ईसप  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

eesap janapriy nitikathakar. inaki kathaon ke patr manushy ki apeksha pashu pakshi adhik hain. is prakar ki kathaon ko 'bist febuls' kaha jata hai. parntu eesap nam ka koee vyakti kabhi tha, is vishay men bahut kuchh sndeh hai. tathapi horodotas evn katipay any lekhakon ke sakshy ke anusar eesap ke jivan ki katha is prakar ki thi : ee.poo. chhathi shatabdi ke madhy men eesap samans dvip ke nivasi iyadmanh‌ ke das the, parntu ve videshi das jinake vishay men yah nishchit pata nahin tha ki phrayake, phragiya athava ithiyopiya deshon men se unaka janm kahan hua tha. ve atynt kuroop the. delphi men un par devamndir ke svarnachashak ki chori ka arop lagaya gaya aur unako parvatashikhar se dhakka dekar mrityudnd diya gaya. par pro. gilbart mare ko is katha par vishvas nahin hai.

jo kathaen eesap ke nam se prachalit hain unaka vartaman roop utana purana nahin hai jitana uparyukt katha ke anusar hona chahie. panchavin shatabdi ee.poo. se eesap aur unaki kathaon ki charcha chal padi thi. aristofaniz, zenofanh‌, pleto aur arastoo ki rachanaon men isake snket milate hain. sukarat ne apane antim samay men kuchh kathaon ko padyabaddh kiya tha, aisa bhi kaha jata hai par vastavikata yah hai ki eesavi sanh‌ ke poorv in kathaon ke jo snkalan hue the ve ab upalabdh nahin hote. is samay jo prachinatam snkalan upalabdh hue the ve fedrus aur aviyanus dvara latini bhasha men tatha babriyas dvara grik bhasha men prastut kie ge the. ye sabhi lekhak eesavi sanh‌ ke arnbh ke pashchath‌ hue hain. isake pashchath‌ in kathaon ka anuvad yoorop ki adhunik bhashaon men hone laga. in anuvadon men jyan d la.fautaee ka padyabaddh phrench anuvad atayadhik prasiddh hai.

adhunik samay men eesap ki kahaniyon ke do sngrah phrans aur jarmani men mool grik roop men prakashit hue hain. inamen se aimol shanbri (peris, 1927) snskaran men 358 kathaen hain tatha tayabnar ki grik grnthamala men prakashit halm ke snskaran men 426. grik snskaran shanai: shanai: parivardhit hokar is roop ko prapt hue hain.[1]

eesap ki kathaen pnchatntr ki kathaon ke saman manornjan ke sath niti aur vyavaharakushalata ki shiksha deti hain. yatratatr inamen has parihas ka bhi put paya jata hai. jatak kathaon ke sath bhi inaka paryapt samy paya jata hai. kuchh lekhak bharatiy kathaon ko hi eesap ki kathaon ka adhar manate hain, any alochak is mat ko nahin manate. eesap ki kathaon ka anuvad hindi, snskrit evn any bharatiy bhashaon men bhi ho chuka hai.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 43 |
  2. sn.grn.-shanbri ka mool grik snskaran, 1927; halm ka mool grik snskaran 1889; eesap nitikatha (snskrit anuvad)

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah