ऊर्जा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

oorja (angrezi:Energy) se tatpary hai ki- "kisi vastu men kary karane ki jo kshamata hoti hai, use vastu ki 'oorja' kahate hain. oorja ek adish rashi hai aur isaka matrak 'jool' hota hai. vastu men jis karan se kary karane ki kshamata a jati hai, use hi oorja kaha jata hai. oorja samajik aur arthik vikas ke lie tatha kisi bhi desh men manav jivan ki gunavatta men sudhar lane ke lie atynt mahattvapoorn hai. kisi bhi desh ki sampannata is bat par bhi nirbhar karati hai ki us desh men oorja ke srot kya-kya hain aur unaka kitana upayog ho raha hai.

kary evn oorja

kee prakar ke upayon dvara oorja ko ek roop se doosare roop men badala ja sakata hai. in parivartanon men oorja ki matra sarvada ek hi rahati hai. usamen kami nahin hoti. ise oorja ka avinashita ka siddhant kaha jata hai. jaisa ki kaha gaya hai ki- "kary kar sakane ki kshamata ko oorja kahate hain", parntu sari oorja ko kary men parinat karana snbhav nahin hota. isalie yah kahana adhik upayukt hoga ki "oorja vah hai, jo utani hi ghatati hai, jitana ki kary kiya jata hai." is karan oorja ko napane ke ve hi ekak hote hain, jo kary ko napane ke hote hain. yadi ek kilogram bhar ko ek mitar ooncha uthaya jata hai to prithvi ke gurutvakarshan ke viruddh ek vishesh matra men kary karana padata hai. yadi isi bhar ko do mitar ooncha uthaya jaye athava do kilogram bhar ko ek mitar ooncha uthaen to donon dashaon men pahale ki apeksha duguna kary karana padata hai. isase prakat hota hai ki kary ka pariman us bal ke pariman par, jisake viruddh kary kiya jae aur us doori ke pariman par, jis doori dvara us bal ke viruddh kary kiya jae, nirbhar rahata hai aur in donon parimanon ke gunanaphal ke barabar hota hai.

prakar

oorja do prakar ki hoti hai-

  1. gatij oorja
  2. sthitij oorja

sadharanat: kary kar sakane ki kshamata ko oorja kahate hain. jab dhanush se shikar karane vala koee shikari dhanush ko jhukata hai to dhanush men oorja a jati hai, jisaka upayog ban ko shikar tak chalane men kiya jata hai. bahate pani men oorja hoti hai, jisaka upayog panachakki chalane men athava kisi doosare kam ke lie kiya ja sakata hai. isi tarah barood men bhi oorja hoti hai, jisaka upayog patthar ki shilaen todane athava top se gola dagane men ho sakata hai. bijali ki dhara men oorja hoti hai, jisase bijali ki motar chalaee ja sakati hai. soory ke prakash men bhi oorja hoti hai, jisaka upayog prakash selon dvara bijali ki dhara utpann karane men kiya ja sakata hai. aise hi anu bam men 'nabhikiy oorja' rahati hai, jisaka upayog shatru ka vidhvns karane athava any karyon men kiya jata hai. jhuke hue dhanush men jo oorja hoti hai, use 'sthitij oorja' kahate hain, bahate pani ki oorja 'gatij oorja' hai, barood ki oorja 'rasayanik oorja' hai, bijali ki dhara ki oorja 'vaidyut oorja' hai, soory ke prakash ki oorja ko 'prakash oorja' kahate hain. soory men jo oorja hai, vah usake oonche tap ke karan hai.

oorja ki saral paribhasha dena kathin hai. oorja vastu nahin hai. isako ham dekh nahin sakate, yah koee jagah nahin gherati, n isaki koee chhaya hi padati hai. snkshep men, any vastuaen ki bhanti yah dravy nahin hai, yadyapi bahudha dravy se isaka ghanishth snbndh rahata hai. phir bhi isaka astitv utana hi vastavik hai jitana kisi any vastu ka aur is karan ki kisi pind samuday men, jisake oopar kisi bahari bal ka prabhav nahin rahata, isaki matra men kami beshi nahin hoti. vigyan isaka mahatvapoorn sthan hai.

