men yatharthavad ko janm dekar usane angreji kavita ko yoorop ki kavita se bhi age kar diya. isalie use samajhane ke lie purani ainglo-saiksan duniya aur usaki kavita ki jagah madhyayugin phrans aur adhunik itali ki sahityik halachal ko jan lena jaroori hai. usake bad aur elijabeth yug se pahale koee bada kavi nahin hua.

is yug men latini aur phrench sahity ke anuvadon aur maulik rachanaon ke madhyam se gady ka roop nikhar chala. lekhakon ne latini aur phrench gady ki vaky rachana aur lay ko angreji roop men utara. 1350 men angreji ko rajabhasha ka samman mila aur dharm ke ghere ko todakar gady ka roop am logon ki or hua. gady ne vigyan, darshan, dharm, itihas, rajaniti, katha aur yatra varnan ke dvara vividhata prapt ki. 15vin shatabdi ke ant tak ate-ate maindevil, chaausar, vikaliph, pharteskyoo, kaikstan aur mailori jaise prasiddh gady nirmataon ne angreji gady ki ninv majaboot bana di.

15vin shatabdi

angreji natak ka shaishav kal hai. dharmopadesh aur sadachar shiksha ki avashyakata, nagaron ke vikas aur shaktishali shreniyon (shild) ke uday ke sath natak girajaghar ke prachiron se nikalakar janapath par a khada hua. in natakon ka snbndh baibil ki kathaon (mistriz), kumari meri aur snton ki jivaniyon (miraikils), sadachar (morailitiz) aur manornjak prahasanon (intaralyoods) se hai. dharm ke snkuchit kshetr men rahane vale aur roop men anagadh in natakon ko elizabeth yug ke mahan natakon ka poorvaj kaha ja sakata hai.

punarjagaran

vicharon aur kalpana ke aviram mnthan, vidhaon men prayogon ki vividhata aur krititv ki praudhata ki drishti se punarjagaran kal angreji sahity ka svarn yug hai. sanskritik drishti se yah yug adhi bhautikata ke viruddh bhautikata, madhyayugin samnti ankushon ke viruddh mananashil vyaktivad, andhavishvas ke viruddh vigyan ke sngharsh ka yug hai. punarjagaran ne inglaind ko itali, phrans, spen aur jarmani ke kaphi bad andolit kiya. 1500 se 1580 tak ka samay manavatavad ke vikas aur prachin yoonan tatha itali ke sahityik adarshon ko atmasat karane ka hai. lekin 1580 aur 1660 ke bich kavita, natak aur gady men adbhut utkarsh hua. 1580 ke poorv mahan vyaktitv keval chaausar ka hai. 1580 ke bad spensar, sheksapiyar, bekan aur miltan ki mahan pratibhaon se kuchh hi niche star par natak men marlo, ben jaaunsan aur bebstar, gady men hookar, barten aur taaumas braun, kavita men ben jaaunsan aur dan hain. shaili aur vastu men chitr-vichitrata ki drishti se natakon men lili, pil aur grin ki ‘darabari kamedi’, sheksapiyar ki ‘romani kamedi’, bomant aur phlechar ki ‘traiji kamedi’ aur ben jaaunsan ki ‘yatharthavadi kamedi’, kavita men anek kaviyon ke prem snbndhon kathabaddh saaunet, spensar ki romani kavita, dan aur any adhyatmik (metaphijikal) kaviyon ki durooh kalpanapoorn kavitaen, ben jaaunsan aur darabari kaviyon ke pranjal git tatha miltan ke bhavy aur udatt mahakavy, gady men itali aur spen se prabhavit lilo aur sidani ko alnkrit shaili ki romani kathaen tatha naish aur deloni ke sahasikatapoorn yatharthavadi upanyas, bekan ke nibndh (ese), baibil ka mahan anuvad, bartan ka manovaigyanik, sookshm kintu suhrid sa antarng gady, sidani aur ben jaaunsan ki gady alochanaen, miltan ka ojapoorn aur akroshapoorn pralnbit vakyon ka bhavy gady, taaumas braun ka chintanapoorn kintu sngit taral gady is yug ki ullekhaniy upalabdhiyan hain. manav buddhi aur kalpana ki tarah hi yah yug abhivyakti ke mahatvakankshi prasar ka yug hai.

1660 aur 1700 ee. ke ant ke bich vale varsh buddhivad ke ankuran ke hain. parntu punarjagaran ka prabhav shesh rahata hai; usake antim aur mahan kavi miltan ke mahakavy 1660 ke bad hi likhe ge; svayn draidan men manavatavadi pravrittiyan hain. lekin ek naya mod samane hai. buddhivad ke atirikt yah charls dvitiy ke punarrajyarohan ke bad phrench ritivad ke uday ka yug hai. phrench ritivad tatha ‘prem aur samman’ (lav aind aaunar) ke darabari moolyon se prabhavit is yug ka natak anubhooti aur abhivyakti men nirjiv hai. doosari or madhyavargiy yatharthavad se prabhavit vikarli aur kangrov ke samajik prahasan apani sajivata, parishkrit kintu paini bhasha aur tikhe vyngy men advitiy hai. oonche madhyavarg ke yantrik buddhivad aur anaitikata ke virooddh nimn madhyavargiy naitikata aur adarsh ka pratik jaaun vanyan ka roopak upanyas ‘di pilgrims proses’ hai. alochana men ritivad ka prabhav sheksapiyar ke romani natakon ke virooddh raimar ki alochana se spasht hai. us yug ki sabase mahatvapoorn alochanakriti manavatavadi svatntrata aur ritivad ke samanvay par adharit draidan ka natak-kavy-snbndhi nibndh hai. varnan men yatharthavadi gady ke vikas men saimuel pepiz ki dayari ki bhoomika bhi smaraniy hai. snkshep men, 17vin shatabdi ke in antim varshon ke gady aur pady men svachchhata aur sntulan hai, lekin kul milakar yah mahatta-viral-yug hai.

18vin shatabdi

ritivadi yug yah shatabdi tark aur riti ka utkarshakal hai. layabaniz, dakart aur nyootan ne kary karan ki paddhati dvara tarkavad aur yantrik bhautikavad ka vikas kiya tha. unake anusar srishti aur manushy niyamanushasit the. is drishtikon men vyaktigat ruchi ke pradarshan ke lie kam jagah thi. is yug par havi phrainch ritikaron ne bhi sahityik prakriya ko ritibaddh kar diya tha.

is yug ne dharm ki jagah rakha aur manushy ke sadharan samajik jivan, rajaniti, vyavaharik naitikata ityadi par jor diya. isalie isaka sahity kam ki bat ka sahity hai. is yug ne bat ko saph-suthare, sidhe, nape-tule, paine shabdon men kahana adhik pasnd kiya. kavita men yah pop aur prayar ke vyngy ka yug hai.

tark ki pradhanata ke karan 18vin shatabdi ko gadyayug kaha jata hai. sachamuch yah adhunik gady ke vikas ka yug hai. dalagat sngharshon, kaauphihauson aur klabon men apani shakti ke prati jagarook madhyavarg ki naitikata ne is yug men patrakarita ko janm diya. sahity aur patrakarita ke samanvay men edisan, stil, dipho, svipht, philding, smalet, jaaunasan aur goldasmith ki shaili ka nirman kiya. isase kavita ke vyamoh se mukt, rachana ke niyamon men dridh, batachit ki atmiyata lie hue chhote-chhote vakyon ke pravahamay gady ka janm hua. jahar men bujhe tir ki tarah svipht ke gady ko chhodakar adhikansh lekhakon men vyngy ki udar shaili hai.

alochana men pahali bar chaausar, spensar, sheksapiyar, miltan ityadi ko vivek ki kasauti par kasa gaya. riti aur tark ki paddhati romaintik sahityakaron ke prati anudar ho jaya karati thi, lekin aj bhi edisan, pop aur jaaunsan ki alochanaon ka mahatv hai. gady men shaili ki anekaroopata ki drishti se is yug ne lalit patralekhan men chestaraphild aur valapol, snsmaranon men giban, phaini barni aur baauzavel, itihas men giban, darshan men barkale aur hyoom, rajaniti men bark aur dharm men batalar jaise shailikar paida hue

yatharthavadi drishtikon ke vikas ne adhunik angreji upanyason ki char prasiddh dhuriyan din dipho, richardh‌san, pholding aur smaaulet. upanyas men yahi yug svipht, starn aur goldasmith ka bhi hai. angreji katha sahity ko yatharthavad ne hi, goldasmith aur sheridan ke madhyam se, kritrim bhavukata ke daladal se ubara. kintu yah yug madhyavargiy bhavuk naitikata se bhi achhoota n tha. isake spasht lakshan bhavuk kamedi aur starn, richardh‌san ityadi ke upanyason men maujood hai. shatabdi ke antim varshon men romaintik kavita ki jamin taiyar thi. blek aur barns is yug ki sthirata men andhi ki tarah ae.

19vin shatabdi

romaintik yug punarjagaran ke bad romaintik yug men phir vyakti ki atma ka unmeshapoorn aur ullasit svar sun padata hai. pray: romaintik sahity ko ritiyug (klasisizm) ki pratikriya kaha jata hai aur usaki visheshataon ka is prakar ullekh kiya jata hai- tark ki jagah sahaj gitimay anubhooti aur kalpana; abhivyakti men sadharanikaran ki jagah vyakti nishthata; nagaron ke kritrim jivan se prakriti aur ekant ki or mudana; sthoolata ki jagah sookshm adarsh aur svapn; madhyayug aur prachin itihas ka akarshan; manushy men astha; lalit bhasha ki jagah sadharan bhasha ka prayog; ityadi. nishchay hi inamen se anek tatv romani kaviyon men milate hain, lekin unaki mahanh‌ sanskritik bhoomika ko samajhane ke lie avashyak hai ki 19vin shatabdi men jarmani, phrans, spen, itali, inglaind, roos aur polaind men janavadi vicharon ke ubhar ko dhyan men rakha jae. is ubhar ne samajik aur sahityik roodhiyon ke viruddh vyakti svatnthhray ka nara lagaya. roosi aur phransisi kranti usaki kendriy prerana the. inglaind men 19vin shatabdi ke poorvardh ke kavi-- vardh‌svarth, kolarij, sheli, kits, aur bayaran-- isi ne unmesh ke kavi hain. lainb, hnt aur haizalit ke nibndhon, kits ke premapatron, skaaut ke upanyason, di kvinsi ke ‘kanpheshns aauv ain opiyam’ eetar men gady ki bhi anubhooti, kalpana aur abhivyakti ka vahi ullas prapt hua. alochana men kolarij, lainb, haizalit aur di kvinsi ne riti se mukt hokar sheksapiyar aur usake charitron ki atma ka udghatan kiya. lekin vyaktitv aropit karane ke svabhav ne natak ke vikas men badha pahunchaee.

viktoriya ke yug men jahan ek or janavadi vicharon aur vigyan ka atoot vikas ho raha tha, vahan abhijat varg krantibhiru bhi ho utha. isalie is yug men kuchh sahityakaron men yadi svasth samajik chetana hai to kuchh men nirasha, snshay, anastha, samanvay, kalavad, vayavi ashavad ki pravrittiyan bhi hain. vyaktivad shatabdi ke antim dashak tak pahunchate-pahunchate kaithalik dharm, rahasyavad, atmarati ya atmapidan men is tarah lipt ho gaya ki is dashak ko khal dashak bhi kahate hain. janavadi, yatharthavadi aur vaigyanik vicharadhara ka pratinidhitv maauris ne kavita men, raskin ne gady men aur brante bahanon, thaikare, dikens, kingsali, rid, jaaurj iliyat, taaumas hardi, batalar adi ne upanyas men kiya. nirasha aur pida ke bich men inamen manav ke prati gahari sahanubhooti aur vishvas hai. shatabdi ke antim varshon men viktoriya yug ke rikt adarshon ke viruddh anek svar uthane lage the.

20vin shatabdi

19vin shatabdi ke antim varshon men madhyavargiy vyaktivad ke ubharate hue antarvirodh 20vin shatabdi men snkat ki sthiti men pahunch ge. yah is shatabdi ke sahity ka kendriy tathy hai. is shatabdi ke sahity ko samajhane ke lie usake vicharon, bhavon aur roopon ko prabhavit karane vali shaktiyon ko dhyan men rakhana avashyak hai. ve shaktiyan hain nitshe, shaaupenavar, spinoza, karkagard, phrayad aur marks; ibsan, chekhav, phrench abhivynjanavadi aur pratikavadi, gorki, sartr aur iliyat; do ho chuke yuddh aur tisare ki ashnka, phasijm, roos ki samajavadi kranti, ge deshon men samajavad ki sthapana aur paradhin deshon ke svatnthhray sngram; prakriti par vigyan ki vijay se samajik vikas ki amit snbhavanaen aur unake sath vyakti ki sngati ki samasya.

