अहिंसा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ahinsa ka samany arth hai 'hinsa n karana'. isaka vyapak arth hai - kisi bhi prani ko tan, man, karm, vachan aur vani se koee nukasan n pahunchana. man men kisi ka ahit n sochana, kisi ko katuvani adi ke dvar bhi nukasan n dena tatha karm se bhi kisi bhi avastha men, kisi bhi prani ki hinsa n karana, yah ahinsa hai. hindoo shastron ki drishti se 'ahinsa' ka arth hai sarvada tatha sarvatha (manasa, vacha aur karmana) sab praniyon ke sath droh ka abhav.[1] ahinsa ke bhitar is prakar sarvakal men keval karm ya vachan se hi sab jivon ke sath droh n karane ki bat samavisht nahin hoti, pratyut man ke dvara bhi droh ke abhav ka snbndh rahata hai. yogashastr men nirdisht yam tatha niyam ahinsa moolak hi mane jate hain. yadi unake dvara kisi prakar ki hinsavritti ka uday hota hai to ve sadhana ki siddhi men upadey tatha upakar nahin mane jate. 'saty' ki mahima tatha shreshthata sarvatr pratipadit ki gee hai, parntu yadi kahin ahinsa ke sath saty ka sngharsh ghatit hota hai to vahan saty vastut: saty n hokar satyabhas hi mana jata hai. koee vastu jaisi dekhi gee ho tatha jaisi anumit ho usaka usi roop men vachan ke dvara prakat karana tatha man ke dvara snkalp karana 'saty' kahalata hai, parntu yah vani bhi sab bhooton ke upakar ke lie pravritt hoti hai, bhooton ke upaghat ke lie nahin. is prakar saty ki bhi kasauti ahinsa hi hai. is prasng men vachaspati mishr ne 'satyatapa' namak tapasvi ke satyavachan ko bhi satyabhas hi mana hai, kyonki usane choron ke dvara poochhe jane par us marg se janevale sarth (vyapariyon ka samooh) ka sachcha parichay diya tha. hindoo shastron men ahinsa, saty, astey (n churana), brahmachary tatha aparigrah, in panchon yamon ko jati, desh, kal tatha samay se anavachchhinn hone ke karan samabhaven sarvabhaum tatha mahvraat kaha gaya hai[2] aur inamen bhi, sabaka adhara hone se, 'ahinsa' hi sabase adhik mahvraat kahalane ki yogyata rakhati hai.[3]

jain dharm men paribhasha

jain drishti se sab jivon ke prati snyam poorn vyavahar ahinsa hai. ahinsa ka shabdanusari arth hai, hinsa n karana. isake paribhashik arth vidhyatmak aur nishedhatmak donon hain. ragadveshatmak pravritti n karana, pranavadh n karana ya pravritti matr ka virodh karana nishedhatmak ahinsa hai; satpravritti, svadhyay, adhyatmasev, upadesh, gyanacharcha adi atmahitakari vyavahar vidhyatmak ahinsa hai. snyami ke dvara bhi ashaky koti ka pranavadh ho jata hai, vah bhi nishedhatmak ahinsa hinsa nahin hai. nishedhatmak ahinsa men keval hinsa ka varjan hota hai, vidhyatmak ahinsa men satkriyatmak sakriyata hoti hai. yah sthool drishti ka nirnay hai. gaharaee men pahunchane par tathy kuchh aur milata hai. nishedh men pravritti aur pravritti men nishedh hota hi hai. nishedhatmak ahinsa men satpravritti aur satpravrityatmak ahinsa men hinsa ka nishedh hota hai. hinsa n karane vala yadi antarik pravrittiyon ko shuddh n kare to vah ahinsa n hogi. isalie nishedhatmak ahinsa men satpravritti ki apeksha rahati hai, vah bahy ho chahe antarik, sthool ho chahe sookshm. satpravrityatmak ahinsa men hinsa ka nishedh hona avashyak hai. isake bina koee pravritti sath‌ ya ahinsa nahin ho sakati, yah nishchay drishti ki bat hai. vyavahar men nishedhatmak ahinsa ko nishkriy ahinsa aur vidhyatmak ahinsa ko sakriy ahinsa kaha jata hai.