sadharanat: kary kar sakane ki kshamata ko oorja kahate hain. jab dhanush se shikar karanevala koee shikari dhanush ko jhukata hai to dhanush men oorja a jati hai jisaka upayog ban ko shikar tak chalane men kiya jata hai. bahate pani men oorja hoti hai jisaka upayog panachakki chalane men athava kisi doosare kam ke lie kiya ja sakata hai. isi tarah barood men oorja hoti hai, jisaka upayog patthar ki shilaen todane athava top se gola dagane men ho sakata hai. bijali ki dhara men oorja hoti hai jisase bijali ki motar chalaee ja sakati hai. soory ke prakash men oorja hoti hai jisaka upayog prakashaselon dvara bijali ki dhara utpann karane men kiya ja sakata hai. aise hi anubam men nabhikiy oorja rahati hai jisaka upayog shatru ka vidhvns karane athava any karyon men kiya jata hai.

is prakar ham dekhate hain ki oorja kee roopon men paee jati hai. jhuke hue dhanush men jo oorja hai use sthitij oorja kahate hain, bahate pani ki oorja gatij oorja hai, barood ki oorja rasayanik oorja hai, bijali ki dhara ki oorja vaidyut oorja hai, soory ke prakash ki oorja ko prakash oorja kahate hain. soory men jo oorja hai vah usake oonche tap ke karan hai. isako ushma oorja kahate hain. vibhinn upayon dvara oorja ko ek roop se doosare roop men parivartit kiya ja sakata hai. in parivartanon men oorja ki matra sarvada ek hi rahati hai. usamen kami beshi nahin hoti. ise oorja-avinashita-siddhant kahate hain.

oopar kaha gaya hai ki kary kar sakane ki kshamata ko oorja kahate hain. parntu sari oorja ko kary men parinat karana sarvada snbhav nahin hota. isalie yah kahana adhik upayukt hoga ki oorja vah vastu hai jo utani hi ghatati hai jitana kary hota hai. is karan oorja ko napane ke ve hi ekak hote hain. jo kary ko napane ke. yadi ham ek kilogram bhar ko ek mitar ooncha uthate hain to prithvi ke gurutvakarshan ke viruddh ek vishesh matra men kary karana padata hai. yadi ham isi bhar ko do mitar ooncha uthaen athava do kilogram bhar ko ek mitar ooncha uthaen to donon dashaon men pahale ki apeksha doona kary karana padega. isase prakat hota hai ki kary ka pariman us bal ke pariman par, jisake viruddh kary kiya jae, aur us doori ke pariman par, jis doori dvara us bal ke viruddh kary kiya jae, nirbhar rahata hai aur in donon parimanon ke gunanaphal ke barabar hota hai.

kary ki kisi bhi matra ko ham kary ka ekak man sakate hain. udaharanat: ek kilogram bhar ko prithvi ke akarshan ke viruddh ek mitar ooncha uthane men jitana kary karana padata hai use ekak mana ja sakata hai. parntu prithvi ka akarshan sab jagah ek saman nahin hota. isaka jo man madras men hai vah dilli men nahin hai. isalie yah ekak asuvidhapoorn hai. phir bhi bahut se deshon men injiniyar aise hi ekak ka upayog karate hain. jise phut-paund kahate hain. yah us kary ki matra hai jo lndan ke akshansh men samudratat par ek paund ko ek doosare hi ekak ka prayog kiya jata hai jo sentimitar-gram-senkad ke oopar nirbhar hai. isamen bal ke ekak ko 'dain' (Dyne) kahate hain. dain bal ka vah ekak hai jo ek gram ke pind men ek seknd men ek sentimitar prati seknd ka veg utpann kar sakata hai. is bal ke kriyabindu ko isake viruddh ek sen. mi. hatane men jitana kary karana padata hai use varg kahate hain. parntu vyavaharik drishti se kary ka yah ekak bahut chhota hai. atev dainik vyavahar men ek doosara ekak upayog men laya jata hai. isamen lnbaee ka ekak sentimitar ke sthan par mitar hai tatha dravyaman ka ekak gram ke sthan par kilogram hai. isamen bal ka ekak 'nyootan' hai. nyootan bal ka vah ekak hai jo ek kilogram ke pind men ek seknd men ek mitar prati seknd ka veg utpann kar sakata hai. is tarah nyootan 105 dain ke barabar hota hai. is bal ke kriyabindu ko usake viruddh ek mitar tak hatane men jitana kary karana padata hai use jool kahate hain. ek jool 107 vargo ke barabar hota hai. peris ke akshansh men nyootan lagabhag 1/181 kilogram ko ek mitar ooncha uthane men kie ge kary ke barabar.

oorja ko bhi inhin ekakon men napa jata hai. parntu kabhi kabhi vishesh sthalon par kuchh any ekakon ka upayog hota hai. inamen ek ilektran volt hai. vah oorja ka vah ekak hai jise ilektran ka volt ke vibhavantar (potenshiyal difarens) se gujarane par prapt karata hai. yah bahut chhota ekak hai aur keval 1.60´10-12 arg ke barabar hota hai. isake atirikt gharon men upayog men anevali vaidyut oorja ko napane ke lie ek doosare ekak ka upayog hota hai, jise kilovat-ghnta kahate hain aur jo 3.6´106 joolon ke barabar hota hai.

yantrik oorja - un vastuon ki apeksha, jinake astitv ka anuman ham keval tark ke adhar par kar sakate hain, hamen un vastuon ka gyan adhik sugamata se hota hai jinhen ham sthool roop se dekh sakate hain. manushy ke mastishk men oorja ke us roop ki bhavana sabase pratham uday huee jisaka snbndh bade bade pindon se hai aur jise yntron ki sahayata se karyaroop men parinat hote ham spashtat: dekh sakate hain. is yantrik oorja ke do roop hain : ek sthitij oorja evn doosara gatij oorja. isake viparit us oorja ka gyan jisaka snbndh anuon tatha paramanuon ki gati se hai, manushy ko bad men hua. is karan yah kam ashchary ki bat nahin hai ki nyootan se bhi pahale phransis bekan ki yah dharana thi ki ushma dravy ke kanon ki gati ke karan hai.

oorja-avinashita - siddhant ki or pahala pad prasiddh dach vaigyanik krishchiyan haigenz ne uthaya jo nyootan ka samakalin tha. apani ek pustak men, jo haigenz ne kaha ki jab do poornat: pratyasth (ilaistik) pindon men snghat (takkar) hota hai to unake dravyamanon aur unake vegon ke gunanaphalon ka yog snghat ke bad bhi utana hi rahata hai jitana takkar ke pahale.

kuchh logon ka anuman hai ki yantrik oorja ki avinashita ke siddhant ka pata nyootan ko tha. parntu spasht shabdon se sabase pahale lagranz ne ise sanh‌ 1788 ee. men vyakt kiya. lagranz ke anusar aise pindasamuday men jisapar kisi bahari bal ka prabhav n pad raha ho, yantrik oorja, arthath‌ sthitij oorja evn gatij oorja ka yog, sarvada ek hi rahata hai.

sthitij oorja - ek kilogram bhar ke ek pind ko prithvi ke akarshan ke viruddh ek mitar ooncha uthane men jo kary karana padata hai use ham kilogram-mitar kah sakate hain aur yah lagabhag 981 joolon ke barabar hota hai. yadi ham ek dor lekar or use ek ghirani ke oopar dalakar usake donon siron se lagabhag ek kilogram ke pind bandhe aur unhen aisi avastha men chhoden ki ve donon ek hi oonchaee par n hon aur oonche pind ko bahut dhire-se niche ane den to ham dekhenge ki ek kilogram ke pind ko ek mitar ooncha utha dega. ghirani men gharshan jitana hi kam hoga doosara pind bhar men utana hi pahale pind ke bhar ke barabar rakha ja sakega. isak arth yah hua ki yadi ham kisi pind ko prithvi se ooncha badh jati hai. ek kilogram bhar ke pind ko yadi 5 mitar ooncha uthaya jae to usamen 5 kilogram-mitar kary karane ki kshamata a jati hai, evn usaki oorja pahale ki apeksha usi pariman men badh jati hai. yah oorja prithvi tatha pind ki apekshik sthiti ke karan hoti hai aur vastut: prithvi evn pind dvara bane tntr (sistam) ki oorja hoti hai. isilie ise sthitij oorja kahate hain. jab kabhi bhi pindon ke kisi samuday ki parasparik doori athava ek hi pind ke vibhinn bhagon ki svabhavik sthiti men antar utpann hota hai to sthitij oorja men bhi antar a jata hai. kamani ko dabane se athava dhanush ko jhukane se unamen sthitij oorja a jati hai. nadiyon men bandh bandhakar pani ko adhik oonchaee par ikattha kiya jae to is pani men sthitij oorja a jati hai.

gatij oojarh - nyootan ne bal ki yah paribhasha di ki bal snveg (momentam) ke parivartan ki dar ke barabar hota hai. yadi dr (m) kilogram ka koee pind prarnbh men sthir ho aur usapar ek niyat bal s (t) senkad tak kary karake jo veg utpann kare usaka man ve (V)mitar prati seknd ho to bal ka man b = dr ve/s (F=mv/t) nyootan hoga. isi samay men pind jo doori tai kare vah yadi doo (d) mitar ho to bal dvara kiya gaya kary b doo (Fd) jool ke barabar hoga. parntu d oo= ves/2 (d=vt/2).

arthat dr (m) dravyamanavalen pind ka veg yadi ve (v) ho to usaki oorja 1/2 drave2 (mv2) hogi. yah oorja us pind men usaki gati ke karan hoti hai aur gatij oorja kahalati hai. jab ham dhanush ko jhukakar tir chhodate hain to dhanush ki sthitij oorja tir ki gatij oorja me parivartan ho jati hai. sthitij oorja evn gatij oorja ke parasparik parivartan ka sabase sundar udaharan saral lolak hai. jab ham lolak ke golak ko ek or khinchate hain to golak apani sadharan sthiti se thoda ooncha uth jata hai aur isamen sthitij oorja a jati hai. jab ham golak ko chhodate hain to golak idhar udhar jhoolane lagata hai. jab golak latakane ki sadharan sthiti men ata hai to isamen keval gatij oorja rahati hai. snveg ke karan golak doosari or chala jata hai aur gatij oorja pun: sthitij oorja men parivartit ho jati hai. sadharanat: vayu ke gharshan ke viruddh kary karane se golak ki oorja kam hoti jati hai aur isaki gati kuchh der men bnd ho jati hai. yadi gharshan ka bal n ho to lolak annt kal tak chalata rahega.

ushma oorja - gati vigyan men oorja-avinashita-siddhant ke pramanit ho jane ke bad bhi isake doosare svaroopon ka gyan n hone ke karan yah samajha jata tha ki kee sthitiyon men oorja nasht bhi ho sakati hai; jaise, jab kisi pindasamuday ke vibhinn bhagon men apekshik gati ho to gharshan ke karan sthitij aur gatij oorja kam ho jati hai. vastut: aisi sthitiyon men oorja nasht nahin hoti varanh‌ ushma oorja men parivartan ho jati hai. parntu 18vin shatabdi tak ushma ko oorja ka hi ek svatntr svaroop nahin samajha jata tha. us samay tak yah dharana thi ki ushma ek dravy hai. 19vin shatabdi men prayogon dvara yah nirvivad roop se siddh kar diya gaya ki ushma bhi oorja ka hi ek doosara roop hai.

yon to pragaitihasik kal men bhi manushy lakadiyon ko ragadakar agni utpann karata tha, parntu oorja evn ushma ke ghanishth snbndh ki or sabase pahale benjamin tamasan (kaunt rumaphard) ka dhyan gaya. yah snyukt rajy (amarika) ke maisachoosets pradesh ka rahanevala tha. parntu us samay yah baveriya ke raja ka yuddhamntri tha. dhali huee pital ki top ki naliyon ko chhedate samay isane dekha ki nali bahut garm ho jati hai tatha usase nikale burade aur bhi garam ho jate hain. ek prayog men top ki nal ke charon or kath ki nand men pani bharakar usane dekha ki kharadane se jo ushma utpann hoti hai usase dhaee ghnte men sara pani ubalane ke tap tak pahunch gaya. is prayog men usaka vastavik dhyey yah siddh karana tha ki ushma koee drav nahin hai jo pindon men hoti hai aur dab ke karan vaise hi bahar nikal ati hai jaise nichodane se kapade men se pani; kyonki yadi aisa hota to kisi pind men yah drav ek simit matra men hi hota, parntu chhedanevale prayog se gyat hota hai ki jitana hi adhik kary kiya jae utani hi adhik ushma utpann hogi. rumaphard ne yah prayog sanh‌ 1798 ee. men kiya. isake 20 varsh pahale hi lavvajie tatha lagranz ne yah dekha tha ki janavaron men bhojan se utani hi ushma utpann hoti hai jitani rasayanik kriya dvara us bhojan se prapt ho sakati hai.

sanh‌ 1819 men phransisi vaigyanik dayoolon ne dekha ki kisi gais ke snpidan se usamen ushma usi anupat men utpann hoti hai jitana snpidan men kary kiya jata hai. sanh‌ 1842 ee. men isi bhavana ka upayog jooliyas rabart mayar ne, jo us samay keval 28 varsh ka tha aur jarmani ke hailabraaun nagar men daauktar tha, is bat ki ganana ke lie kiya ki ek kalari ushma utpann karane ke lie kitana kary avashyak hai. ham janate hain ki pratyek gais ki do vishisht ushmaen hoti hai : ek niyat ayatan par tatha doosari niyat dab par. pahali avastha men gais koee kary nahin karati. doosari avastha men gais ko bahy dabav ke viruddh kary karana padata hai aur donon vishisht ushmaon men jo antar hota hai vah isi kary ke samatuly hota hai. is tarah mayar ko ushma ke yantrik tulyank ka jo man prapt hua vah lagabhag utana hi tha jitana kaunt rumaford ko prapt hua tha.

isi samay inglaind men jems presakat jool bhi ushma ka yantrik tulyank nikalane men laga hua tha. isake prayog sanh‌ 1842 ee. se sanh‌ 1852 ee. tak chalate rahe. apane prayog men isane ek tanbe ke ushmamapi men pani liya aur use ek mathani se matha. mathani ko do ghiraniyon par se latake hue do bharon par chalaya jata tha. jis dor se ye bhar latake hue the vah is mathani ke sire men lapeti huee thi aur jab ye bhar niche ki or girate the to mathani ghoomati thi. jab ye bhar niche girate the to inaki sthitij oorja kam ho jati thi. is kami ka kuchh bhag bharon ki gatij oorja men parinat hota tha aur kuchh bhag mathani ko ghumane men vyay hota tha. is tarah yah gyat kiya ja sakata tha ki mathani ko ghumane men kitana kary kiya ja raha tha. ushmamapi ke pani ke tap men jitani vriddhi huee usase yah gyat ho sakata tha ki kitani ushma utpann huee; aur tab ushma ka yantrik tulyank gyat kiya ja sakata tha. jool ne ye prayog pani tatha para donon ke sath kie.

