समाज  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

samaj manaviy ant:kriyaon ke prakram ki ek pranali hai. malaviy kriyaen chetan aur achetan donon sthitiyon men abhipray hoti hain. vyakti ka vyavahar kuchh nishchit lakshyon ki poorti ke prayas ki abhivyakti hai. usaki kuchh naisargik tatha arjit avashyakataen hoti hain - kam, kshudha, suraksha adi. inaki poorti ke abhav men vyakti men kuntha aur manasik tanav vyapt ho jata hai. vah inaki poorti svayn karane men saksham nahin hota at: in avashyakataon ki samyakh‌ sntushti ke lie apane dirgh vikasakram men manushy ne ek samashtigat vyavastha ko vikasit kiya hai. is vyavastha ko hi samaj ke nam se sambodhit karate hain. yah vyaktiyon ka aisa snkalan hai jisamen ve nishchit snbndh aur vishisht vyavahar dvara ek doosare se bndhe hote hain. vyaktiyon ki vah sngathit vyavastha vibhinn karyon ke lie vibhinn manadndon ko vikasit karati hai, jinake kuchh vyavahar anumat aur kuchh nishiddh hote hain. inhen bhi dekhen: ary samaj evn prarthana samaj

samaj ki snrachana

samaj men vibhinn kartaon ka samavesh hota hai, jinamen ant:kriya hoti hai. is ant:kriya ka bhautik aur paryavaranatmak adhar hota hai. pratyek karta adhikatam sntushti ki or unmukh hota hai. sarvabhaumik avashyakataon ki poorti samaj ke astitv ko akshunn banae rakhane ke lie anivary hai. tadatmyajanit avashyakataen snrachanatmak tatvon ke sahastitv ke kshetr ka niyaman karati hai. kriya ke unmesh ki pranali tatha sthitijany tatv, jinaki or kriya unmukh hai, samaj ki snrachana ka nirdharan karate hain. snyojak tatv ant:kriya ki prakriya ko sntulit karate hai tatha viyojak tatv samajik sntulan men vyavadhan upasthit karate hain. viyojak tatvon ke niyntran hetu snsthakaran dvara kartaon ke snbndhon tatha kriyaon ka samayojan hota hai jisase parasparik sahayog ki vriddhi hoti hai aur antarvirodhon ka shaman hota hai. samajik pranali men vyakti ko kary aur pad, dnd aur puraskar, yogyata tatha gunon se snbndhit samany niyamon aur svikrit manadndon ke adhar par pradan kie jate hain. in avadharanaon ki visngati ki sthiti men vyakti samaj ki manyataon aur vidhaon ke anusar apana vyavasthapan nahin kar pata aur usaka samajik vyavahar viphal ho jata hai, aisi sthiti utpann hone par usake lakshy ko siddhi nahin ho pati, kyonki use samaj ke any sadasyon ka sahayog nahin prapt hota. samajik dnd ke isi bhay se samanyataya vyakti samaj men prachalit many parnparaon ki upeksha nahin kar pata, vah unase samayojan ka har snbhav prayas karata hai.

samaj ka svaroop

choonki samaj vyaktiyon ke parasparik snbndhon ki ek vyavastha hai isalie isaka koee moort svaroop nahin hota; isaki avadharana anubhootimoolak hai. par isake sadasyon men ek doosare ki satta aur astitv ki pratiti hoti hai. gyan aur pratiti ke abhav men samajik snbndhon ka vikas snbhav nahin hai. parasparik sahayog evn snbndh ka adhar saman svarth hota hai. saman svarth ki siddhi saman acharan dvara snbhav hoti hai. is prakar ka samoohik acharan samaj dvara nirdharit aur nirdeshit hota hai. vartaman samajik manyataon ki saman lakshyon se sngati ke snbndh men sahamati anivary hoti hai. yah sahamati parasparik vimarsh tatha samajik pratikon ke atmikaran par adharit hoti hai. isake atirikt pratyek sadasy ko yah vishvas rahata hai ki vah jin samajik vidhaon ko uchit manata aur unaka palan karata hai, unaka palan doosare bhi karate hai. is prakar ki sahamati, vishvas evn tadanuroop acharan samajik vyavastha ko sthir rakhate hai. vyaktiyon dvara simit avashyakataon ki poorti hetu sthapit vibhinn snsthaen is prakar kary karati hai, jisase ek samavet ikaee ke roop men samaj ka sngathan aprabhavit rahata hai. asahamati ki sthiti antarvaiyaktik evn ant:snsthatmak sngharshon ko janm deti hai jo samaj ke vighatan ke karan banate hai. yah asahamati us sthiti men paida hoti hai jab vyakti samoohikata ke sath atmikaran men asaphal rahata hai. atmikaran aur niyamon ko svikar karane men viphalata kulagati adhikaron evn simit sadasyon ke prabhutv ke prati moolabhoot abhivrittiyon se snbaddh ki ja sakati hai. isake atirikt dhyey nishchit ho jane ke pashchath‌ avasar is viphalata ka karan banata hai.

samajik sngathan ka svaroop kabhi shashvat nahin bana rahata. samaj vyaktiyon ka samuchchay hai aur vibhinn lakshyon ki prapti ke lie vibhinn samoohon men vibhakt hai. at: manav man aur samooh man ki gatishilata use nirntar prabhavit karati rahati hai. parinamasvaroop samaj parivartanashil hota hai. usaki yah gatishilata hi usake vikas ka mool hai. samajik vikas parivartan ki ek chirntan prakriya hai jo sadasyon ki akankshaon aur punarnirdharit lakshyon ki prapti ki disha men unmukh rahati hai. snkraman ki nirntarata men sadasyon ka upakram, unaki sahamati aur nootanata se anukoolan ki pravritti kriyashil rahati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh


samaj (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 6 faravari, 2015.

sndarbh grnth
  • maik aibar evn pej : sosaiti
  • devis : hyooman sosaiti
  • aindarsan : sosaiti
  • es. koning
  • main aind sosayati
  • kardinar : indivijual aind di sosaiti
  • svidelam krafard : main in sosaiti
  • meril : sosaiti aind kalchar
  • shapiro : main, balvar aind sosaiti
  • phaundeshns aauv madarn soshiyalaji siriz
  • hvat iz soshiyalaji
  • vilaphredo paireto : bhaind, selph aind sosaiti
  • martan : soshal thiyari aind soshal strakchar
  • maiksavebar : thiyari aauv ekonamik aind soshal argenaizeshan.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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