20vin shatabdi men vyaktivadi adarsh ka vighatan teji se hua hai. sha, vels aur garlsavardi ne shatabdi ke prarnbh men viktoriya yug ke vyaktivadi adarshon ke prati sndeh prakat kiya aur samajik samadhanon par jor diya. hardi ki kavita men bhi usake vighatan ka chitr hai. lekin kisi tarah pahale yuddh ke pahale kavita ne viktoriya yug ke paistaral adarshon ko jivit rakha. jo yuddhon men vyaktivad samaj se bilkul tootakar ah‌lag ho gaya. apani hi simaon men snkuchit sahityik ne prayogon ka sahara liya. ti.es. iliyat ke ‘vestalaind’men vyakti ki kuntha aur dikshagamy kavita ka janm hua aur aj bhi vyaktivad se prabhavit angreji kavi usaka netritv svikar karate hain. 1930 ke bad marksavadi vicharadhara aur spen ke grihayuddh ne angreji kavita ki nee sphoorti di. lekin doosare yuddh ke bad tivr samajik sngharshon ke bich is kal ke anek kavi phir vyaktivadi pravritti ke upasak ho ge. sath hi, aise kaviyon ka bhi uday hua jo apani vyaktigat manasik ulajhanon ke bavajood yug ki manav astha ko vyakt karate rahe.

adarshavad ke tootane ke sath hi upanyason men vyakti ki manasik gutthiyon, visheshat: yaun kunthaon ke viruddh bhi avaj uthi. laaurens, jems, jvaauyas aur varjiniya vulph isi dhara ki pratinidhi hain. natakon ke kshetr men bhi yatharthavadi pravrittiyon ka vikas hua hai. natakon men kavy aur romani krantikari vicharon ko vyakt karane men sabase adhik saphalata angreji men likhane vale ayaralaind ke natakakaron ko mili hai. alochana men shodh se lekar vyakhya tak ka bahut bada kary hua. prayogavadi sahityakaron ke pradhan shikshak ti.es. iliyat, richarrdh‌s, empasan aur livis hai. inhonne jivan ke moolyon se adhik mahatv kavita ki rachana prakriya ko diya hai. sadharanat: kaha ja sakata hai ki 20vin shatabdi ke sahity men vicharon ki drishti se chinta, bhay aur dishahinata ki aur roop ki drishti se vighatan ki pradhanata hai. usamen svasth tatv bhi hai aur unhin par usaka age ka vikas nirbhar hai.

gady

angreji gady ne angreji kavita, natak aur upanyas ke saman hi angreji sahity ko samriddh kiya hai. baibil ke anek vaky angreji rashtr ke manas par sada ke lie gahare ankit ho ge hain. isi prakar sheksapiyar, miltan, giban, jaaunsan, nyoomain, karlail aur raskin ke vaky angrej jati ko smriti men goonjate hain. angreji gady anek sahityik vidhaon dvara samriddh hua hai. inamen upanyas, kahani aur natak ke atirikt nibndh, jivani, atmakatha, alochana, itihas, darshan aur vigyan bhi sammilit hain.

angreji gady ka sngit anek shatabdiyon se pathakon ko mohata raha hai. yah sngit bahudha romansavadi aur bhavana pradhan raha hai. is gady men kavy ka gun prachur matra men milata hai. angreji gady ki tulana men phrench gady ki gati adhik sntulit aur snyat rahi hai. ek alochak ka kahana hai ki kavita bhavana ko bhasha deti hai, kintu gady vivek aur buddhi ki vani hai.

angreji gady ainglo-saiksan sahity ki parnpara ka hi vikas hai. madhy yug ke bid (672-735) angreji gady ke pitamah kahe ja sakate hain. bid ki ‘ekseziestikal histri’ jooliyas sizar ke akraman se lekar 735 ee. tak ke inglaind ka pray: ath sau varshon ka itihas prastut karati hai. angreji gady ka sarvapratham mahatvapoorn grnth sar jaaun mendevil ki yatraen hain. yatra varnan ke roop men yah pustak vastav men kalpanik gatha hai. sanh‌ 1377 men mool phransisi se anoodit hokar yah angreji men prakashit huee. angreji kavita ke janak chaausar (1340-1400) ka gady sahity bhi pariman men kaphi hai. unaki kaitarabari tels men do kahaniyan gady men likhi hai.

angreji gady ko vikliph (1324-1384) ki rachanaon se bahut prerana mili. vikliph andhavishvason par kathor aghat karata hai. usane sarvapratham baibil ka sanh‌ 1611 ka vikhyat snskaran taiyar hua. vikliph dharm ke kshetr men svatntr vicharak tha. usake gady men badi shakti hai.

15vin shatabdi tak inglaind ke lekhak latini gady men hi likhana pasnd karate the aur shakti tatha pratibha se snpann kam gady angreji men likha gaya. aise lekhakon men sar jaaun phaaurteskyoo (1394-1476) ka nam ullekhaniy hai. inhonne angreji vidhan ki prashnsa men ek pustak ‘di gavarnens aauv inglaind’ likhi. angreji gady ke itihas men kaikstan (1421-91) ka nam vishesh mahatvapoorn hai. unhonne 1476 men mudran kary arnbh kiya aur angreji gady ko sthaniy boliyon ke prabhav se mukt karake ek nishchit roop dene men badi madad ki. kaikstan ne madhy yug ke anek romans angreji gady men anuvad karake prakashit kie. unhonne phrench gady ko apana adarsh banaya aur angreji gady ke vikas men bada hissa liya. kaikstan ke mahatvapoorn prakashanon men sar taaumas mailori ka ‘mart d arthar’bhi tha. mailoli ki pustak angreji gady ke itihas men ek smaraniy mil stnbh hai.

angreji punarjagaran ke pahale bade lekhak sar taaumas mor (1478-1535) hai. unaki pustak yutopiya vishvavikhyat hai, kintu durbhagy se is pustak ko unhonne latini men likha. angreji men unaki keval kuchh mamooli rachanaen hain. unhin ke bad iliyat, chik, eskam aur vilsan ne apani shiksha snbndhi pustaken likhin.

viliyam tindel (1484-1536) ne sanh‌ 1522 se baibil ka anuvad angreji men karana shuroo kiya. is prashnsaniy kary ke badale tindel ko nirvasan aur matyudnd mila.

elizabeth ke yug ka gady kavita ke svar ka hi hai. isake udaharan lili (1574-1606) aur sar philip sidani (1554-86) ki rachanaon men ho pate hain. lili ki ‘yoophuis’aur sidani ki ‘arkediya’kavy ke gunon se samanvit rachanaen hain. sidani ki ‘diphens aauv poeji’angreji alochanaon ki pahali mahatvapoorn pustak hai.

angreji gady ke vikas men agala kadam grin, laauj, naish, dailooni adi ke upanyason ka prakashan hai. in lekhakon ne atmakathaen aur anek vivadapoorn pustaken bhi likhin. udaharan ke lie grin ke ‘kanpheshns’ ka ullekh ho sakata hai. ‘obaravari’aur arl nam ke lekhakon ne charitrik skech likhe, jisaki prerana unhen grik lekhak thiyaphroaaustas se mili.

angreji gady sahity ka ek mahatvapoorn ansh hamen elizabethakalin natakon men milata hai. bhavana ke gahare kshanon men sheksapiyar ke patr gady men bolane lagate hain. grin, jaaunsan, malon adi ke nam bhi angreji gady ke itihas men mahatvapoorn hai.

richard hookar

angreji gady ke mahanh‌ lekhakon men pahala bada nam richard hookar (1554-1600) ka hai. unaki pustak ‘di laauj aauv eklejiestikal paauliti’angreji gady ki unnayak hain. isi samay (1611) baibil ka suprasiddh angreji anuvad bhi prakashit hua. baibil ki bhasha angreji gady ke anupam sanchon men dhalati hai. vastav men yah gady kavy ke sngit se anupranit hai. pransis bekan (1561-1626) angreji nibndh ke janak tatha itihas ke darshan ke gnbhir lekhak the. unaki rachanaon men ‘di aidavansment aauv larning’, ‘di nyoo aitalaintis’, ‘henari seventh’, ‘di esez novamh‌ oganim’adi suprasiddh hai. bekan ki bhasha thos, gnbhir aur sootr shaili ki hai.

richard bartan

richard bartan (1576-1640) ki pustak ‘di enataaumi aauv melaikali’angreji gady ke itihas men ek vikhyat rachana hai. isaka padity apoorv hai aur ek gahari udasi pustak bhar men chhaee rahati hai. is yug ke ek mahanh‌ gady lekhak ‘sar taaumas braun’(1605-82) hai. inake gady ka sngit pathakon ko shatabdiyon se mugdh karata raha hai. inaki mahatvapoorn rachanaon men ‘rilijio medisi’aur ‘haidrotaiphiya’ullekhaniy hai. jairemi telar (1613-77) prasiddh dharm shikshak aur vakta the. unaki upamaen bahut sundar hoti thin, unaka gady kalpana aur bhavana se anurnjit hai. unaki pustakon men ‘holi living’aur ‘holi daing’prasiddh hai.

is kal ke lekhakon men miltan ka janm agragany hai. tis se lekar pachas varsh ki ayu tak miltan ne keval gady likha aur tatkalin rajanitik, samajik aur dharmik vivadon men jamakar bhag liya. apani prasiddh pustak ‘eropajitika’men ve vicharon ki abhivyakti ki svatntrata ke prashn ko oonche dharatal par uthate hain aur aj bhi unake vicharon men saty ki goonj hai. miltan ke gady men shakti aur oj ka adbhut snyog hai. 17vin shatabdi ke gady lekhakon men any ullekhaniy nam phular (1608-61) aur valtan (1593-1683) ke hain. phular dharmik vishayon par likhate the. unaki pustak, ‘di bardij aauv inglaind’prasiddh hai. valtan ki pustak, ‘di knplit ainglar’angreji sahity ki amar rachanaon men se hai.

draidan

draidan (1631-1700) angreji ke pramukh gadyakaron men the. unaki alochana shaili sulajhi huee aur suvyavasthit thi. unaki gady shaili bhi phrench parnpara ke nikat hai. vah chintan ko sahaj aur tarkasngat abhivyakti dete hain. draidan ki bhoomikaon ke atirikt unaki pustak, ‘ese aauv draimetik poezi’suprasiddh hai. haaubs (1588-1679) ke rajanitik vicharon ka aitihasik mahatv hai aur unaki pustak ‘di levayathan’angreji bhasha ki ek suprasiddh rachana hai. pepiz (1632-1704) aur evalin (1632-1706) ki dayariyan angreji sahity ki nidhi hain. haaubs ke saman hi laauk (1623-1704) ke rajanitik vicharon ka bhi aitihasik mahatv bahut hai.

18vin shatabdi men angreji gady jivan ki gati ke sabase adhik nikat aya. isaka karan phrench sahity ka badhata hua prabhav tha. svift (1667-1745) apani amar kriti ‘gulibarg traivels’men apane samay ke manaviy vyaparon par kathor vyng karate hain. unake gady men bada oj aur bal hai. unaki any prasiddh rachanaon men ‘e tel aauv e tab’aur ‘di baitil aauv di buks’bhi ullekhaniy hai. 18vin shatabdi ka sahity uthate hue madhy varg ki bhavanaon ko vyakt karata hai aur isake gady ki shaili bhi is varg ki avashyakataon ke anuroop saral aur spasht hai. is yug ke saphal gadyakaron men dipho, edisan aur stil hain. dinpho (1660-1731) ka upanyas ‘raaubinsan kooso’angreji bhasha ki vishesh lokapriy rachanaon men se hain. unake any upanyas ‘maaul phlaindars’, ‘e jarnal aauv di pleg eegar’adi yatharthavadi shaili men dhale hain. edisan (1672-1719) aur stil (1672-1729) mukhyat: nibndhakar hai. unhonne ‘di taitalar’ aur ‘di spektetar’ nam ke patr nikal kar angreji sahity men uchch koti ki patrakarita ki bhi ninv rakhi.

daau. jaaunsan

angreji sahity ke itihas men daau. jaaunsan (1709-84) ka nam avismaraniy rahega. ve itihasakar, nibndhakar, alochak, kavi aur upanyasakar the. unhonne ek kosh ki bhi rachana ki. inaki gady kritiyon men ‘laivz aauv di poets’, ‘raselas’aur ‘priphesez tu sheksapiyar’ atynt mahatvapoorn hai. jaaunsan ki batachit bhi, jo baaujavel likhit jivani men snkalit hai, unake lekhan se kam mahatv ki nahin hoti thi.

18vin shatabdi men angreji upanyas ka apoorv vikas hua. is kal ke upanyasakaron men goldasmith (1728-1774) bhi the jinhonne jal ke saman taral gati ka gady likha aur anek sundar nibndhon ki rachana ki. inaki rachanaon men ‘di sitizan aauv di varld’, ‘di vikar aauv bekaphild’adi suvikhyat hai. itihasakaron men hayoom, raaubartasan aur giban ke nam mahatvapoorn hai. giban (1737-1784) angreji gady ke itihas ke amar hain. shaili aur nirman shakti ki drishti se unaka grnth ‘diklain aind fal aauv di roman empayar’ ek smaraniy kriti hai. isi shreni men prasiddh vicharak aur vakta vark (1729-1797) ka nam bhi ata hai. unake gady men badi pravahaman shakti thi. unaki sabase prasiddh pustak ‘riphlekshns aaun di phrench rivalyooshan’hai.

phransisi kranti se prabhavit romaintik sahity men moolat: kavita pramukh hai. romaintik kaviyon ne apane krititv ke bachav men bhoomikaen adi likhin. unamen sabase mahatvapoorn vaktavy vard savarth ka ‘priphes tu di lirikal bailads’, kolarij ki ‘bayograiphiya litareriya’aur sheli ki pustak ‘e difens aauv poetri’hai. romaintik yug ka gady bhavana aur kalpana se anurnjit hai.

samajashastr aur arthashastr par jeremi bentham, rikardo aur edas smith ne grnth likhe. 19vin shatabdi men ‘edinabara rivyoo’, ‘kvartarli’aur ‘blaikabud’ ke saman patrikaon ka janm hua jinhonne gady sahity ke bahumukhi vikas men madad ki. 19vin shatabdi ke pramukh nibndhakaron aur alochakon men lainb, haizalit, li hnt aur di kvinsi ke nam agragany hai. lainb (1775-1834) angreji sahity ke sarvashreshth nibndhakar hain. unake nibndh ‘esez aauv iliya’ke nam se prakashit hue. haizalit (1778-1830) uchch koti ke nibndhakar aur alochak the. di kvinsi (1785-1859) ki pustak ‘kanpheshns aauv ain opiyam eetar’ angreji sahity ka anupam ratn hai.

viktoriya yug ke prarnbh se angreji sahity adhik sntulan aur snyam ki or agrasar hota hai aur gady ki shaili bhi adhik snyat ho jati hai, yadyapi karlail aur raskin ke se gadyakaron ki rachana men ham romantik shaili ka prabhav phir dekhate hain.

mil

mil (1806-1873) ne anek grnth likhakar darshanik gady ko samriddh kiya. itihasakaron men maikale (1800-1859) ka gady bahurngi aur sabal tha. unake aitihasik nibndh bahut hi lokapriy hain. sahityalochan ke kshetr men maithyoo arnald (1822-88) ka kary vishesh mahatv ka hai. arnald ka chintan suspasht tha aur yahi spashtata unaki gady shaili ki bhi visheshata hai. vicharon ke kshetr men bhi daravin, haksale aur harbart spainsar ki kritiyan angreji gady ko mahatvapoorn den hai.

19vin shatabdi ke gadyakaron men karlail, nyoomain aur raskin ka ullekh anivary hai. inake lekhan men hamen angreji gady ki sarvochch udanen milati hain. karlail (1795-1881) itihasakar aur vicharak the. unake grnth ‘di phrench rivalyooshan, past aind preznt, hiroz aind hiro varship’angreji sahity ke utkrisht namoone hain. unaki atmakatha angreji gady ka utkrisht roop prastut karati hai. raskin kalatmak aur samajik prashnon par vichar karate hain. unaki kritiyon men ‘maaudarn pentars’, ‘di sevin laips aauv arkitekchar’, ‘di stons aauv vanis antoo dis last’, adi vikhyat hai.

sanh‌ 1890 ke lagabhag angreji sahity ek naya mod leta hai. is yug ke pitamah petar (1839-94) the. unake shishy aauskar vaild (1856-1900) ne kalavad ke siddhant ko vikasit kiya. unaka gady sundar aur bhadakila tha aur unake anek vaky avismaraniy hote the. is yug ke lekhak itihas men hrasavadi kahe jate hain.

janak yets

ayarish gady ke janak yets (1865-1939) the. unaka gady anupam sanchon men dhala hai. unake anugami sinj ki den bhi mahatvapoorn hai. natak ke kshetr men in donon ka bada mahatv hai. yets uchch koti ke kavi aur chintak bhi the.

20vin shatabdi yuddh, arthik snkat aur vidrohi vicharadharaon ki shatabdi hai. vidrohi svaron men sabase sashakt svar is yug ke pramukh natakakar barnad sha (1856-1950) ka tha. sha aur vels (1866-1946) donon ko hi samajavadi kaha gaya hai. inake viparit chestaratan, (1874-1936) aur belaauk (1870-1953) vaigyanik darshan ke viruddh khade hue. ve donon hi uchch koti ke nibndhakar aur alochak the.

adhunik angreji gady anek dishaon men vikasit ho raha hai. upanyas, natak, alochana, nibndh, jivani, vividh sahity, vigyan aur darshan sabhi kshetron men ham jagriti aur pragati ke lakshan dekhate hain. litan straichi (1880-1932) ke saman jivani lekhak aur ti.es. iliyat (1888-1965) ke saman alochak aur chintak aj angreji gady ko nee tejasvita aur shakti pradan kar rahe hain. aj ke pramukh nibndhakaron men e.ji. gardinar, ee.vi. lyookas aur raaubart lind vishesh ullekhaniy hai. anek kahanikar bhi adhunik agreji gady ko bhara-poora bana rahe hain. angreji ka adhunik gady suspasht, nirmal aur sugathit hai.

upanyas

angreji upanyas vishv ke mahanh‌ sahity ka vishisht ang hai. philding, jen aaustin, jarj iliyat, meredith, taaumas hardi, henari jems, jaaun galsavardi aur jems jvaauyas ke saman utkrisht kalakaron ki kritiyon ne use samriddh kiya hai. angreji upanyas jivan par marmabhedi drishti dalata hai, usaki samuchit vyakhya karata hai, samajik anacharon par kathor aghat karata hai aur jivan ke marm ko grahan karane ka apratim prayas karata hai. angreji upanyas ne amar patron ko ek lnbi pnkti bhi vishv sahity ko di hai. vah inglaind ke samajik itihas ko ek apoorv jhanki prastut karata hai.

angreji upanyas ki prerana ke srot madhyakalin ainglo-saiksan romans the, jinaki adbhut ghatanaon aur kathaon ne paravarti kathakaron ki kalpana ko udane ke lie pnkh die. yah romans jivan ki vastavikataon ke atirnjit chitr the aur aleksandar athava traauy adi ke yuddhon se snbndh hote the. aise prachin romans age chalakar gady roop men bhi prastut hue. inamen sar taaumas mailari ka ‘maurt d arthar’ (1484) vishesh ullekhaniy hai. gady men katha kahane ka inglaind men yah pahala prayas tha. angreji upanyas ke itihas men isi prakar ki any kritiyan sar taaumas mor ki ‘yootopiya’(1516) aur sar philip sidani ki ‘arkediya’(1590) thi.

kuchh itihasakar jaaun lili (1554-1606) ke upanyas ‘yoophuis’(1580) ko pahala angreji upanyas kahate hain. kis rachana ko pahala angreji upanyas kaha jay, is snbndh men bahut kuchh matabhed snbhav hai, kintu angreji upanyas ke itihas men yuphuis ka ullekh anayas ho jata hai. is upanyas ki bhasha bahut kuchh kritrim aur alnkarik hai tatha angreji gady ke vikas par is shaili ka bahut prabhav pada tha. angreji darabari jivan ka is upanyas men sajiv aur yatharth chitran hai.

elizabeth ke yug men sheksapiyar ke poorvavarti lekhakon ne anek upanyas likhe, jinamen se kuchh ne sheksapiyar ko unake natakon ke kathanak bhi pradan kie. aisi rachanaon men raaubart grin (1562-92) ko ‘paidosto’aur taaumas laauj (1558-1625) ki ‘rozelind’ullekhaniy hai. taaumas naish (1567-1601) pahale angreji kathakar the jinhonne yatharthavad aur vyng ko apanaya. unake upanyas ‘di anpharchunet traivelar aaur di laiph aauv jaik viltan’men jivan ke bahurngi chitr hain. katha ka nayak viltan desh-videshon men ghoomata-phirata hai aur kathanak ghatanaon ke vichitr jal men guntha hai. elizabeth yugin lekhakon men taaumas delani (1543-1600) ko bhi upanyasakar kaha gaya hai. unake upanyas ‘jaik aauv nyoovari’men ek tarun julahe ka varnan hai jo apane svami ki vidhava se vivah karake samriddh jivan bitata hai.

17vin shatabdi men romans ka punarutthan hua, aisi kathaon ka jinaka upahas ‘daaun kvigzot ’ men kiya gaya hai. angreji upanyas ki in rachanaon ka koee vishesh mahatv nahin hai. angreji upanyas men ek mahatvapoorn kadam jaaun banyan (1628-1688) ka upanyas ‘di pilagrims progres’tha. yah katha roopak hai jisamen katha nayak krishchiyan anek badhaon ka samana karata hua apane lakshy tak pahunchata hai.

dipho (1661-1731) ki rachanaon ka angreji upanyas ke vikas par bahut prabhav pada. unhonne yatharthavadi shaili ko apanaya, aur jivan ki gati ki bhanti hi unake upanyason ki gati thi. unaka upanyas ‘raaubinsan krooso’atynt lokapriy hua. isake atirikt bhi unhonne anek mahatvapoorn rachanaon ki srishti ki.

svipht (1667-1745) apane upanyas ‘gulivars traivels’men manav jati par kathor vyng prahar karate hain, yadyapi us vyng ko anadekha karake anek pidhiyon ke pathakon ne unaki kathaon ka ras liya hai.

18vin shatabdi men inglaind men char upanyasakaron ne angreji upanyas ko pragati ka margn dikhaya. richardh‌san (1689-1761) ne apane upanyason se madhyam varg ke ne pathakon ko paritosh pradan kiya. inake tin upanyason ke nam hain-‘paimela’, ‘klairisa halon’aur ‘sar charls grandisan’. richardh‌san ki rachanaen bhavukata se bhari thin aur unaki naitikata sndigdh thi. in trutiyon ki alochana ke lie philding (1707-1754) ne apane upanyas, ‘jojeph aindryooj’, ‘tam jons’, ‘emiliya’aur ‘jonethan vaild’likhe. in rachanaon ne angreji upanyas ko dridh dharatal aur vikas ke lie thos parnpara pradan ki. 18vin shatabdi men jin char upanyasakaron ne angreji upanyas ki vishesh samriddh kiya unamen do any nam smaaulet (1721-1771) aur starn (1713-1768) ke hain. is shatabdi ka ek aur mahatvapoorn upanyas tha goldasmith (1728-1774) ka ‘di vikar aauv vekaphild’.

sar valtar skaaut (1771-1832) aur jen mastin (1775-1817) ki kritiyan angreji upanyas ki nidhi hai. skaaut ne angreji itihas ka kalpanarnjit aur romani chitran apane upanyason men kiya. skatalaind ke janajivan ka anupam ankan bhi hamen unaki kritiyon men milata hai. skaaut inglaind ke sabase saphal aitihasik upanyasakar hai. unaki rachanaon men ‘aivanaho’, ‘kenithavarth’aur ‘di tailisman’ki bahut khyati hai. jen astin madhyavargiy nari jivan ki kushal kalakar hain. ve vyng aur nirmamata se patron ko prastut karati hai. bahy jipan ka itana sajiv ankan sahity men durlabh hai. jen aaustin ki rachanaon men ‘praid aind prejudis’, ‘ema’aur ‘parsueshan’ ki vishesh khyati hai.

19vin shatabdi ke uttarardh men angreji upanyas pragati ke shikhar par pahuncha. yah diphens (1812-1870) aur thaikare (1811-1863) ka yug hai. is yug ke any mahan upanyasakar jaaurj iliyat, jaaurj meredik, trolop, henari jems adi hai. dikens inglaind ke sabase adhik lokapriy upanyasakar hai. unhonne pikavik ke saman amar patron ki srishti ki jo angreji ke pathakon ki smriti men sada ke lie ghar kar chuke hain. dikens ne apane kal ki kuritiyon par bhi apane sahity men kathor prahar kiya. unhonne bachchon ki vedana ko apani kritiyon men marmik abhivyakti di. kanoon ki ulajhanon, sarakari daphtaron kechakr, faiktariyon men majadooron ke kasht adi vishayon ka bhi dikens ki kritiyon men sashakt ankan hai. unake upanyason men ‘pikanik pepars’, ‘aaulivar tvist’, ‘old kyooriaausiti shaaup’, ‘devid kaauparaphild’, ‘e tel aauv too sitij’, ‘gret eksapekteshans’, adi vishesh mahatvapoorn hai.

dikens ke samakalin thaikare ne apane yug ke mahatvakankshi aur pakhndi logon par apani kritiyon men kathor prahar kie. thaikare ka sahity pariman men apekshakrit kam hai, kintu adhe darjan smaraniy upanyason men unhonne beki sharp aur bitriks jaise patron ki viphalata ka marmik ankan kiya. thaiaikare ke upanyason men gahari vedana chhipi hai. snsar unhen ek virath mela pratit hota tha. unake upanyason men ‘vainiti pheyar’, ‘henari esmnd’, ‘pendenis’ tatha ‘di nyookams’vishesh mahatvapoorn ke hain.

viktoriya yug men anek mahatvapoorn kalakaron ne angreji upanyas ko samriddh kiya. dizareli (1804-1881) ne rajanitik upanyas likhe, bulabar litan (1803-1873) ne ‘di last dez aauv panpeee’ke se saphal aitihasik upanyas likhe. charls kingsali (1891-1875) ne ‘vestavard’ho aur ‘hipaishiya’ke se utkrisht aitihasik upanyas angreji ko die. isi prakar charls rod (1814-1884), charlet braunte (1816-1855), aimili braunte (1818-1848), misej gaiskel (1810- 1908), vilki kaaulins (1824-1889) adi ke nam angreji upanyas ke itihas men smaraniy hai.

jarj iliyat (1819-1880) ki ganana inglaind ke mahanh‌ upanyasakaron men hai, yadyapi kal ke pravah ne aj unaki kala ka mooly kam kar diya hai. unake vishesh saphal upanyason men ‘sailas marnar’, ‘aidam bid’, ‘di mil aaun di phlas’aur ‘ramola’ke nam hain. aintanitraulaup (1815-82) ne baraset nam ke kshetr ka antarng chitran apane upanyason men kiya aur sthaniy rng ka mahatv upanyas sahity men pratishthit kiya. meredith (1828-1909) ne apane patron ki manasik ulajhanon ki vishad vyakhya apane upanyason men prastut ki. inamen ‘igoist’ki bahut khyati huee. manovaigyanik gutthiyon ko sulajhane ka prayas henari jems (1843-1916) ki kala men upanyas ko antarmukhi roop deta hai. taaumas hardi (1840-1928) vishv ke vidhan par kathor aghat karate hain aur manushy ko jivan shaktiyon ke asahay shikar ke roop men prastut karate hain. hardi ne angreji upanyas ko gadhe kshetriy rng men bhi rnga. unake upanyason men ‘di ritarn aauv di netiv’, ‘di meyar aauv kaistarabrij’, ‘tes’, aur ‘jyood di absakyor’ mahatvapoorn hai.

adhunik kal men ek or to manovishleshanavad ka mahatv badha jisake karan angreji upanyas men ‘chetana ke pravah’nam ki pravritti ka uday hua. doosari or jivan ke sookshm kintu vyapak roop ko samajhane ke prayas, ka bhi vikas hua. jems jvaauyas (1882-1942) rachit ‘yoolisiz’upanyas man ke sookshm aur mahan vyaparon ka adhyayan prastut karata hai. unhin ke saman varjiniya vulph (1882-1941) aur daaurothi richardh‌san bhi ‘chetana ke pravah’ki shaili ko apanati hai. ech. ji. vels (1866-1946), arnald bainet (1867-1931) aur jaaun galsavardi (1867-1933) ki kritiyan angreji upanyas ki adhunik shakti ka anubhav pathak ko karati hain. vels samajik aur vaigyanik samasyaon ko apani rachanaon men uthate hain. arnald bainet yatharthavadi drishti se inglaind ke ‘panch nagar’ shirshak kshetr ka sookshm chitran karate hain. galsavardi inglaind ke uchch madhyavargiy jivan ki vyapak jhanki phorsait nam ke parivar ke madhyam se dete hain. di.ech. laaurens (1885-1930) aur aldas haksale (1894-1963) aj ke pramukh angreji upanyasakaron men ullekhaniy hain. isi shreni men ee.em. phaaurstar (1871-1970), hyoo valapol (1889-1941), je.bi. pristale (1894) aur saaumaraset maaum (1874-1958) bhi hain.

kahani

kahani ki jaden hajaron varsh poorv dharmik gathaon aur prachin dnt kathaon tak jati hai, kintu aj ke arth men kahani ka arnbh kuchh hi samay poorv hua. angreji sahity men chaausar ki kahaniyan athava julahon ke jivan se snbndhit delani ki kahaniyan pahale bhi milati hain, kintu vastav men kahani ki lokapriyata 19vin shatabdi men badhi. patr-patrikaon ki sthapana aur adhunik jivan ki bhag-daud ke sath kahani ka vikas hua. 18vin shatabdi men nibndh ke sath hamen kahani ke tatv lipate hue milate hain. is prakar ki rachanaon men sar raaujar di kavarli se snbaddh skech ullekhaniy hai. 19vin shatabdi men hamen poornat: vikasit kahani milati hai.

kahani jivan ki ek jhanki matr hamen deti hai. upanyas se sarvatha alag isaka roop hai. kahani ki sabase saphal paribhasha jivan ka ek ansh hai. skaaut aur dikens ne kahaniyan likhi thin. dikens ne apana sahityik jivan hi ‘skechej bai bauz’nam ki rachana se shuroo kiya tha, yadyapi inaki vastavik den upanyas ke kshetr men hai. trolop aur misez gaiskel ne bhi kahaniyan likhi thin, kintu kahani ke sarvapratham bade lekhak vashingatan aravig, haaurtharn, bret hart aur po amarika men hamen milate hain. araving (1783-1859) ki ‘skech buk’apoorv kahaniyon ka bhandar hai. inamen sabase saphal ‘rip van vinkil’hai. hatharn (1804-64) ki kahaniyan hamen parilok ke svapn dikhati hain. bret hart (1829-1902) ki kahaniyon men amarika ki pashchim ki bastiyon ke avyavasthit jivan ka digdarshan hai. po (1809-1849) vishv ke sarvashreshth kahani lekhak kahe jate hain. unaki kahaniyan bhay, atnk aur ashchary se pathak ko abhibhoot kar dalati hai.

inglaind men stivensan (1850-1894) ne kahani ki praudhata pradan ki. unaki ‘markheim’, ‘vil o di mil’aur ‘di batal imp’adi kahaniyan suprasiddh hain. henari jems (1843-1916) upanyason ke atirikt kahani likhane men bhi bahut kushal the. manovaigyanik vishleshan men unaki saphalata apoorv thi. ainbroz biars (1842-1913) komal aur snshlisht bhavanaon ko vyakt karane men atynt kushal the. kaitharin mainsafild (1889-1923) sukumar kshanon ka chitran vurush ke halke aghaton ke saman karati hai.

20vin shatabdi ke sabhi bade upanyasakaron ne kahani ko apanaya. yah 19vin sadi ki parnpara men hi ek age badha hua kadam tha. taaumas hardi ki ‘veseks tels’ke saman ech.ji. vels, kaaunarad, arnald benet, jaaun galsavardi, di.ech. larens, aldas haksle, jems jvaauyas, saaumaraset maaum adi ke lie anek saphal kahaniyan likhin.

ech.ji. vels (1866-1946) vaigyanik vishayon par kahani likhane men siddhahast the. unaki ‘storiz aauv taim aind spes’bahut khyati pa chuki hai. kaaunarad (1856-1924) polaind nivasi the, kintu angreji katha sahity ko unaki adbhut den hai. arnald baienet (1867-1931) panch kasbon ke kshetriy jivan se snbndhit kahaniyan, jaise ‘tels aauv di faiv tauns’ likhate the. jaaun galsavardi (1867-1933) ki kahaniyan gahari manaviy snvedana men doobi hain. unaka kahani sngrah, ‘di kairavan’angreji men kahani ke atynt uchch star ka hamen parichay deta hai. di.ech. laaurens (1885-1930) ki kahaniyon ka pravah dhima hai aur ve ulajhi manasik gutthiyon ke adhyayan prastut karati hain. unaka kahani sngrah ‘di vooman hoo rod ave’suprasiddh hai. aldas haksle (1894-1963) apani kahaniyon men manushy ke charitr par vyng bhare aghat karate hain. unhen jivan men mano shraddha ke yogy kuchh bhi nahin milata. jems jvaauyas (1882-1941) apani kahaniyon ‘dablinars’men dablin ke nagarik jivan ki yatharthavadi jhankiyan pathak ko dete hain. saaumaraset maaum (1874-1958) apani kahaniyon men british samrajy ke doorasth upaniveshon ka jivan vyakat karate hain. aj ki angreji kahani manav charitr ke nikrishtatam roopon par dhyan kendrit karati hai. isake karan yuddh ka snkat, pashchaty jivan ki vishrrinkhalata, aur manaviy moolyon ka vighatan hain. shilp ki drishti se aj kahani ka paryapt parimarjan ho chuka hai, kintu sath hi usake bhitar nihit moolyon ka hhras bhi hua hai.

kavita

prachin kal (650-1350 ee.)–bahut samay tak 14vin sadi ke kavi chaausar ko hi angreji kavita ka janak mana jata tha. angreji kavita ki kendriy parnpara ki drishti se yah dharana sarvatha nirmool bhi nahin hai. lekin vnshanugatikata ke adhar par ab chaausar ke poorv ki sari kavita ka adhyayan prachinakal ke antargat kiya jane laga hai.

narman vijay ne inglaind ki prachin ainglo-saiksan snskriti par gahara prabhav dala aur use nee disha di. isalie prachin kal ke bhi do spasht vibhajan kie ja sakate hainudbhav se narman vijay tak (650-1066 ee.), aur narman vijay se chaausar ke uday tak (1066-1350 ee.) bhasha ki drishti se ham inhen kramash: ainglo-saiksan ya prachin angreji kal aur prarnbhik madhyadeshiy angreji (midil inglish) kal bhi kah sakate hain.

prachin angreji kavita–lagabhag 500 varshon tak prachin angreji men kavitaen likhi jati rahin lekin aj unaka adhikansh keval char hastalikhit pratiyon men prapt hai. us kal ki sari kavita ka gyan inake atirikat do-char aur rachanaon tak hi simit hai.

ainglo-saiksan kabile tyootan jati ke the jo prakriti aur prakritik devi-devataon ke poojak the. ve apane sath sahasik jivan aur yuddhon ke bich paida huee kavita ki maukhik parnpara bhi inglaind le ae. chhathi shatabdi ke antim varshon men unhonne vyapak paimane par itihas ki diksha li. is prakar prachin angreji kavita sanskritik drishti se barbar sabhyata aur eesaiyat ka sngam hai. ek or ‘vidasith’, ‘valdiyar’, ‘baievulph’, ‘di phait ait finsabarr’, brunabarr aur ‘di baitil aauv maldaaun’ jaisi, parakramapoorn abhiyanon aur yuddhon ki gathaon men eesaee dharm ki sadashayata, karuna, rahasyatmakata, adhyatmik nirasha aur naitikata ki chhaya hai to doosari or satavin shatabdi ke kaidaman aur athavin navin ke sinulph ki baibil ki kathaon aur snton ki jivaniyon par likhi kavitaon men purani vir gathaon ka roop apanaya gaya hai. upadesh ki pravritti ke karan prachin angreji kavita men gitikavy diyors lement jaise natakiy giton aur ‘di vandarar’, ‘di sipheyarar’, ‘di gin’, ‘di vaiphoos knplent’jaise shok giton tak simit hain. ek chhota-sa ansh paheliyon aur hasyapoorn kathopakathanon ka bhi hai. prachin angreji kavitaen atynt alnkrit aur asvabhavik bhasha men likhi gee hain. shabdakrida in kaviyon ka svabhav hai aur ek-ek shabd ke kee paryay dene men unhen bada annd ata hai. prachin angreji kavita men padmarachana ka adharabhoot siddhant anupras hai. yah vynjan mukhar bhasha hai aur vynjanon ke anupras par hi pnktiyon ki rachana hoti hai. pratyek pnkti ke do bhag hote hain jinamen se pahale men do aur doosare men ek nikatatam varnon men yah svaraghatapoorn anupras rahata hai. in kavitaon men tukon ka sarvatha abhav hai.

prarnbhik madhyadeshiy angreji kal narman vijay inglaind par phrans ki sanskritik vijay bhi thi. isake bad lagabhag 200 varshon tak phrench bhasha abhijaton ki bhasha bani rahi. purani anuprasik kavita ki parnpara lagabhag samapt ho gee. doosare shabdon men, yah purani gathaon par romaniyat ki vijay thi. sath hi anuprason ki jagah ab tukon ne le li. 12vin shatabdi men is prakar ki nee kavita ka adbhut vikas phrans aur spen men hua. yah yug islam ke virooddh eesaiyon ke dharmayuddhon (krusendon) ka tha aur pratyek eesaee saradar apane ki nait (soorama) ke roop men chitrit dekhana chahata tha. phrans ke vaitalikon aur charanon ne gathaon ka nirman kiya. inake pradhan tatv shaury, prem, eeshvar bhakti, agyat ke prati akarshan aur kabhi-kabhi kavi ki vyaktigat anubhootiyon ki abhivyakti the. phrans ke rolan aur inglaind ke arthar ki gathaon tatha kelti dntakathaon ke atirikat latini premagathaon ne bhi is kal ki kavita ko samriddh kiya. is tarah 13vin shatabdi men laukik aur dharmik donon tarah ki gitipradhan kavitaon ke kuchh utkrisht namoone prastut hue. yooropiy sngit, phrench chhnd aur padarachana tatha vaitalikon aur charanon ki udatt kalpana ne milakar is yug ki kavita ko snvara. 12vin aur 13vin sadi ki kuchh prasiddh rachanaon men ‘d aul aind di naitingel’, ‘aramyulam’, ‘karsar mndai’, ‘haivelak di den’, ‘arthar aind marlin’, ‘grik aauv kanshns’, ‘dem sirith’, bruut ityadi hain. lekin isamen sndeh nahin ki is yug ki adhikansh kavita uchch koti ki nahin hai. 14vin sadi ke uttarardh ne pahale pahal chaausar aur unake atirikat kuchh aur mahatvapoorn kaviyon ka uday dekha. is prakar madhyadeshiy angreji (midil inglish) ka prarnbhik kal upalabdhiyon se adhik prayatnon ka tha.

chaausar se punarjagaran tak

chaausar (1340 ee.? -1400 ee.) ne madhyadeshiy angreji kavita ke anek tatv grahan kie. lekin usane usake roop aur vastu men kranti kar bad ke angreji kaviyon ke lie ek nee parnpara sthapit ki. usaki samriddh bhasha aur shaili ko spensar ne ²angreji ka pavan srot² kaha aur usamen kavy aur jivan ki vividhata ki or snket karate hue draidan ne kaha ²yahan par eeshasulabh prachurata hai.²

chaausar ki kavita ras aur anubhavasiddh udaracheta vyakti ki kavita hai. use darabar, rajaniti, kootaniti, yuddh, dharm, samaj aur itali tatha phrans jaise sanskritik kendron ka vyapak gyan tha. usane angreji kavita ko ekantikata aur snkuchit drishtikon se mukt kiya. madhyayugin yoorop ki samnti snskriti ke do pramukh romani tatvon, dakshiny (katasa) aur madhury (gres) ka adarsh phrench, jarman aur speni bhashaon men prastut ho chuka tha. inglaind men chaausar aur usake samasamayik kavi gaauvar (1330-1408) ne us adarsh ko saman saphalata ke sath angreji kavita men pratishthit kiya.

madhyadeshiy angreji ko phrench kavita ke udatt bhav aur usaki abhivyakti ki svachchhata, sugharata aur sarasata dene ke karan pray chaausar ko angreji men likhane vala phrench kavi kaha jata hai. isamen sndeh nahin ki chaausar ne prasiddh premagatha ¢ di romans aauvh‌ di roz¢ aur apane poorvavarti ya samakalin phrench kaviyon, masho (Machaut), dashan, (Daschamps) fvasar (Froissart), aur granjon (Granson) se bahut kuchh sikha. ¢ di buk aauv dachens¢ , ¢ di parliyament aauv phauls¢ , ¢ di haus aauv phaim¢ adi usaki prarnbhik rachanaon aur ¢ di lijend aauv gud vimen¢ ko prastavana me yah prabhav dekha ja sakata hai. inamen pratik yojana ya roopak (alegari), svapn, adarsh prem, madhu prat, kalaravamagn pakshi ityadi phrench kavita ki anek visheshataon ka samavesh hai. chaausar ki chhnd rachana par bhi usaka vyapak prabhav hai.

1372 ee. men chaausar ki pratham itali yatra ke bad usaki kavita men ek aur naya tatv ata hai . dante , petrark aur bokkachcho ne use n keval ne vishay die balki nee drishti bhi di . inamen se antim kavi ne use sabase adhik prabhavit kiya. bokkachcho se anek kathaen lene ke atirikt chaausar ne varnan ki nipunata, akarshak chitr yojana aur aveg-poorn abhivyakti ki kala sikhi. usaki prasiddh rachana f trayalas aind kresidaf par yah naya prabhav spasht hai. lekin chaausar ki pratibha keval rinon par jivit rahane vali nahin thi; usane anek prachin kathaon ko yatharth aur natakiy charitr-chitran, vinod aur vyngy aur utsahapoorn varnan se atynt sajiv kar diya.

chaausar ki antim aur mahan kriti f di kaintarabari telsaf men usaki pratibha apani sari shakti ke sath prakat huee. yah rachana usake samaj ka chitr hai aur apane yatharthavad ke karan isane phrans aur itali ki tatkalin kavita ko bahut pichhe chhod diya. is rachana men chaausar ne apana sara gyan aur manav jivan ka adhyayan undel diya. isamen yatharth charitr-chitran aur charitron ke parasparik saghnrsh dvara chaausar ne natak aur upanyas ke bhavi vikas ko bhi prabhavit kiya. udar vyngy aur vidroop ki parnpara bhi isi kriti se prarnbh huee.

chaausar men chhadon ke prayog ki adbhut kshamata thi. f trayalas aind kresidaf men prayukt sat pnktiyon ka f raim rayalaf aur f di kaintarabari telsaf men prayukt dashavarni tukant dvipadi ka vyapak prayog age ki angreji kavita men hua.

chaausar ke samasamayikon men gaauvar ka sthan bhi ooncha hai. usaki rachana f kanh.phesiyo amantisaf ki prem kahaniyon par naitikata ka gahara put hai. isalie use f sadachari gaauvaraf bhi kaha gaya. usamen chaausar ki yatharthavadita aur vinodapriyata nahin hai. vah pratibha se adhik svachchh shilp ka kavi hai.

viliyam laingalaind 14vin shatabdi ki atynt prasiddh rachana f piyars plaumanaf ka kavi hai. usane angreji ki sanuprasik shaili ka vyavahar kiya. lekin usaki kavita us yug ke samajik aur dharmik pakhndon ke virudadh chunauti hai. usamen jivan ke lie dharm aur usaki rahasyabhavana ke mahatv ki sthapana hai. poori rachana roopak hai aur usake arth ke kee star hain. lekin laingalaind ne katha ke anshon ko saphalata ke sath ekanvit kiya hai. laingalaind men chaausar aur gaauvar ka madhury nahin, vah akrosh aur oj ka kavi hai.

isi yug men kuchh aur bhi sanuprasik rachanaen huee jinamen f sar gvain aind di grin naitaf aur f parlaf vishesh roop se ullekhaniy hai. ye kramash athar ki gatha aur f di romans aauv di rozaf par adharit hai. pahali men charitr-chitran ki sookshm drishti aur prakriti ke asadharan roopon aur sthitiyon ke prati moh vyakt hota hai aur doosari rachana avasadapoorn komal bhavanaon aur rahasyanubhooti se ot prot hai.

chaausar ki mratyu aur punarjagaran ke bich ka samay arthath‌ poori 15vin shatabdi kavita ki drishti se anurvar hai. chaausar ke anek aur laingalaind ke kuchh anuyayi inglaind aur skaautalaind men hue. lekin unamen se adhikansh ki kavita nirjiv hai. akliv, lidaget, haauj, barkale aur skeltan jaise angrej anuyayiyon se kahin adhik shaktishali skaautalaind ke anuyayi rabart henarisan, viliyam danabar aur jems pratham the, kyonki unhonne apani boli, apani bhoomi ke prakritik saundary aur anubhootiyon ki sachchaee ka adhik dhyan rakha. is shatabdi ki mahatvapoorn rachanaon men dharm, prem tatha parakram snbndhi giton aur bailadon ka ullekh kiya ja sakata hai. vyngy aur vinodapoorn kavitaen bhi likhi geen .

punarjagaran yug

madhyayugin snskriti ke avasheshon ke bavajood 16vin shatabdi inglaind men punarjagaran ke manavatavad ka utkarsh kal hai. yah manavatavad samnti vyavastha ke dharm, samaj, naitikata aur darshan ke virooddh vyapari poonjipatiyon ke ne varg ki vicharadhara thi. isi varg ki prerana se dharm-sudhar-andolan (ripharmeshan) hua, jyotish aur vigyan men krantikari anusndhan hue, dhan aur ne deshon ki khoj men sahasik samudrik yatraen hueen. manavatavad ne vyakti ke gyan aur karm ki amit snbhavanaon ke sath-sath sahity men prayogon aur kalpana ki mukti ki ghoshana ki.

16vin shatabdi

inglaind men itali, phrans, spen aur jarmani ke kaphi bad ane ke karan yahan ka punarjagaran in deshon, visheshat itali,se atyadhik prabhavit hua. punarjagaran ke pratham do kaviyon men sar taaumas vayat (1503-42) aur arl aauv sare (1517-47) hain. vayalat ne petrark ke adhar par angreji men saaunet likhe aur itali se anek chhnd udhar lie. sare ne saaunet ke atirikt itali se atukant chhnd liya. in kaviyon ne prachin yoonani sahity aur petrark ityadi ko paistaral kavita ki roodhiyon ko angreji men atmasath‌ kiya tatha anek sundar aur taral git likhe.

is tarah unhonne elizabeth ke shasanakal ke anek bade kaviyon ke lie jamin taiyar ki. inamen sabase pahale edamnd spensar (1552-99) aur sar philip sidani ullekhaniy hain. mrityu ke bad prakashit sidani ki rachana f aisatrophel aind stelaf (1591) ne kathabaddh saaunet ki parnpara ko janm diya. isake pashchath‌ to aise saauneton ki ek parnpara chal nikali aur deniyal, laauj, dretan, spensar, sheksapiyar aur any kaviyon ne ise apanaya. inamen roodhiyon ke karan vastavik aur kalpanik premi-premikaon ka bhed karana asan nahin, lekin sidani aur kee any kaviyon, jaise dretan, spensar aur sheksapiyar ka prem keval vayavi prem nahin hai. sidani ne likha f phoolaf , f sed mai myooj tu mif , faluk in dai hart aind rait.f

vicharon men snskar tatha charuta aur kavy men vyapakata aur vividhata ki drishti se spensar ko inglaind men punarjagaran ka pratinidhi kavi kaha ja sakata hai. usane prachin yoonan se lekar adhunik yoorop ki sahityik jagaran se samanvit kiya. udaharan ke lie usaki prasiddh rachana di feyari kvin ka kathanak madhyayugin hai, lekin usaki atma manavatavad ki hai. gopagit (paistaral), marsiya (eleji), vyngy aur vidroop, saaunet, roopak, premakavy, mahakavy jaise anek roopon se usane angreji kavita ki simaon ka vistar kiya. usane bhasha ko indriyabodh, sngit aur chitramayata di. chhndon ke prayog men bhi vah advitiy hai. isilie use f kaviyon ka kavif kaha jata hai.

elizabeth ke shasanakal men giti ki parnpara aur bhi vikasit huee. ek or ovidh ke anukaran par shrringarapoorn giton, jaise marlon ke hiro aind liyndar aur sheksapiyar ke vinas aind adaaunis aur rep aauv lukris ki rachana huee, to doosari or bailadon aur lokagiton ki parnpara men aise giton ki jinamen us kal ke anek paksh--yuddh aur prem se lekar tnbakoo tak--pratibinbit hue. in par itali ke sngit ka prabhav spasht hai. aise masti bhare, saral, madhur aur sughar git lili, pil, grin, dekar aur sheksapiyar ke natakon ke atirikt viliyam bard, taaumas marlon, taaumas kainpiyan, laauj, rali, bretan, vatsan, naish, dan aur kanstebil ki rachanaon men badi snkhya men prapt hote hain. in kaviyon ne angreji kavita men f vaitalik pakheruon ka ghonsalaf banaya.

16vin shatabdi ki mahatvapoorn upalabdhiyon men atukant chhnd ka vikas bhi hai. marlon aur sheksapiyar ne aruddhacharanant vakyon dvara isamen arkestra ke sngit anuchchhed ki shaili ka vikas kiya. marlo ne yadi ise prapat ka veg aur uchch svarata di to sheksapiyar ne yatiyon ki vividhata se ise sookshm chintan se lekar sadharan vartalap tak ki kshamata di. snkshep men 16vin sadi ke kaviyon men atmavishvas ka svar hai. unaki kavita nisarg (f necharaf ) ki tarah niyamabaddh kintu unmeshapoorn, shabdon aur chitron men udar aur alnkrit, sngit, lay aur dhvani men mukhar, tukon aur chhndon men vyavasthit aur sparsh, roop, ras aur gndh men prabuddh hai.

17vin sadi poorvardh elizabeth ke bad ka samay dharmik, samajik, rajanitik aur vaigyanik kshetr men sngharsh aur snshay ka tha. kavi apane parivesh ki atishay bauddhikata aur anudarata se trast jan padate hain. spensar ke shishy dramnd, dainiyal, chaipaman aur grevil bhi isase achhoote nahin hain. is sadi ke poorvardh men kavita ka netritv ven jaaunsan (1572-1637) aur jaaun dan (1572-1631) ne kiya. unaki kavy dharaon ko kramash f kaiveliyaraf (darabari) aur f metafizikalaf (adhyatmavadi) kaha jata hai. is vibhajan ke bavajood unamen bauddhikata, kavitaon aur giton ki laghuta, rati aur shrringar, eeshvar ke prati bhakti aur usase bhay ityadi saman gun hain. elizabeth yug ki kavita ke audary ke sthan par unamen ghanatv hai.

ven jaaunsan inglaind ka pratham achary kavi hai. usane kavita ko yoonani aur latini kavyashastr ke sanche men dhala. usaki kavita men buddhi aur anubhooti ke snyam ke anuroop nagarata, rachana sntulan aur pranjalata hai. isi pravritti se ben jaaunsan ki sntulit, svayatt aur sookti pradhan dashavarni dvipadi (hiroik kapalet) ka janm hua, jo chaausar ki dvipadi se bilakul bhinn prakar ki hai aur jo 18vin shatabdi ki kavita par chha gee. usake prasiddh atmajon men raaubart herik, taaumas keri, jaaun sakaling aur richard lavalas hain. inaki kala aur anubhooti men bhi moolat vahi adarshavadi aur vyaktivad se parangamukhi svar hai.

metafizikal kavita ki pravritti vyaktigat anubhav aur abhivyakti ke anveshan ki hai. dan ke shabdon men yah f nagn chintanashil hridayaf ki kavita hai. daau. jaaunsan ke shabdon men isaki visheshataen paraspar virodhi vicharon aur binbon ka sayas snyog aur bauddhik sookshmata, maulikata, vyaktikaran aur dikshagamy gyan hain. lekin adhunik yug ne usaka adhik sahanubhootipoorn moolyankan karate hue unaki in visheshataon par adhik jor diya hai- gnbhir chintan ke sath kataksh aur vyngyapoorn kalpana, vichar aur anubhooti ki anviti, antarik tanav aur sngharsh, alnkrit binbon ke sthan par anubhooti ya vicharaprasoot marmik binbon ki yojana aur lalit abhivyakti ke sthan par yatharthavadi abhivyakti.

17vin shatabdi ke kaviyon men jaaun miltan (1608-74) ka vyaktitv oonche shikhar ki tarah hai. usake lie chintan aur karm, kavi aur nagarik abhinn the. poorvavarti punarjagaran aur paravarti 18vin shatabdi ki rajanitik aur darshanik sthirata se vnchit, snkranti kal ka kavi hote hue bhi miltan ne manav ke prati asim astha vyakt ki. is tarah ki eesaee manavatavadiyon men sabase antim aur sabase bada kavi hai. madhyayugin ankushon ke viruddh nee manyataon ke lie usane kavita ke atirikt keval gady men lagatar bis varshon tak sngharsh kiya aur apani ankhen bhi kho din.

miltan ke anusar kavita ko saral, saras aur avegapoorn hona chahie. apani prarnbhik rachanaon- an di marning aauv kraists netiviti, l elagro, penseroso, f komasaf aur f lisidasaf men vah ben jaaunsan aur mukhy roop ke spensar se prabhavit raha, kintu lnbe viram ke bad likhi huee tin antim rachanaon, f pairadaiz laaustaf , f pairadaiz rigendaf aur saimsan eganaistiz men usaki chintan shakti aur kavy pratibha ka utkarsh hai. apani mahanh‌ kriti f pairadaiz laaustaf men usane angreji kavita ko homar, varjil aur dante ka udatt svar diya. usamen usane angreji kavita men pahali bar mahakavy ke lie atukant chhnd ka prayog kiya aur bhasha, lay aur upama ko nee bhngima di.

1660 ee. se lekar shatabdi ke ant tak ki avadhi ka sabase bada kavi jaaun draidan (1631-1700) hai. yah angreji kavita men prakhar kalpana aur anubhooti ki jagah kavy shastriy chetana, tark aur vyavahar kushal samajikata ke uday ka yug hai. is ne mod ke pichhe kam karane vali shaktiyon men us yug ke rajanitik dalon ke sngharsh, phrans ke rng men rnge hue charls dvitiy ka darabar, phrans ke ne ritikaron ke adarsh, kaauphi hauson aur manornjan grihon ka uday aur nagarik jivan ka mahatv ityadi hain. svabhavat, is yug ki kavita ka adarsh saral, spasht, sntulit, sooktipradhan, phalayukt abhivyakti hai. draidan ki vyngyapoorn kavitaon- f aibaselam aind arkitophelaf , f medalaf aur f maikphleknof men ye gun prachurata se hain. niti ki kavita men vah advitiy hai. draidan men gitikavy ki parnpara ke bhi tatv hain. lekin kul milakar usaki kavita buddhivadi yug ki poorvapithika hi hai. draidan ko chhodakar yah yug chhote kaviyon ka hai jinamen sabase ullekhaniy, prasiddh aur lokapriy vyngyakriti f hudibrajaf ka kavi saimuel batalar hai.

18vin shatabdi tark ya ritipradhan yug

18vin shatabdi apekshakrit rajaniti aur samajik sthirata ka kal hai. isamen inglaind ke samrajy, vaibhav aur antarik suvyavastha ka vistar hua. is yug ke darshanikon aur vaigyanikon ke anusar yntr ki tarah niyamit srishti tark aur ganitagamy hai aur dharm ki diist (prakriti devavadi) vicharadhara ke anusar dharm shrutisnmat n hokar naisargik aur buddhigamy hai. sahity men yah tarkavad riti ke agrah ke roop men prakat hua. kaviyon ne apane dhng se yoonan aur rom ke kaviyon ka anukaran karana anivary samajha. isaka arth tha kavita men tark, nir-kshir-vivek aur sntulit buddhi ki sthapana. kavy men shuddhata ko unhonne apana mool mntr banaya. is shuddhata ki abhivyakti vishay vastu men sarvajaninata (hvat aaupht vaz thaaut bat nevar so bel eksapresd), bhasha men padalality, chhnd men dashavarni dvipadi men atyadhik sntulan aur yatiyon men anushasan ke roop men huee.

is kavita ka paurohity alekjaindar pop (1688-1744) ne kiya. usake adarsh rom ke juvenal aur hores, phrans ke bvalo (Boileau) aur inglaind ke draidan the. kavy siddhanton par likhi huee apani padyarachana ese aaun kritisizm men usane pratibha aur ruchi tatha in donon ko anushasit rakhane ki avashyakata batalaee. usaki adhikansh kritiyan vyngy aur vidroop pradhan hain aur unamen sabase prasiddh ¢ di rep aauv di laauk¢ aur ¢ dnsiyad¢ hain jinamen usane kritrim udatt (maauk hiroik) shaili ka anusaran kiya. usake kavyon ki samata barachhi ki nonk se ki jati hai. usaki rachana ¢ ese aaun main¢ manav jivan ke niyamon ka adhyayan hai. is par usake buddhivadi yug ki chhap spasht hai.

usake yug ke any vyngyakaron men prayar, ge, svipht aur paranel hain. is buddhivadi aur vyngyapradhan yug men hi aaulivar goldasmith, ledi vinchelsiya, jems tamsan, taaumas gre, viliyam kaaulins, viliyam koopar, edavard yng adi prasiddh kavi hue jinamen se anek ne spensar aur miltan ki parnpara ko kayam rakha aur prakriti, ekant jivan, bhagnavasheshon aur samadhi sthalon ke snbndh men avasad aur chintanapoorn anubhooti ke sath likha. inhen 19vin shatabdi ki romani kavita ka agradoot kaha jata hai. rahasyavadi kavi viliyam blek aur kisan ki kavi raaubart barns men bhi pradhan tatv romani pravrittiyan aur giti hain. in donon ka svar vidrod aur mukti ka hai.

romaintik yug

18vin shatabdi ke kuchh kaviyon men anek romani tatvon ke ankuron ke bavajood romaintik yug ka prarnbh 1798 men viliyam vardh‌svarth (1770-1850) aur saimuel telar kolarij (1772-1834) ke snyukt sngrah f lirikal bailadsaf ke prakashan se mana jata hai. angreji kavita ke is sabase mahanh‌ yug ke sath parsi bishi sheli (1792-1822), jaaun kits (1795-1821), jaaurj gaaurdan bayaran (1788-1824), alaphred tenisan (1809-92), raaubart brauning (1812-89) aur maithyoo arnald (1822-88) ke nam bhi jude hue hain.

poorvardh

19vin sadi ke poorvardh ki kavita us yug ki chetana ki upaj hai aur us par phransisi darshanik rooso aur phransisi kranti ka gahara asar hai. isalie is kavita ki visheshataen manav men astha, prakriti se prem aur sahaj prerana ke mahatv ki svikriti hain. is yug ne riti ke sthan par vyaktigat pratibha, vishvajaninata ke sthan par vyaktigat ruchi tatha anubhav, tark aur vikalp ke sthan par snkalpatmak kalpana aur svapn, abhivyakti men spashtata ke sthan par lakshanik vakrata par adhik jor diya. is yug ki kavita men giti ka svar pradhan hai.

bardh‌svarth prakriti ka kavi hai aur is kshetr men vah bejod hai. usane badi saphalata ke sath sadharan bhasha men sadharan jivan ke chitr prastut kie. prakriti ke prati usaka sarvatmavadi drishtikon angreji kavita ke lie nee chij hai. usake sathi kolarij ne prakriti ke asadharan pakshon ka chitr khincha. vah chintan pradhan, snshay aur avasad se bhare man ke divasvapnon ka kavi hai. sheli manav jivan ki vyatha aur usake ujjval bhavishy ka krantikari svapnadrashta kavi hai. vah apane sngit aur sookshm kintu prakhar kalpana ke lie prasiddh hai. kits is yug ka sabase jagarook kavi hai. usamen indriyabodh ki adbhut kshamata hai. isalie vah saundary ka kavi mana jata hai aur usake bhav chitron ke madhyam se vyakt hote hain. bayaran romani kavita ki avasadapoorn aur natakiy atmarati ka kavi hai. is pravritti se judakar usake akarshak vidrohi vyaktitv ne yoorop ke anek kaviyon ko prabhavit kiya. kintu aj usaki prasiddhi 18vin shatabdi se prabhavit usake vyngyakavy par tiki hai.is kal ke anek ullekhaniy kaviyon men raaubart sadi, taaumas moor, taaumas kainbel, taaumas hud, saibej laindar, bedoz, li hnt ityadi hain.

viktoriya yug

romaintik kavita ka uttarardh viktoriya ke shasanakal ke antargat ata hai. viktoriya ke yug men madhyavargiy prabhutv ki asngatiyan ubharane lagi thin aur usaki shoshan vyavastha ke viruddh andolan bhi hone lage. vaigyanik samajavad ke uday ke atirikt yah kal darvin ke vikasavad ka bhi hai jisane dharm ki bhiten hila din. in vishamataon se bachane ke lie hi madhyavargiy upayogitavad, udaratavad aur samanvayavad ka janm hua. samanvayavadi tenisan is yug ka pratinidhi kavi hai. usaki kavita men atirnjit kalavad hai. brauning ne ashavad ki sharan li. apani kavita ke anagadhapan men vah aj ki kavita ke samip hai. arnald aur klaf snshay aur anasthajany vishad ke kavi hain.

is tarah viktoriya yug ke kaviyon men poorvavarti romaintik kaviyon ki krantikari chetana, adamy utsah aur prakhar kalpana nahin milati. is yug men samay bitane ke sath f kala kala ke lief ka siddhant jor pakadata gaya aur kavi apane-apane ghonsale banane lage. kuchh ne madhyayug tatha kits ke indriyabodh aur alas sngit ka ashray liya. aise kaviyon ka dal prirefelait nam se pukara jata hai. unamen pramukh kavi di.ji. rozeti, svinabarn, krishchiyana raauzeti aur phitzerald hain. viliyam maris (1834-96) ka nam bhi unhin ke sath liya jata hai, kintu vastav men vah prithvi par svarg ki kalpana karane vala inglaind ka pratham samyavadi kavi hai. dharm ki rahasyavadi kalpana men palayan karane valon men pramukh kaventri paitamor, elis menel aur jeraaurd mainali haaupkins (1844-89) hain. haaupkins atynt pratibhashali kavi hai aur chhnd men f sprng ridmaf ka janmadata hai. meredith (1828-1909) prakriti ka sookshmadarshi kavi hai. shatabdi ke antim dashak men hhrasashil pravrittiyan parakashtha par pahunch gee. inamen atmarati, atmapidan aur satahi bhavukata hai. aise kaviyon men devidasan, dausan, jems tamsan, saimns, aaustin daaubsan, henali ityadi ke nam lie ja sakate hain. isi prakar kipaling ki andh rashtravadita aur oonche svaron ke bavajood 19vin shatabdi ke antim bhag ki kavita vyaktivad ke snkat ki kavita hai. 20vin shatabdi men vah snkat aur bhi gahara hota gaya.

20vin shatabdi

20vin shatabdi ka prarnbh prashnachihnon se hua, lekin usaki prarnbhik kavita men, jise jaaurjiyan kavita kahate hain, 19vin shatabdi ke adarshon ka hi prakshepan hai. jaaurjiyan kavita men prakritiprem, anubhavon ki samanyataya aur abhivyakti men svachchhata aur komalata par adhik jor hai. isilie us par antarahinata ka akshep kiya jata hai. is shaili ke mahatvapoorn kaviyon men raaubart brijez (1844-1940), mesaphilt (1878) valtar di la meyar, deviz, di.ech. larens, larens binyan, haaujasan, raaubart ven, rupart bruk, saisoon, edamnd blndan, raaubart grevs, abarakroobi ityadi ullekhaniy hain. nishchay hi,inamen se anek men vishisht pratibha hai,sabhi uthale bhavon ke kavi nahin hain.

is shatabdi ke kaviyon men yets (1865-1939), hardi (1840-1928) aur hausaman (1851-1936) ka sthan bahut ooncha hai. yets men rahasy-bhavana, pratik yojana aur sngit ki pradhanata hai. hardi men svaron ki rukshata aur niyati ki darun chetana use jaaurjiyan yug se alag karati hai. hausaman hardi ki koti ka kavi nahin, usase milata-julata kavi hai. vah apani rachana f e shraaupashayar laidaf ke lie prasiddh hai.

adhunikata ke rng men rngi kavita ka prarnbh 1993 men imejist (binbavada) andolan se prarnbh hota hai. isake poorv bhi is tarah ki kavitaen likhi gee thin, kintu 1983 men eph.es. phlint aur ezara paund (1885) ne usake siddhanton ki sthapana ki. inake anusar kavita ka lakshy tha f vastuf ko kavita men sidhe utarana, abhivyakti men adhik se adhik snkshipti aur sngit anushasit vaky rachana. paund ke anusar ळh binb vah hai jo bauddhik aur bhavatmak snshlishtata ko usaki kshanikata men prastut karata hai.ळh binbavadi kavita kathor aur paradarshi abhivyakti pasnd karati hai. isi ke sath mukt chhnd ki lokapriyata bhi badhi. isi shaili ke kaviyon men sabase prasiddh ezara paund aur f edith sitabelaf (1887-1964) hain.

pratham yuddh ke bad ti.es. iliyat (1888-1965) ki prasiddhi rachana f vest laindaf ne adhunik angreji kavita par gahara asar dala. is rachana men poonjivadi sabhyata ki oosar bhoomi men pathahin aur pyase vyakti ka chitr hai. isamen kavi ne romani parnpara ko chhodakar dan kavi ka anugaman shuroo kiya. isamen phrench pratikavadiyon ka prabhav bhi spasht hai. 1928 ke bad iliyat ke kavy men dharmik bhavana ka pravesh hota hai to f ais vednesdef se hota hua phor kvartets ke rahasyavadi kavyapunjon men parakashtha par pahunchata hai. is antarmukhi kshetr se angreji kavita ko nikalane ka prayas 1930 ke bad marksavad se prabhavit anden (1907), livis, spendar, sisal de aur mekanis ne kiya. parntu kalantar men unaki kavyadhara bhi antarmukhi ho gee.

anden ke bad sabase mahatvapoorn kavi dilan tamas (1914-53) hai jo atynt navin hote hue bhi atynt manaviy hai. usamen yaun pratiko, dharmikata tatha jivan aur mrirityu snbndhi chintan ka vichitr yog hai. usaki kavita giti aur binb pradhan hai aur bahut anshon men usane angreji kavita ko romani parnpara ka bhi nirvah kiya hai.

20vin shatabdi ke any ullekhaniy kaviyon men harbart rid, jaaurj barkar, edavin myor, kez, alan livis, koth dagalas, laaurens dyoorel, raauy phular, devid gaisakvaauyan, raidalar, rozars, barnard spensar, teres tilar, daau. je. enarait, taaum gan, kingsale asim, jaaun ven aur alabairiz hain.

adhunik yug ko pashchim ke buddhijivi chinta aur bhay ka yug kahate hain. isamen sndeh nahin ki bhasha, binb aur chhnd men is yug ne anek prayog kie hain, kintu aisa jan padata hai ki adhikansh kaviyon men jivan aur usake yatharth ko samajhane ki kshamata nahin hai.

dvitiy mahayuddh ke pashchath‌ angreji kavita men parivartan hua hai. aj ke ne kavi poorvavarti kaviyon ko pandityapoorn evn jatil shaili ko chhodakar kavy men parnparagat saralata evn chhndabaddh shilp ka samavesh karake dainik jivan snbndhi kavy ka nirman kar rahe hain. ve prayogavadi kavita ke viruddh hain.

natak

uday-yoonan ki tarah inglaind men bhi natak dharmik karmakandon se ankurit hua. madhyayug men charch (dharm) ki bhasha latini thi aur padariyon ke upadesh bhi isi bhasha men hote the. is bhasha se anabhigy sadharan logon ko baibil aur eesa ke jivan ki kathaen upadeshon ke sath abhinay ka bhi upayog kar samajhane men suvidha hoti thi. bade din aur eestar ke parvon par aise abhinayon ka vishesh mahatv tha. isase dharmashiksha ke sath manornjan bhi hota tha. pahale ye abhinay mook hua karate the, lekin navin shatabdi men latini bhasha men kathopakathan hone ke bhi praman milate hain. kalantar men bich-bich men lokabhasha ka bhi prayog kiya jane laga. angreji bhasha 1350 men rajabhasha ke roop men svikrit huee. isalie age chalakar keval lokabhasha hi prayukt hone lagi. is prakar arnbh se hi natak ka snbndh janajivan se tha aur samay ke sath vah aur bhi gahara hota gaya. ye sare abhinay girajagharon ke bhitar hi hote the aur unamen unase snbaddh sadhu, padari aur gayak hi bhag se sakate the. natak ke vikas ke lie jaroori tha ki use kuchh khuli hava mile. paristhitiyon ne isamen usaki sahayata ki.

14vin shatabdi se 16vin shatabdi tak

mistri aur miraikil natakaf vishesh manornjak hone ke karan in abhinayon ko dekhane ke lie log girajagharon ke bhitar umadane lage. vivash hokar charch ke adhikariyon ne inaka prabndh girajagharon ke maidanon men kiya. lekin sadakon par ya bajar men in abhinayon ke lie anumati n thi. prarthana bhavan se bahar ate hi abhinayon ka roop badalane laga aur unamen svachchhndata ki pravritti badhane lagi. is svachchhndata ne girajaghar ke bhitar ke abhinayon ko bhi prabhavit karana arnbh kiya. isalie eesa ke sndeh svargarohan ke drishy ke atirikt prarthana bhavan men aur abhinay niyam banakar rok die ge. bajaron men aur sadakon par aise abhinay karana f papaf ghoshit kar diya gaya. padariyon aur charch ke any sevakon par lage is niyntran ne abhinay ko girajagharon ki chaharadivariyon se bahar la khada kiya. nagaron ki shreniyon (gilds) ne is kam ko apane hath men liya. yahin se mistri aur miraikil natakon ka uday aur vikas hua.

mistri natakon men baibil ki kathaon se vishay chune jate the aur miraikil natakon men snton kie jivaniyan hoti thin. phrans men yah bhed spasht tha, lekin inglaind men donon men koee vishesh antar nahin tha. 14vin shatabdi ke prarnbh men natak mndaliyan apana saman bailagadiyon par ladakar abhinay dikhane ke lie desh bhar men bhraman karane lagin. spasht hai ki aise abhinayon men drishyon ka prabndh nahin ke barabar hota tha. lekin veshabhoosha ka kaphi dhyan rakha jata tha. abhineta pray asthayi hote the aur kuchh samay ke lie apane sthayi kam-dhndhon se chhutti lekar in natakon men abhinay karake puny aur paisa donon hi kamate the. dhire-dhire janaruchi ko dhyan men rakhakar gnbhirata ke bich prahasan khnd bhi abhinit hone lage. yahi nahin, hajarat nooh ki patni, shaitan aur kroor herod ke charitron ko hasyatmak dhng se prastut kiya jane laga. vibhinn nagaron ki natak mndaliyon ne apani-apani vishishtataen bhi vikasit kin- dharmik shiksha, prahasan, tivr anubhooti aur yatharthavad vibhinn anupaton men mishrit kie jane lage. isamen sndeh nahin ki in natakon men vishay aur roopagat anek dosh the, lekin angreji natak ke bhavi vikas ki ninv inhonne hi rakhi.

morailiti natak

is vikas ka agala kadam tha mistri aur miraikil natakon ke sthan par morailiti (naitik) natakon ka uday. ye natak sadachar shiksha ke lie likhe jate the. in natakon par madhyayugin sahity ke bhavavad aur pratik ya roopak ki shaili ka spasht prabhav hai. inamen upadesh ke atirikt patron ke nam tak gunon ya durgunon se lie jate the, jaise sin (pap), gres (prabhudaya), pheloship (sauhard), envi (eersha), aidilanes (pramad), ripetens (pashchatap) ityadi. in natakon ki kendriy kathavastu thi manav (evramain) ka papon dvara pichha tatha atma aur gyan dvara usaka uddhar. is prakar in natakon ne manushy ke antarik sngharshon ke chitran ki mahatvapoorn parnpara ko janm diya. aise natakon men sabase prasiddh f ehvraimainaf hai jisaki rachana 15vin shatabdi ke ant men huee.

morailiti natak pahale vale natakon se jyada lnbe hote the aur punarjagaran ke prabhav ke karan unamen se kuchh ka vibhajan seneka ke natakon ke anukaran par ankon aur drishyon men bhi hota tha. kuchh natak samnton ki haveliyon men khele jane ke lie bhi likhe jate the. inamen se adhikansh ka abhinay peshevar abhinetaon dvara hone laga. inamen vyaktigat rachana ke lakshan bhi dikhaee padane lage.

intaralyood

prarnbh men morailiti aur intaralyood natakon ki vibhajak rekha bahut dhundhali thi. bahut se morailiti natakon ko intaralyood shirshak se prakashit kiya jata tha. kore upadesh se paida huee oob ko door karane ke lie morailiti natakon men prahasan ke tatvon ka bhi samavesh kar diya jata tha. aise hi khndon ko intaralyood kahate the. bad men yo morailiti natakon se svatntr ho ge. aise natakon men sabase prasiddh hevud ka f for pizaf hai. in natakon men adhunik bhand (phars) aur prahasan ke tatv the. inamen se kuchh ne ben jaaunsan ki yatharthavadi kaaumedi ke lie bhi jamin par taiyar ki. prasiddh manavatavadi chintak sar taaumas mor ne bhi aise natak likhe.

isi yug men age ane vali prahasan aur premayukt darabari romaintik kaaumedi ke tatv medaval ki kritiyon f phuljens aind lookrisaf aur f kailisto aind melebiyaf men aur romani pravrittiyon se sarvatha mukt kaaumedi ke tatv yoodal ki rachana f ralf rh‌vayastar davayastaraf aur mistar es ki rachana f gamar gartas nidilaf men prakat hue. aitihasik natakon ka bhi pranayan tabhi hua.

16vin shatabdi ke madhy tak ate ate punarjagaran ke manavatavad ne angreji natak ko spasht roop se prabhavit karana shuroo kiya. 1581tak seneka angreji men anoodit ho gaya. saikavil aur naaurtan krit angreji ki pahali traijadi f gaaurabodakaf ka abhinay elizabeth ke samane 1562 men hua. kamedi par platas aur terens ka sabase gahara asar pada. latini bhasha ke in natakakaron ke adhyayan se angreji natakon ke rachanavidhan men panch ankon, ghatanaon ki ikaee aur charitrachitran men sngatipoorn vikas ka prayog hua.

is vikas ki do dishaen spasht hain. ek or kuchh natakakar deshaj parnpara ke adhar par aise natakon ki rachana kar rahe the jinamen naitikata, hasy, romans ityadi ke vividh tatv mile-jule hote the. doosari or latini nathhyashastr ke prabhav men vidvadvarg ke natakakar kaaumedi aur traijedi men shuddhatavad ki sthapana ke lie prayatnashil the. angreji natak ke svarnayug ke pahale hi anek natakakaron ne in donon tatvon ko mila diya aur unhin ke samanvay se sheksapiyar aur usake anek samakalinon ke mahanh‌ natakon ki rachana huee.

is svarnayug ki yavanika uthane ke pahale ki taiyari men ek bat ki kami thi. vah 1576 men shoradich men pratham sarvajanik (pablik) rngashala ki sthapana se poori huee. us yug ki prasiddh rngashalaon men thietar, roz, glob, pharchun aur svaaun hain. sarvajanik rngashalaen lndan nagar ke bahar hi banaee ja sakati thin. 16vin shatabdi ke ant tak keval ek rngashala blaikaphrayars men sthit thi aur vah vyaktigat (praivet) kahalati thi. sarvajanik rngashalaon men natakon ka abhinay khule asaman ke niche, din men, bhinn-bhinn vargon ke samajikon dvara ghire hue pray: nagn rngamnch par hota tha. elizabeth aur stuart yug ke natakon men varnanatmak anshon, kavita ke adhiky, svagat, kabhi-kabhi phoohad majak ya bhndaiti, raktapat, samasamayik put, yatharthavad ityadi tatvon ko samajhane ke lie in rngashalaon ki rachana aur unake samajikon ka dhyan rakhana avashyak hai. vyaktigat rngashalaon men rngamnch kaksh ke bhitar hota tha jahan prakash, drishy adi ka achchha prabndh rahata tha aur usake samajik abhijat hote the. inhonne bhi 17vin shatabdi men angreji natak ke roop ko prabhavit kiya. in rngashalaon ne natakon ke lie keval vyapak ruchi hi nahin paida ki balki natakon ki kathavastu aur rachana vidhan ko bhi prabhavit kiya, kyonki is yug ke natakakaron ka rngamnch se jivit snbndh tha aur ve usaki snbhavanaon aur simaon ko drishti men rakhakar hi natak likhate the.

elizabeth aur jems pratham ka yug

elizabeth ka yug angrejon ke itihas men rashtriy ekata, adamy utsah, manavatavadi jagarookata ke utkarsh aur mahan prayatnon ka tha. isaka prabhav sahity ki any vidhaon ki tarah natak par bhi pada. sheksapiyar snsar ko us yug ki sabase badi sahityik den hai, lekin usake atirikt yah anek badi pratibhaon ka krititvakal hai. us mahanh‌ yug ki bhoomika taiyar karane men vishvavidyalayon men shikshit hone aur lekhan ko vyavasay banane ke karan f yoonivarsiti vitsaf kahalane vale raaubart grin (1558-92), jaaun lili (1542-1606), taaumas kid (1558-94) aur taaumas marlo (1564-1593) ka visheshat: bahut bada hath hai. grin aur lili ne gitimay prem aur udar prahasan, kid ne pratihinsatmak traijedi aur marlo ne mahatvakanksha aur naitikata ke sngharsh se paida huee vishamata ki traijedi ko janm diya. latini aur deshaj parnparaon ke mishran se unhonne natak ko kalatmakata di. jaaurj pil (1557-1596) aur grin ne natakiy atukant kavita ka vikas kiya aur marlo ne unase age badhakar use uchchaknth aur vegavan banaya. marlo ke natakon men kathasootr shithil hai lekin vah bhaynkar antardvndvon ki gitimay akritrim abhivyakti aur bhavy chitr yojana men sheksapiyar ka yogy guru hai. marlo krit f tainbaralenaf , f daktar phastash‌f aur f di jyoo aauv maltaf ke nayak apane abadh vyaktivad ke karan adhyatmik moolyon se takarate aur toot jate hain. is prakar vyakti aur samaj ke bich sngharsh ko chitrit kar marlo pahale pahal punarjagaran ki vah kendriy samasya prastut karata hai jo sheksapiyar aur any natakakaron ko bhi andolit karati rahi. marlo ne angreji natak ko svarnayug ke dvar par khada kar diya.

viliyam sheksapiyar

viliyam sheksapiyar (1564-1616) ka prarnbhik vikas inhin parnparaon ki simaon men hua. usake prarnbhik natakon men kala men siddhahastata prapt karane ka prayatn hai. is prarnbhik prayatn ke madhyam se usane apane natakakar ke vyaktitv ko pusht kiya. kathanak, charitr-chitran, bhasha, chhnd, chitr yojana aur jivan ki pakad men usaka vikas us yug ke any natakakaron ki apeksha adhik shramasadhy tha, lekin 16vin shatabdi ke antim aur 17vin shatabdi ke prarnbhik varshon men usaki pratibha ka asadharan utkarsh hua. is kal ke natakon men punarjagaran ki sari sanskritik aur rachanatmak kshamata pratibinbit ho uthi. is tarah sheksapiyar ne hal aur haaulinashed ke itihas grnnthon se inglaind aur skaautalaind ke rajaon ki or plutark se rom ke shasakon ki kathaen lin, lekin unamen usane manavatavadi yug ka bodh bhar diya. prarnbhik sukhant natakon men usane lili aur grin ka anukaran kiya, lekin ¢ e midasamar naits drim¢ (1596) aur usake bad ki char aisi hi rachanaon ¢ di marachent aauv venis¢ , ¢ mach aido abaut nathing¢ , ¢ tvelphth nait¢ aur ¢ aij yoo laik it¢ men usane angreji sahity men romaintik kaaumedi ko naya roop diya. inaka vatavaran darabari kaaumedi se bhinn hai. vahan ek aisa lok hai jahan svapn aur yatharth ka bhed mit jata hai aur jahan hasy ki bauddhikata bhi hriday ki udarata se ardr hai. ¢ mezar phaaur mezar¢ aur ¢ alz vel dait ends vel¢ men, jo usake antim sukhant natak hain, vatavaran ghane badalon ke bich chhipate aur unase nikalate hue sooraj ka sa hai. dukhant natakon men prarnbhik kal ki rachana ¢ romiyo aind jooliet¢ men nayak-nayika ki mrityu ke bavajood parajay ka svar nahin hai. lekin 16vin shatabdi ke bad likhe ge ¢ haimalet¢ , ¢ liyar¢ , ¢ athelo¢ , ¢ maikaveth¢ , ¢ aintani aind kliyopetra¢ aur ¢ koriyolenas¢ men us yug ke shadyntrapoorn dooshit vatavaran men manavatavad ki parajay ka chitr hai. lekin usake bich bhi sheksapiyar ki apratihat astha ka svar uthata hai. ant men anubhootiyon se mukti pane ke lie usane ¢ perikliz¢ , ¢ sinbelin¢ , ¢ di vintars tel¢ aur ¢ tenpest¢ likhe jinamen prarnbhik durghatanaon ke bavajood ant sukhad hote hain. jivan ke vishad gyan aur kavy evn naty saundary men sheksapiyar snsar ki ini-gini pratibhaon men hai.

ben jaaunsan

ben jaaunsan (1572-1637) angreji natak men ¢ vikrit¢ prahasan (kamedi aauv hyoomars) ka janmadata hai. usake diksha guru platas aur hores the, isalie vah achary natakakar hai aur usane sheksapiyar ityadi ki romaintik kaaumedi men virodhi tatvon ke samanvay ka virodh kiya. usaki ¢ vikriti¢ ka arth tha kisi charitr ke doshavishesh ko atirnjit roop men chitrit karana. usaki prathamik rachanaon ¢ ebrimain in hiz hyoomar¢ aur ¢ ebrimain aut aauv hiz hyoomar¢ men isi tarah ka prahasan hai. jaaunsan ke anusar kaaumedi ka kartavy apane yug ka chitr prastut karana aur manav charitr ki moorkhataon se ¢ krida¢ karana tha. is tarah usane vidroopapoorn yatharthavadi prahasan natak ko bhi janm diya jisamen usaki prasiddh rachanaen ¢ vaaulpon¢ aur ¢ alakemist¢ hain. jaaunsan ka prahasan gudagudata nahin, dnk marata hai.

jems pratham ke shasanakal men samaj men badhati huee asthirata aur nirasha tatha darabar men badhati huee kritrimata ne natak ko prabhavit kiya. sheksapiyar ke paravarti vebstar, tarnar, midilatan, mastarn chaipamain, maisinjar aur phord ke dukhant natakon men vyaktivad asvabhavik mahatvakankshaon, bhaynkar raktapat aur kroorata, atmapida aur nirasha men prakat hua. vebstar ke shabdon men, inaka kendriy darshan ¢ phool ke paudhon ke mool men naramund¢ ki anivaryata hai.

kaaumedi men midilatan (1580-1627) aur mainsinjar (1583-1639) jaaunsan ki parnpara men the, lekin unamen sthool prahasan aur ashlilata ki bhi vriddhi huee. jaaun palechar (1579-1625) aur phransis bomant (1584 . 5-1616) men kaaumedi ka patan svasth romans ya prahasan ki jagah dukhapoorn ghatanaon, nayak-nayikaon ke kalpanik jivan, atyadhik alnkrit aur roodhipriy bhasha tatha asvabhavik ghatanaon ke roop men dikh pada. darabar ki prerana se hi isi yug men mask (Masque) ka bhi janm hua jisamen bhavy drishyon aur sajasajja tatha sngit ki pradhanata thi. isi samay bhavi vikas ki drishti se mahatvapoorn parivarik samasyamoolak dukhant natakon men sabase prasiddh ¢ arden aauv phivarashaim¢ (1592) hai, jo likha pahale gaya tha par prakashit pichhe hua.

is tarah darabar ke prabhav men natak janata se door ho raha tha. vastav men bomant aur phlechar ki traiji-kaaumedi ka abhinay ¢ praivet¢ rngashalaon men mukhyat abhijatavargiy samajikon ke samane hota tha. agar natak ka janata se jivit snbndh tha to jaaunsan ki shishy parnpara ke natakon ke dvara ya sheksapiyar ke paravarti dukhant natakon ke dvara, jinaka abhinay ¢ pablik¢ rngashalaon men hota tha.

angreji natak ke vikas ki shrrinkhala sahasa 1642 men toot gee jab kamanavelth yug men pyooritan snpraday ke dabav se sari rngashalaen bnd ki di geen. usaka punarjanm 1660 men charls dvitiy ke punarrajyarohan ke sath hua.

punarrajyarohan kal

phrans men luee chaturdash ke darabar men sharanarthi ki tarah rah chuke charls dvitiy ke lie snskriti ka adarsh phrans ka darabar tha. usake sath yah adarsh bhi inglaind aya. phrench ritikar aur natakakar angreji natakakaron ke adarsh bane. charls ke lautane par droori len aur daaurset garden ki rngashalaon ki sthapana huee. rngashalaon par svayn charls aur dyook aauv yaaurk ka niyntran tha. in rngashalaon ke samajik mukhyat darabari, unaki premikaen, chhail-chhabile aur kuchh avaragard hote the. ab natak bahusnkhyakon ki jagah alpasnkhyakon ka tha; isalie is yug men do tarah ke natakon ka uday aur vikas hua- ek, aise natak jinaki ¢ hiroik¢ dukhant kathavastu darabariyon ki ruchi ke anukool ¢ prem¢ aur ¢ atmasamman¢ thi; doosare, aise prahasan jinamen charitrahin kintu kushagrabuddhi vyaktiyon ke samajik vyavaharon ka chitran hota tha (kaaumedi aauv mainars). rngashalaon men drishyon, prakash ityadi ke prabndh ke karan kanon se jyada ankhon ke madhyam se kam liya jane laga, jisase elizabeth yug ke natakon ki shuddh kavita ki anivaryata jati rahi. striyon ne bhi rngamnch par ana shuroo kiya jisaki vajah se kathanakon men kee-kee stri patron ko rakhana snbhav hua.

hiroik

hiroik traijedi ka netritv draidan (1631-1700) ne kiya. aise natakon ki visheshataen thin-- asadharan kshamata aur adarsh vale nayak prem men asadharan roop se dridh aur atynt sundar nayika, prem aur atmasamman ke bich antarik sngharsh, shaury, tukant kavita, oohatmak bhav evn abhivyakti tatha tivr aur sookshm anubhooti ki kami. draidan ka anukaran auron ne bhi kiya, lekin unako nagany saphalata mili.

is kal men atukant chhndon men bhi dukhant natak likhe ge aur unamen hiroik traijedi ki apeksha natakakaron ko adhik saphalata mili. ye bhi am taur par prem ke vishay men the. lekin inaki duniya elizabeth yug ke natakon ke bhishan antardvndvon se bhinn thi. yahan bhi pradhanata oohatmak bhavukata ki hi thi. draidan ke atirikt aise natakakaron men keval taaumas aautave hi ullekhaniy hai.

is yug ne natak ke roop ko ek nee den ¢ aaupera¢ ke roop men di, jisamen kathopakathan ke atirikt sngit bhi rahata tha.

kaaumedi aauv mainars

kaaumedi aauv mainars ke vikas ne angreji prahasan natak ka punaruddhar kiya. isake prasiddh lekhakon men viliyam vikarli (1640-1716), viliyam kangriv (1670-1729), jaaurj itharej (1634-1690), jaaun vhaaunabrug (1666-1746) aur jaaurj pharkuhar (1678-1707) hain. inhonne jaaunsan ke yatharthavadi dhng se charls dvitiy ke darabariyon jaise amodapriy, pramad, prem ke lie anek durabhisndhiyon ke rachayita, naitikata aur sadachar ke prati udasin aur saph-suthari kintu paini boli vale vyaktiyon ka nagn chitr tatasthata ke sath khincha. upadesh ya samaj sudhar unaka lakshy nahin tha. isake karan in lekhakon par ashlilata ka arop bhi kiya jata hai. in natakon men jaaunsan ke charitron ki manasik vividhata ke sthan par ghatanaon ki vividhata hai. inhonne jaaunsan ki tarah charitron ko atirnjan ki shaili se ek-ek durgun ka pratik n banakar unhen unake samajik parivesh men dekha. unaka sabase bada kam yah tha ki unhonne angreji kaaumedi ko bomant aur phlechar ki kritrim romani bhavukata se mukt kar use sachche arthon men prahasan banaya. sath hi jaaunsan ki parnpara bhi shaidavel aur haauvard ne kayam rakhi.

18vin shatabdi

yah shatabdi gairik aur shrimati sidns jaise abhineta aur abhinetri ki shatabdi thi, lekin natak rachana ki drishti se is yug men keval do bade natakakar hue: richard brinsale sheridan (1751-1816) aur aaulivar goldasmith (1728-74). is shatabdi ki madhyavargiy naitikata ne is yug men bhavuk (sentimental) kaaumedi ko janm diya, jisamen prahasan se adhik jor sadachar par tha. parivarik sukh, adarsh prem aur hriday ki pavitrata ki sthapana ke lie aksar madhyavargiy charitron ko hi chuna jata tha. aise natakakaron men sabase prasiddh sibar, stil, keli, aur knbaralaind hain. sheridan aur goldasmith ne aise ashrusinchit sukhant natakon ke sthan par shuddh prahasan ko apana lakshy banaya. inhonne romani tatvon ke sthan par zaaunsan aur kangriv ke yatharthavad, vyngy, chubhati huee bhasha aur charitr-chitran men atirnjan ka anusaran kiya. goldasmithakrit ¢ shi stoops tu kankar¢ aur sheridan krit ¢ di skool phaaur skaindal¢ angreji prahasan naty ki sarvottam kritiyon men gine jate hain.

is shatabdi men kee lekhakon ne dukhant natak likhe, lekin unamen edisan ka ¢ kaito¢ hi ullekhaniy hai. paintomaim, jo ek tarah se shuddh bhndaiti tha, aur bailad-aaupera (giti naty) bhi is yug men kaphi lokapriy the. ge ka gitinaty ¢ di begars¢ aaupera to yoorop ke kee deshon men abhinit hua. edavard moor ka parivarik samasyamoolak natak ¢ gemsatar¢ aise natakon men sabase achchha hai.

19vin shatabdi

romaintik yug ka poorvardh natak ki drishti se pray shoony hai. sadi, kolarij, bardh‌svarth, sheli, kits, bayaran, laindar aur brauning ne natak likhe, lekin adhikatar ve keval padhane layak hain. shatabdi ke uttarardh men ibsan ke prabhav se angreji natak ko nee prerana mili. parivarik jivan ko lekar raaubartasan, jons aur pinaro ne ibsan ki yatharthavadi shaili ke anukaran par natak likhe. unamen ibsan ki pratibha nahin thi, lekin natakiyata aur adhunik shaili ke dvara unhonne age ka marg saral kar diya.

20vin shatabdi

ibsan ke prachar ne angreji natak ko nee disha di. usake natakon ki kuchh visheshataen ye thin- samaj aur vyakti ki sadharan samasyaen; purani naitikata ki alochana; bahari sngharshon ke sthan par antarik sngharsh; rngamnch par yatharthavad; vivaranatmak saj-sajja; svagat ka bahishkar; bolachal ki bhasha se nikatata; pratikavad. ibsan ke natak samasya natak hain. 20vin shatabdi ke prarnbhik natakakaron par ibsan ke atirikt chekhav ka bhi gahara asar pada. aise natakakaron men sabase pramukh shaau aur galsavardi ke atirikt grainabil barkar, sent jaaun hainkin, jaaun mesaphild, sent jaaun arvin, arnald benet ityadi hain.

is yug men kaaumedi aauv mainars ki parnpara bhi vikasit huee hai. 19vin shatabdi ke ant men aauskar vaild ne isako punarujjivit kiya tha. 20vin shatabdi men isake pramukh lekhakon men shaau, maaum, lansadel, sent arvin, munaro, noel kaard, traivars, raitigan ityadi hain.

samasya natakon ki parnpara bha age badhi hai. unake lekhakon men sabase prasiddh o¢ kaisi ke atirikt sheriph, miln, pristale aur jaaun vhaaun draten hain.

is yug ke aitihasik natakakaron men sabase prasiddh drinkavatar, baiks aur jems bridi hain.

kavy natakon ka vikas bhi anek lekhakon ne kiya hai. unamen stiphen philips, yets, mesaphild, drinkavatar, bamli, phlekar, abarakrunbi, ti.es. iliyat, aauden, eesharavud, kristophar phraee, dnkan, spendar ityadi hain.

adhunik angreji natak men ayaralaind ke tin prasiddh natakakaron, yets, ledi gregari aur sinj ki bahut badi den hai. yatharthavadi shaili ke yug men unhonne natak men romani aur gitimay kalpana tatha anubhooti ko kayam rakha.

is prakar spasht hai ki 20vin shatabdi men angreji natak ka bahumukhi vikas hua hai. rngamnch ke vikas ke sath-sath roopon men bhi anek parivartan hue hain. samasamayikata ke karan moolyankan men atirnjan ho sakata hai, lekin jis yug men shaau, galh‌rsavardi, o kaisi, yets, iliyat, aur sinj jaise natakakar hue hain usaki upalabdhiyon ka sthayi mahatv hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh
  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 20-33 |

tika tippani aur sndarbh

sn. grn.kainbrij histri aauv inglish litarechar; legui aind kazamiya; histri aauv inglish litarechar. leguee aind kajamiya: e histri aauv inglish litarechar; krek: inglish proz raitars; sentsabari: inglish proz ridm. dablyoo.je. kortahop : histri aauv inglish poetri; kainbrij histri aauv inglish litarechar; leguee aind kazamiya e histri aauv inglish litarechar; dablyoo.pi. kar inglish litarechar, medoval; bi.di. solapinto: di inglish renesan, 1510-1688; es.je.si. griyarsan kraaus karents in inglish litarechar aauv di seventith senchuri; edamnd gaaus histri aauv ettinth senchuri litarechar; si.ech. haraphard di ej aauv bardh‌svarth; bi. aiphar ivans inglish poetri in di letar naintinth senchuri; eph.ar livis nyoo beyarings in inglish poetri. alaradais nikh‌l di thiyari aauv drama, british drama, aur di devalapament aauv di thiyetar; ee.ke, chainbars di elizabethan stej; e.ech. tharnadaik inglish kaaumedi; je.si. trevin di thiyetar sins 1900, aur draimetists aauv tude; elis pharmar ayarish drama.

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