sanh‌ 1847 ee. men haraman phan helmaholts ne ek pustak likhi jisamen ushma, chunbak, bijali, bhautik rasayan adi vibhinn kshetron ke udaharanon dvara ushma-avinashita-siddhant ka pratipadan kiya gaya tha. jool ne prayog dvara vaidyut oorja tatha ushma-oorja ki samanata siddh ki.

jool ka yntr.

be mathani ka belan; ki mathani ko dhuri se jodanevali kil;

i dhuri; bha bhar; pe peti jisamen ushmamapi rakha hai.

vaidyut ghaton (selon) dvara rasayanik oorja vaidyut oorja men parinat hoti hai. is bijali se ham prakash paida kar sakate hain. soory ke prakash se prakash-snshleshan kriya dvara prakash-oorja pedon ki rasayanik oorja men parinat hoti hai. aisi kriyaon dvara yah spasht hai ki vibhinn parivartanon men oorja ka keval roop badalata hai. oorja ke man men koee antar nahin ata.

dravyaman tatha oorja ki samatulyata-sanh‌ 1905 ee. men ainstain ne apana apekshik siddhant pratipadit kiya jisake anusar kanon ka dravyaman unaki gatij oorja par nirbhar rahata hai. sthir avastha men jis kan ka dravyaman dr. 0 (m0) hai, gatishil avastha men usaka dravyaman dr0 /(1-ven2 /pr2)1/2 [m0 /(I-v2 / c2) ] 1/2 ho jata hai, jisamen ve (v) us kan ki gati hai tatha pr (c) prakash ki gati hai. is siddhant ke anusar us kan ki gatij oorja

,

oo = (dr - dr0) pr2, [T = (m - m0) c2]

aur dr = dr + oo/pr2, [m = m0 + T/c2]

jisamen dr = dr0 (1 - ve2/pr2)1/2, [m = m0 /(1-V2 /c2)1/2]=

us kan ka badha hua dravyaman.

isaka yah arth hai ki oorja ka man dravyaman vriddhi ko prakash ke veg ke varg se guna karane par prapt hota hai. is siddhant ki pushti nabhikiy vigyan ke bahut se prayogon dvara hoti hai. soory men bhi oorja isi tarah banati hai. soory men ek shrrinkhal kriya hoti hai jisaka phal yah hota hai ki haidrojan ke char nabhikon ke snyog se hiliyam ka nabhik ban jata hai. haidrojan ke charon nabhikon ke dravyaman ka yogaphal hiliyam ke nabhik se kuchh adhik hota hai. yah antar oorja men parivartit ho jata hai. paramanu bam evn haidrojan bam men bhi isi dravyaman-oorja-samatulyata ka upayog hota hai.

oorja ka kvantamikaran-varnakram ke vibhinn varnon ke anusar krishn pind ke vikiran ke vitaran ka thik sootr kya hai, isaka adhyayan karate hue plank is nishkarsh par pahuncha ki vikiran ka adan pradan aniyamit matra men nahin hota pratyut oorja ke chhote kanon dvara hota hai. in kanon ko rahata hai. avrittisnkhya ko jis niyatank se guna karane par oorjakvantam ka man prapt hota hai use plank niyatank kahate hain.[1]

nils bor ne sanh‌ 1913 ee. men yah dikhalaya ki yah kvantam siddhant atynt vyapak hai aur paramanuon men ilektran jin kakshaon men ghoomate hain. ve kakshaen bhi kvantam siddhant ke anusar hi nishchit hoti hain. jab ilektran adhik oorjavali kaksha se kam oorjavali kaksha men jata hai to in do oorjaon ka antar prakash ke roop men bahar ata hai. haizenabarg, shrodingar tatha dirak ne is kvantam siddhant ko aur bhi vistrit kiya hai.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 189 |
  2. sn.grn.-lenard : gret men aauv sanis; vaitamain : d groth aauv sayntifik aidiyaz; tindal : hot aiz e mod aauv moshan; makh : histri aind d root aauv d prinsipul aauv d knzarveshan aauv enarji.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah