अवाप्ति  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

avapti (atenament) vigyan ki pragati se shikshapranali men bhi navin vicharadharaon ka janm hua hai. isamen pariksha snbndhi parivartan ullekhaniy hai. vaigyanikon ki dharana rahi hai ki likhitapariksha dvara ham pariksharthi ke un gunon ko napate hain jinhen napana hamara dhyey hota hai. isake atirikt is pariksha men parikshak ki niji bhavanaen ang pradan karane men vishesh kary karati hain. in donon se raksha karane ke lie yah uchit samajha gaya ki vishayanishth pariksha hi pariksharthi ke moolyankan men sahayak ho sakegi. is vicharadhara ke phalasvaroop amarika men ee.el. tharnadaik ne sarvapratham avaptipariksha (atenament test) ke paksh men 1904 men ek pustak likhi. usake pashchath‌ bhinn-bhinn deshon ke shikshavidon ne bhi apane desh ka prachar kiya. un logon ka vichar hai ki pramanit pariksha ke lie avaptipariksha ek mukhy sadhan hai. is prakar ki kuchh parikshaen adhyay ke dvara apane vishay ke gyan ko napane ke lie banaee jati hain tatha kuchh vishayanishth parikshaen pramanikrit ki jati hain aur unake dvara ek kshetr ke pariksharthiyon ki yogyata tulanatmak roop se asani se napi ja sakati hai. avaptipariksha banane ke pahale parikshak ko yah svayn samajh lena chahie ki vah kis vastu ko napana chahata hai. use yah bhi jan lena hai ki avaptipariksha pariksharthi ke arjit gyan ko hi napati hai. avaptipariksha banane men aitam ke chunav men vishesh dhyan dena chahie. inhin ke oopar us pariksha ki manyata nirbhar karati hai. kis tarah ke aitam hone chahie, isaka gyan 'shaikshik snkhyashastr' (ejukeshanal staitistiks) se poorn parichay hone par hi ho sakata hai. ajakal hamare desh men is disha men kary ho raha hai aur aaul indiya kaunsil phaaur sekndari ejukeshan ne videshi visheshgyon dvara adhyapakon ke prashikshan ke lie suvidhaen di hain.[1]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 283 |

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