कंपोज़िंग  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

knpozing mudranalayon (chhapekhanon) men us kriya ko kahate hain jisamen taip chhapaee ke lie kramanusar rakha jata hai. is kam ke lie ek chhate upakaran ki avashyakata padati hai jise knpozing stik kahate hain. yah lagabhag 10 inch lnbi aur 2 inch chaudi ek prakar ki tashtari hoti hai jo keval tin or se ghiri rahati hai. inamen se do or ki divaren achal rahati hain, parntu tisari or ki divar kisi bhi sthan men kasi ja sakati hai, jisase bhitar ki chaudaee ichchhanusar napi ja sakati hai. is stik men taip ek-ek karake rakhe jate hain. pratyek taip ke parshv men ek khancha kata rahata hai, jise nik kahate hain. taip lakadi ki badi-badi khanedar tashtariyon men rakhe rahate hain jinako kes kahate hain. kes lagabhag 32.. inch lnba, 14.. inch aur aur 11/3 inch gahara hota hai. pratyek kes men kee ghar rahate hain aur pratyek ghar men ek prakar ke taip rahate hain. isalie taip uthate samay taip ki janch nahin karani padati. udaharanat:, yadi k ko stik men rakhana hai to k vale khane se taip utha liya jaega. aur use stik men is prakar rakha jaeg ki nik baen hath ke angoothe ki or pade. isi hath se stik pakadi jati hai. isalie angoothe se chhoote hi pata chala jata hai ki taip thik rakha gaya ya nahin. is prakar anubhavi knpozitar (knpozing ka kam karanevala vyakti knpozitar kahalata hai) keval pandulipi par drishti jamae badi shighrata se knpoz karata chala jata hai.

keson men ghar (khane) barabar nahin hote. jin aksharon ki avashyakata adhik padati hai ve bade rahate hain aur ve us kes men rahate hain jo knpojitar ke samip rahata hai. angrezi knpozig men keval do keson se kam chal jata hai. pasavale kes ko nichala (loar kes) kahate hain; doosare kes ko oopari kes (apar kes) kaha jata hai, kyonki vah kuchh adhik tirachha aur nichale kes ke oopari mathe se satakar rakha jata hai. angreji ke nichale kes men sadharanat: 53 khane rahate hain; oopari kes men 98 akshar rahate hain. hindi ki knpozing men do keson se kam nahi chalata, char keson ki avashyakata padati hai-nichala, oopari, dayan, bayan. inamen kramanusar aur ghar rahate hain. phir, jaisa chitron se spasht hai, kuchh gharon men ek se adhik prakar ke taip rahate hain.

knpozing stik ko nichale kes ke lagabhag madhy ke pas rakhana chahie, jisase dahine hath ko yathasnbhav kam door hi chalana pade.

jab stik men ek pnkti lagabhag poori ho jati hai tab pnkti ki lnbaee ko ghata badhakar use stik ki bhitari chaudaee ke thik barabar karana padata hai (avashy hi stik ki chaudaee avashyakatanusar pahale se hi thik nap kar li jati hai). lain ki lnbaee thik karane ko 'jastifaee' karana kahate hain. isake lie shabdon ke bich lage dhatu ya patale tukade lagae jate hain. achchhe karigar aisa prabndh karate hain ki shabdon ke bich ke sab sthan pray: barabar rahen.

jab ek pnkti knpoz ho jati hai tab doosari pnkti knpoz ki jati hai, parntu bahudha pnktiyon ke bich kuchh atirikt sthan chhodane ke lie adesh rahata hai. tab ek pnkti ke knpoz hone ke bad aur doosari ki knpozing arnbh karane ke pahale dhatu ka chipata tukada dal diya jata hai, jise led kahate hain. ledon ki motaee sadharanat: 3 paauint (3/72 inch) hoti hai. pnktiyon ke bich adhik sthan ki avashyakata hone par do-do led dal die jate hain. jis knpozing men pnktiyon ke bich led nahin dala jata use thos knpozig kahate hain. smaran rahe ki devanagari ke kuchh taipon men matraen taip ke sharir (baaudi) se bahar badhi rahati hain, isalie bina led lagae unase knpoz karane par matraen toot jati hain. is pustak men knpozing barah paauint ke taip men thos ki gee hai; isamen matraen taip ke sharir se bahar nahin badhi hain.

jab itani pnktiyan knpoz ho jati hain ki stik pray: bhar jati hai tab kul knpoz kie taipon ko (jise maitar kahate hain) nikalakar ek chhichhali tashtari men rakh dete hain. is tashtari ko gaili kahate hain. gaili ke tin or lagabhag adh inch oonchi, khadi divaren rahati hain. gaili ko kuchh tirachha rakha jata hai jisamen taip ludhakane n pae. stik se maitar nikalate samay badi savadhani se use charon or se anguliyon ka sahara dena padata hai jisamen taip bikharane n paen.

jab svayn gaili lagabhag bhar jati hai, athava knpozing samapt ho jati hai, tab taip ko pusht dori se bandh diya jata hai aur taip par syahi ka belan pherakar ek pratichhap li jati hai. is pratichhap ko prooph ya gaili prooph kahate hain. prooph chhapane ka kam prooph pres men kiya jata hai.

is prooph ko koee vyakti savadhani se padhata hai aur sab ashuddhiyon par chihn lagakar likhata chalata hai ki kya snshodhan karana chahie. mudranalayon men jo vyakti is kam ke lie niyukt rahata hai use prooph snshodhak (prooph ridar) kaha jata hai. samay bachane ke lie prooph snshodhan men vishesh chihnon ka prayog kiya jata hai.[1]

jab snshodhit prooph knpozitar ke pas ata hai, tab vah maitar ko bandhanevali dori khol dalata hai aur prooph par ankit ashuddh aksharon ko maitar se chimati dvara nikalakar keson men yathasthan rakh deta hai aur unake badale shuddh akshar lagata chalata hai tatha any avashyak snshodhan karata hai. snshodhit maitar ko khndon men bantakar prishthon ke anusar laga diya jata hai, prishth snkhya knpoz kar di jati hai aur prishth ka shirshak bhi (jise foliyo kahate hain) laga diya jata hai.

jab kahin bhi koee ashuddhi nahin rah jati tab maitar mashin vibhag ko chhapane ke lie saunp diya jata hai.

mashin se knpojing

mashin se knpozing do prakar se ho sakati hai. ek men poori-poori pnktiyan ek sath tukade men dhalati hain; doosare men ek-ek akshar dhalate hain. lain dhalanevali mashinon ke udaharan lainotaip aur intarataip mashinen hain.in mashinon men pratyek taip ke lie kee ek sanche rahate hain jinako maitriks kahate hain. mashin men chabhiyon ka samooh (kunjipatal) rahata hai. ek chabhi (kunbhi) dabane se us chabhivala ek akshar utarata hai. chabhi dabane ka kam lagabhag usi prakar ka hota hai jaise sadharan taiparaitar men, keval chhote aur bade (kaipital) angreji akshar sab kunjipatan par alag-alag rahate hain. jab pnkti lagabhag poori ho jati hai tab ek muthiya ainthi jati hai sab knpoz kie hue sanche dhalane ki sthiti men a jate hain aur pnkti jastifaee ho jati hai, arthath‌ lnbaee ki kami poori ho jati hai. pratyek spes dohara hota hai aur pratyek adha bhag, sphan roopi hota hai. isalie dabane par dohare spes ki sammilit motaee badh jati hai aur is prakar pnkti jastifaee ho jati hai. tab pighali dhatu sanche ke samane date khokhale baks men bhar jati hai, jisase pnkti dhal jati hai. sanche ke karan is dhali pnkti ke mathe par knpoz kie akshar ban jate hain. phir mashin men lagi chhuriyan is dhale chhad ko bagal aur niche se nam matr chhil deti hain, jisamen motaee aur oonchaee sachchi ho jae. tab dhali pnkti gaili men ja girati hai. udhar sanchevale akshar mashin ke mathe par pahunch jate hain. unaki padi men tale ki chabhiyon ki bhanti dant bane rahate hain. inake karan ve apane-apane gharon men ja girate hain. is prakar thode se hi sanchon se barabar kam hota rahata hai.

isamen aksharon ke anusar kagaj men pahale chhed kiya jata hai. pratyek shabd ke bad spesavali chabhi dabakar spes lagate hain.

aisi mashinon se knpozing ka kam badi shighrata se hota hai. kadi dhatu se bane rahane ke karan sanche bahut dinon tak ne ki bhanti bane rahate hain, at: unase dhala taip bahut tikshn rahata hai aur chhapaee achchhi hoti hai. samacharapatron ki chhapaee men is mashin ki vishesh upayogita hai, kyonki maitar pnktiyon men dhala rahata hai jisase usake bikharane ka dar nahin rahata. parntu sath hi yah asuvidha bhi hai ki knpozing men kahin ashuddhi ho jane se poori pnkti phir se knpoz karani padati hai. phir, knpozing men ek do shabd chhoot jane se kee pnktiyon ko kam spes lagakar phir se knpoz karana padata hai jisase chhoota hua shabd yathasthan lag sake.

monotaip

alag-alag taip dhalakar knpoz karanevali mashin abhi keval ek knpani banati hai. mashin ka nam monotaip. vastut: isamen tin prithak mashinon ki avashyakata padati hai. ek mashin to pnp hai jo hava ko snpidit karake (dabakar) ek tnki men bharati rahati hai. is snpidit vayu ki avashyakata shesh donon mashinon men padati hain. ek mashin bahut bade taiparaitar ki tarah hoti hai jisamen 225 ya adhik chabhiyan rahati hain. chabhi dabane par snpidit vayu ke bal se ek pnkti men lagi tis suiyon men se sadharanat: do suiyan uthati hain jo ek pulinde men se nikale kagaj men do chhed kar deti hain (dr. chitr 12). chhed hone ka dhng yah hai ki kagaj ki tikali katakar nikal jati hai. pratyek chabhi se chhed vibhinn sthanon men hote hain. ek pnkti men do chhed ho jane par kagaj thoda age badh jata hai aur tab doosari pnkti men chhed hote hain.

doosari mashin men akshar dhalate hain. pahali mashin se chhed kiya kagaj is mashin men chadha diya jata hai. kagaj ek belan par chipak kar baithata hai aur usake oopar ek ardhanalika chapakakar baithati hai. is ardhanalika men snpidit vayu ati rahati hai. kagaj ke chhedon ki koee pnkti poorvokt belan ke chhedon ki pnkti par ati hai, tab kagaj ke donon chhedon men se snpidit vayu belan ke bhitar ki do nalikaon men ghusati hai. belan ke bhitar 30 nalikaen rahati hain aur pratyek ka sira belan ke ek chhed se snbaddh rahata hai. jab kisi nalika men vayu ghusati hai to usake doosare sire se snbaddh khoonti snpidit vayu ke bal se uth jati hai. 15 khoontiyan ek patt men se nikalati hain; 15 ek any patt se. aksharon ke sanche 3 inchavh3 inch ke phrem men kase rahate hain (dr. chitr 13). yah phrem kamani ke bal se poorvokt khoontiyon se ja datata hai. man len, 15 khoontiyon ka pahala samooh phrem ke thik uttar men hai aur doosara samooh thik pashchim men, to any phrem niche lage ek khanche ke thik uttar chala ja sakata hai aur dakshin ke khanche par. phrem aur pahala khancha donon sath hi poorab-pashchim chal sakate hain. jab phrem uttar aur pashchimavali khoontiyon se ja datega tab usi akshar ka sancha pnp ke munh par padega jisake lie knpoz karate samay chabhi dabaee gee thi. ab ek kamani sanche ko ek khokhale chhed par daba degi (jisaki chaudaee akshar ki chaudaee ke anusar ghatati-badhati rahati hai) aur niche se pighali dhatu pnp dvara akar dhal jaegi. phir mashin svayn is akshar ko khinch le jaegi, doosara akshar dhalega, phir any akshar, aur pnkti poori ho jane par ek huk use khinchakar gaili men pahuncha dega. udhar phrem dhila hokar apani prasthan sthiti men pahunch jaega aur vahan se chalakar any khoontiyon se ja datega.

pnktiyan sab poori nap ki (arthath‌ jastifaee hokar) nikalati hain. karan yah hai ki knpoz karate samay pnkti lagabhag poori hone par karyakarta (aauparetar) mashin men lage soochak ko dekhakar samajh jata hai ki kitane mote speson ke lagane par pnkti hogi aur vah usi anuroop vishesh kunji ko dabata hai. aksharon ka dhalana ulati or se arnbh hota hai, arthath‌ antim chhed ka akshar pahale dhala jata hai aur jab kisi nee pnkti ki dhalaee arnbh ki jati hai to mashin ka ek puraja aisi sthiti men a jata hai ki dabi gee chabhiyon ke anusar vanchhit nap ke hi spes us pnkti men dhalate hain.

sanche kadi dhatu ke bane rahate hain. isalie unase bahut dinon tak badhiya taip dhalata rahata hai aur chhapaee badi sundar hoti hai. asuvidha yahi hai ki devanagari ke lie ine-gine prakar ke hi sanche milate hain, yadyapi angreji ke lie sainkadon akar prakar ke akshar dhal sakate hain. (m.la.ja.)

devanagari ki knpozing

devanagari ki knpozing men do karanon se vishesh kathinaee padati hai :

  1. matraon ka oopar niche lagana;
  2. snyuktaksharon ki bahulata.

knpoz karane ki riti se yah spasht hai ki yadi taipon ko kisi ek doosare ki bagal men lagana ho tabhi kary sugamata se ho sakata hai. parntu devanagari men i, ee, u, oo, ri, e, ai, au, an, an, an, aau, ki matraen (arthath‌ , i, u, oo, ri, e, ai, o, au, n, n, an aau) aur ( h‌ ) ye aksharon ke oopar tatha niche avashyakatanusar matraen tatha spes knpoz kie jate hain, arthath‌ ek pnkti shabdavali knpoz karane ke lie vastut: pnktiyan knpoz karani padati hain; ek men oopar laganevali matraen tatha spes, jaisa chitr se spasht hain. is shaili men kun ya isi prakar ke any matrayukt akshar knpoz karane ke lie kam se kam tin tukade, aur akshar se matraen chhoti hone par matraon ko bich men lane ke lie char any speson (dhatu ke tukadon) ki avashyakata padati hai. isalie aisi knpozing men samay adhik lagata hai. 12 tatha 16 paauint ke aksharon men bnbiya shaili ka prayog pray: nahin hota, kyonki unamen matraon ko itani chhoti tukadiyon par rakhana padata hai ki unako uthana aur stik men baithana kathin kary ho jata hai. (1 u paauint 1/72 inch).

12 tatha 16 paauint ke taipon ke lie sadharanat: 'akhnd' shaili ka prayog hota hai. isamen akshar aur bar-bar anevali matraen ek sath dhali rahati hain. udaharanat: taipon men k, ku, koo, kri, ke, kai akshar bhi dhale milenge. parntu isase taipon ki snkhya chhah guni ho jati hai. itana hi nahin, jab in matraon ke sath anusvar, reph adi ka bhi prayog karana padata hai jab aise ku ki avashyakata padati hai jisake oopar anusvar (bindi) lag sake. isake lie taip ke mathe par chool kata rahata hai aur bagal ke niche se dhatu kati rahati hai. isi bagal men dhatu ka doosara tukada a baithata hai. is doosare tukade men ek ang ek bagal bina pendi ka sahara pae badha rahata hai, jo pradhan akshar ki chool par ja baithata hai. chitr se yah bat spasht ho jaegi. taip ke mukhade ke us bhag ko karn kahate hain jo sharir ke bahar badha rahata hai .

is riti se kam to chal jata hai, parntu angreji ki knpozig ki tulana men, jisamen kahin chool nahin baithana padata aur keval itailik ef ya je men karn rahata hai, devanagari ki knpozing ke samay adhik lagata hai. phir, bagal se bithaee gee matraen bahudha toot jati hain. karan yah hai ki jahan pradhan taip ki chool par bagal se akar matra baithati hai vahan taipon ki oonchaiyon men kuchh antar rah jane se matravale taip ka ek ang bina adhar ka rah jata hai aur chhapaee ke samay dab padane par matra kahin bhi n tooti ho. gita pres (gorakhapur) se chhapi gita men prashnsaniy prayatn kiya gaya hai ki kahin ashuddhi n hone pae aur jahan kahin bhi matra toot gee hai athava koee any ashuddhi ho gee vahan chhapi pustak men hath se snshodhan kar diya gaya hai; parntu itani savadhani baratane par bhi kahin-kahin matra ke karan utpann huee ashuddhi (kam se kam meri prati men, jo ekadash snskaran ki hai) rah gee hai.

bagal se chool baithane ke karan devanagari men paryapt chhote taip nahin milate. angreji men 4.. paauint tak men, hath se knpoz ke lie maitar se, chhapaee suvidhasahit ho sakati hai aur 3 paauint tak ka taip banata hai, parntu hindi men 6 paauint ka taip bhi abhi kisi grnth ke chhapane men prayukt nahin kiya ja sakata hai. kosh adi ki chhapaee men isase badi kathinaee padati hai. yadi hindi-shabd-sagar, jisamen 4,300 prishth hain, 12 paauint taip men ledayukt chhapane ke badale 6 paauint thos men chhap sakata to kul samagri 800 prishthon men hi a jati aur isaka mooly bhi pnchamansh ho jata hai. isase hindi ki jo seva hoti usaki kalpana pathak svayn kar sakate hain. kosh adi lagatar ghnton tak nahin padhe jate; do char minat men kam chal jata hai. isalie kosh ke chhote taip se ankhon par vishesh bal nahin padata. bebstar ke prasiddh angreji kosh men adhikatar 5 paauint ka taip vyavahrit hua hai jisase ek inch meen 14 pnktiyan a jati hain. yadi yah bhi hindi vishvakosh ki bhanti 12 paauint men ledayukt chhapata to do jildon ke badale yah utani hi badi tatha utani hi moti 14 jildon men snpoorn hota.

snyukt aksharon se kathinaee

devanagari men snyukt akshar banane ki do ritiyan hain. ek riti men akshar ko adha karake usaki bagal men samoocha rakh diya jata hai; doosari men akshar ek ke niche ek likhe jate hain. udaharanarth :

panchajanyn hrishikesho devadattn dhananjay:-

ki tulana

panchajanyn hrishikesho devadattn dhananjay:

se karen. doosari pnkti men nha ke niche ch tatha j hain. is paddhati ke oopar likha adha akshar (arthath‌ halh‌) aur niche likha akshar poora samajha jata hai.

devanagari ke jin aksharon men dahini or khadi rekha hai unaka adha banana saral hai; keval khadi rekha chhod di jati hai. is prakar hamen khh , gh, dhh , chh , jh, nh , nh, th, thh , dhh , nh , ph , bh , bhh , mh , yh , lh , vh , shh , shh , sh , mil jate hain. shesh aksharon men se k, jh, ph, h ki dahini arevali tang ko sidhi aur chhoti kar dene se kam chal jata hai, yatha kh, jhh, phh, hh‌. inamen se antim arthath‌ h ka adha roop, hal hi men chala hai; ise snbhavat: monotaipavalon ne chalaya hai. ab bach jate hain 10 akshar : n, chh, t, th, d, d, dh, dh, d tatha r. inake adhe banane ki koee sugam riti nahin nikal paee hai, yadyapi avashyakata padane par halh‌ lagakar kam chala hi liya jata hai. uttar pradesh ki nagari lipi sudhar samiti (1954) ne to sujhav diya tha ki jahan kahi in aksharon ke adhe ka kam pade vahan halh‌ se kam liya jae, parntu janata ke ek mahatvapoorn ang ko yah bat pasnd nahin aee.

jab poorvokt aksharon ka adha ban nahin pata, aur halh‌ ka prayog pasnd nahin hota, tab aksharon ko oopar niche likhane ki pratha apanani padati hai. ye snyuktakshar kahalate hain. udaharan ke lie d par vichar karen. adhe d ke bad k, kh, g adi men jo akshar a sakate hain unamen se pratyek ke lie prithak snyukt akshar kataip rakhana padata hai. udaharanarth

shrimadbhagavadgita

dekhie, inamen dbh aur dg ye taip d tatha bh athavad aur g ke taipon ko jodane se nahi bane hain. inake lie prithak taip rahate hain. isi prakar ddh, dd, dm, dy, dr, dv ke bhi taip rahate hain. sach poochhie to kee ek any snyukt taip bhi chahie jisamen d adha aur paravarti akshar poora rahe, parntu jhnjhat kam karane ke lie vahan dh se kam chala liya jata hai. phir, un snyukt aksharon ke taipon men, jo bane hue rakhe jate hain, bahudha u, oo, e, ai ki matraen bhi lagani padati hain. chahie to matrayukt bhi akhnd taip, parntu sadharanat: poorvokt matrarahit snyuktaksharon men chool kate taip bhi rahate hain aur bagal se matraen laga di jati hain. n, chh, t, th, d, dh, tatha d, dh, h ke lie ye hi baten lagoo hain. kuchh snyukt taip rahate hain, any sthanon men halh‌ se kam chalata hai; matraen lagani hoti hain to chool kate taipon se kam chalaya jatahai; kuchh snyuktakshar aise bhi hain jo adhe aksharon se ban sakate hain, parntu unaka koee vishesh roop bhi prachalit hai, jaise tt, jh, hm, kt, ksh, r ka sthan nirala hai. adha r reph kahalata hai aur aksharon ke oopar lagata hai, yatha dharm. yahan bhi vastut: rm ke lie akhnd taip hota to achchha hota; tab reph ke toot jane ka dar nahin rahata. parntu kitane snyukt aksharon aur matrasahit snyukt aksharon ke taip rakhe jaen? yadi koee pran kar le ki ek bhi chool kata akshar n rakha jaega aur koee bhi snyukt hakshar halh‌ se n banaya jaega to snbhavat: itane taip ho jaenge ki prachalit char keson ke badale 20 keson men taip bharane ki avashkata pad jaegi. ise koee atishayokti n samajhe, kyonki sadharan vynjanon ke atirikt bindiyukt vynjan bhi hain (jaise q, kh, gha ityadi) aur matraen keval utani hi nahin jitani oopar ginaee gee hain aur n snyuktakshar utane hi hain jinake lie oopar snket kiya gaya hai. do matraen ek sath a sakati hain aur reph ke sath bhi. snyuktakshar tin aksharon ke mel se bhi banate hain. sadharanat: matraon men nimnalikhit mel rakhe jate hain :

a i u oo e ai o au n n : an an ' in n n n en ain on aun rh arh rhi irh rh n u oo erh ai rh orh aurh , n arh rh i rh n u oo erh ai rh orh ri rirh aau

aur in sab ka upayog chool kate aksharon ke sath hota hai.

r ka roop pahale a tatha. ab bhi dehaton men baniyon ki dookanon par gram 1 men r ka prachin roop milata hai. tr ke niche laga r bhi isi roop ka ek ansh hai. mera anuman hai ki drut gati se likhane men gr ki baeen tang chhoti hoti gee aur dahini tirachhi tatha badi, aur is prakar isi akshar ne r roop dharan kar liya. yadi yah anuman ashuddh ho to bhi koee hani nahin. itana nirvivad hai ki gr ka prachin roop ab bhi snyukt roop se laga hua hai. isi prakar gr, hghra ityadi aksharon men bhi. tr men to yah spasht hi pahachana ja sakata hai. prashn yah hai jab gr badalakar r ho gaya hai to kyon n ham navin roop ka hi prayog sarvatr karen. kyon n ham ab prasad ko prasad likhen, kram ko kram. jahan tak main samajh paya hoon, prasad adi ke prachalit n hone ka karan yah hai ki taipavalon ke pas sancha bana hai, ve kr, gr, hghra ityadi dhalate chale ae hain. isalie jab unase sab prakar ka taip ikattha mngaya jata hai to usamen gr, gr adi bhi rakh dete hain. jab taip a jata hai to knpozitar bhi unaka prayog karane hi lagata hai. phir pathak bachapan se kr, gr, hghra, . . . dekhate hae hain. unhen kr, gr, ghr, . . . khatakate hain, yadyapi ve bhasha ke niyamon se poornataya shuddh hain. parinam yah hota hai ki parinam dharra chala chalata hai aur knpozitaron ke keson men kre, gre, hghro . . . ke lie bhi ghar rakhana padata hai, ek sada, ek chool kata, kyonki in snyuktaksharon par matraen bahudha lagani padati hain.

kuchh snyuktakshar bekar hi prachalit hain, kyonki unake badale adhe akshar se bane snyuktakshar ka prayog sugamata se ho sakata hai. kuchh udaharan gita prase ki gita men die ja rahe hain, aur pratyek ke niche unaka saralikrit roop bhi dikhalaya ja raha hai.

tt nn shv kt

chch shch shtv shtva sht tt nn shv kt pt

hy

nch shtr hy kn ghn jj str gn

brahmavidbrahmani bhunkte pungav shnkh kankshe

sugam chhapaee ke lie lipi men sudhar

yah sarvamany hai ki hamari nagari lipi any lipiyon ki tulana men bahut vaigyanik hai. parntu isamen kuchh trutiyan bhi hain. ek to yah ki sabhi ikarant shabdon ke uchcharan men i ka uchcharan ant men hota hai, parntu matra likhi jati hai pahale, jaise buddhi. buddhi ke uchcharan men spashtataya pahale budh ka uchcharan hota hai, phir jihva dhh‌ ke sthan par jati hai aur ant i se milakar usaka uchcharan hota hai; parntu prachalit shaili men i ki matra pahale likhi jati hai. ikarant kahane se hi bodh hota hai ki i ant men hai. isi vichar se nagari lipi sudhar samiti (lakhanoo, 1954) ne prastavit kiya ki i ki matra bhi aksharon ke dahini or likhi jae. parntu nagari lipi sudhar samiti (lakhanoo, 1956) ne is prastav ko radd kar diya, kyonki yah janata ko pasnd nahin tha aur unaka kahana tha ki ghe tatha o men vishesh antar n hone se antatogatva bhasha bhrasht ho jaegi. yadyapi angreji likhane men a tatha dd ka bhed keval khadi rekha ki lnbaee par nirbhar hai, aur prastavit shaili men hrasv matra ko bahut chhoti aur dirgh matra ko bahut lnbi banana bhi snbhav tha, yatha

ki ri ti

kintu is jhagade ko phir uthana bekar hai. parntu yadi hrasv i ki matra ko dahini or laya ja sakatato bagal se laganevali nimnalikhit matraen aur matrayukt reph, anusvar adi, jo bahut durbal hote hain aur shighr hi tootate hain, dahini or jakar pusht ho jate :

rhi rhi

parntu isase kahin adhik sudhar yah hai ki , i, u , oo , ,e ,ai o, au, n ka roop thoda badal diya jae aur unako aksharon ki bagal men is prakar lagaya jae ki chool kate aksharon ki avashyakata n pade aur kahin bhi kisi matra ka koee ang kisi akshar ke kisi ang par chadha n rahe. lainotaip valon ne aisa sudhar kiya hai. unaki mashin se hindi ki knpozing 'saptahik hindustan' vale apani patrika men karate hain. ek banagi niche di jati hai :

isamen sndeh nahin ki yah paryapt supathy hai, parntu isamen unnati ki ja sakati hai, visheshakar matraon ke roop men, jisamen e tatha ki matraon ke oopari bhag sadaiv paraspar samantar rahen. phir, ek do akshar kuchh vishesh sundar banae ja sakate hain.

hath ki knpojing men lainotaip men ki paripati par bane aksharon ke prayog se bahut kuchh samay aur poonji ki bachat ho sakati hai. mudrakon, taip dizain karanevalon aur taip dhalanevalon ko idhar dhyan dena chahie. janata ko bhi sudhare taipon ko apanana chahie, kyonki isase adhik shuddh pathaniy samagri unako mila karegi, chhapaee kuchh sasti ho jaegi aur chhote aksharon ke prayog se kosh adi adhik chhote, halke aur saste dam men mil sakenge.

hindi sahity sammelan ne apane ek prastav dvara sujhav diya tha ki chhote taipon ke lie aksharon ki shirorekha vaikalpik rahe, arthath‌ yadi mudrak chahe to bina shirorekha ke aksharon ka upayog kare. aise aksharon se chhah paauint ki thos chhapaee ho sakati hai

ek kam jo pratyek mudrak bina paisa kaudi kharch kie kar sakata hai yah hai ki vah aise snyuktakshar ka taip kabhi bhi mol n le jo kisi adhe akshar se ban sakata hai. isake atirikt jahan halh‌ ka lagana anupayukt n jan pade vahan anivary roop se halh‌ se hi kam chalae. aisa un sab jagahon men kiya ja sakata hai jahan uchcharan men svabhavik rukavat a sakati hai, jaise 'shrimadbhagavadgita' chhapane men.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. dr. 'prooph snshodhan'
  2. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 351 |

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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