jain grnth acharangasootr men, jisaka samay snbhavat: tisari chauthi shatabdi ee. poo. hai, ahinsa ka upadesh is prakar diya gaya hai: bhoot, bhavi aur vartaman ke arhath‌ yahi kahate hain-kisi bhi jivit prani ko, kisi bhi jntu ko, kisi bhi vastu ko jisamen atma hai, n maro, n (usase) anuchit vyavahar karo, n apamanit karo, n kasht do aur n satao.

prithvi, jal, agni, vayu aur vanaspati, ye sab alag jiv hain. prithvi adi har ek men bhinn-bhinn vyaktitv ke dharak alag-alag jiv hain. uparyukt sthavar jivon ke uparant unnas (jngam) prani hain, jinamen chalane phirane ka samarthy hota hai. ye hi jivon ke chhah varg hain. inake sivay duniya men aur jiv nahin hain. jagath men koee jiv unnas (jngam) hai aur koee jiv sthavar. ek paryay men hona ya doosari men hona karmon ki vichitrata hai. apani-apani kamaee hai, jisase jiv ann ya sthavar hote hain. ek hi jiv jo ek janm men ann hota hai, doosare janm men sthavar ho sakata hai. unnas ho ya sthavar, sab jivon ko du:kh apriy hota hai. yah samajhakar mumukshu sab jivon ke prati ahinsa bhav rakhe.

sab jiv jina chahate hain, marana koee nahin chahata. isalie nirgrnth prani vadh ka varjan karate hain. sabhi praniyon ko apani ayu priy hai, sukh anukool hai, du:kh pratikool hai. jo vyakti hari vanaspati ka chhedan karata hai vah apani atma ko dnd dene vala hai. vah doosare praniyon ka hanan karake paramarthat: apani atma ka hi hanan karata hai.

atma ki ashuddh parinati matr hinsa hai; isaka samarthan karate hue achary amritachndr ne likha hai: asaty adi sabhi vikar atmaparinati ko bigadane vale hain, isalie ve sab bhi hinsa hain. asaty adi jo dosh batalae ge hain ve keval 'shishyabodhay' hain. snkshep men ragadvesh ka apradurbhav ahinsa aur unaka pradurbhav hinsa hai. ragadvesharahit pravritti se ashaky koti ka pranavadh ho jae to bhi naishchayik hinsa nahin hoti, ragadvesharahit pravritti se, pranavadh n hone par bhi, vah hoti hai. jo ragadvesh ki pravritti karata hai vah apani atma ka hi ghat karata hai, phir chahe doosare jivon ka ghat kare ya n kare. hinsa se virat n hona bhi hinsa hai aur hinsa men parinat hona bhi hinsa hai. isalie jahan ragadvesh ki pravritti hai vahan nirntar pranavadh hota hai.

ahinsa ki bhoomikaen

hinsa matr se pap karm ka bndhan hata hai. is drishti se hinsa ka koee prakar nahin hota. kintu hinsa ke karan anek hote hain, isalie karan ki drishti se usake prakar bhi anek ho jate hain. koee janaboojhakar hinsa karata hai, to koee anajan men bhi hinsa kar dalata hai. koee prayogajanavash karata hai, to kaee bina prayojan bhi.

sootrakritang men hinsa ke panch samadhan batalae ge hain:

  1. arthadnd
  2. anarthadnd
  3. hinsadnd
  4. akasmaddnd
  5. drishtiviparyasadnd.

ahinsa atma ki poorn vishuddh dasha hai. vah ek or akhnd hai, kintu moh ke dvara vah dhaki rahati hai. moh ka jitana hi nash hota hai utana hi usaka vikas.

is mohavilay ke taratamy par usake do roop nishchit kie ge hain
  1. ahinsa mahvraat,
  2. ahinsa anvruat. inamen svaroopabhed nahin, matra (pariman) ka bhed hai.

muni ki ahinsa poorn hai, is dasha men shravak ki ahinsa apoorn. muni ki tarah shravak sab prakar ki hinsa se mukt nahin rah sakata. muni ki apeksha shravak ki ahinsa ka pariman bahut kam hai. udaharanat: muni ki ahinsa 20 bisva hai to shravak ki ahinsa sava bisva hai. (poorn ahinsa ke andh bis hain, unamen se shravak ki ahinsa ka sava ansh hai.) isaka karan yah hai ki shravak 19 jivon ki hinsa ko chhod sakata hai, vadar sthavar jivon ki hinsa ko nahin. isase usaki ahinsa ka pariman adha rah jata hai-das bisva rah jata hai. isamen bhi shravak unnis jivon ki hinsa ka snkalpapoorvak tyag karata hai, arnbhaja hinsa ka nahin. at: usaka pariman usamen bhi adha arthath‌ panch bisva rah jata hai. snkalpapoorvak hinsa bhi unhin unnis jivon ki tyagi jati hai jo niraparadh hain. saparadh unnas jivon ki hinsa se shravak mukt nahin ho sakata. isase vah ahinsa dhaee bisva rah jati hai. niraparadh unnis jivon ki bhi nirapeksh hinsa ko shravak tyagata hai. sapeksh hinsa to usase ho jati hai. is prakar shravak (dharmopasak ya vrati grihasth) ki anhisa ka pariman sava bisva rah jata hai. is prachin gatha men ise snkshep men is prakar kaha hai:

jiva suhumathoola, snkappa, arambhabhave duviha.
savarah niravaraha, savikkha chaiv niravikkha..
  1. sookshm jivahinsa
  2. sthool jivahinsa
  3. snkalp hinsa
  4. arnbh hinsa
  5. saparadh hinsa
  6. niraparadh hinsa
  7. sapeksh hinsa
  8. nirapeksh hinsa. hinsa ke ye ath prakar hain. shravak inamen se char prakar ki,[4] hinsa ka tyag karata hai. at: shravak ki ahinsa apoorn hai.[5]

bauddh aur eesaee dharm

isi prakar bauddh aur eesaee dharmon men bhi ahinsa ki badi mahima hai. vaidik hinsatmak ygyon ka upanishatkalin manishiyon ne virodh kar jis parnpara ka arnbh kiya tha usi parnpara ki parakashtha jaine aur bauddh dharmon ne ki. jain ahinsa saiddhantik drishti se sare dharmon ki apeksha asadharan thi. bauddh ahinsa ni:sndeh astha men jain dharm ke saman mahatv ki n thi, par usaka prabhav bhi snsar par prabhoot pada. usi ka yah parinam tha ki rakt aur loot ke nam par daud padane vali madhy eshiya ki vikaral jatiyan prem aur daya ki moorti ban geen. bauddh dharm ke prabhav se hi eesaee bhi ahinsa ke prati vishesh akrisht hue; eesa ne jo atmotsarg kiya vah prem aur ahinsa ka hi udaharan tha. unhonne apane hatyaron tak ki sadgati ke lie bhagavan se prarthana ki aur apane anuyayiyon se spasht kaha hai ki yadi koee gal par prahar kare to doosare ko bhi prahar svikar karane ke lie age kar do. yah hinsa ka pratishodh ki bhavana nasht karane ke lie hi tha. tolstoi (taaulstaauy) aur gandhi eesa ke is ahinsatmak acharan se bahut prabhavit hue. gandhi ne to jis ahinsa ka prachar kiya vah atynt mahatvapoorn thi. unhonne kaha ki unaka virodh asath‌ se hai, buraee se nahin. unase avrit vyakti sada prem ka adhikari hai, hinsa ka kabhi nahin. apane andolan ke pray: choti par hote bhi chaurachauri ke hatyakand se virakt hokar unhonne andolan bnd kar diya tha.[6]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. anhisa sarvatha sarvada sarvabhootanamanabhidroh:-vyasabhashy, yogasootr 2|30
  2. yogavootr 2|31
  3. shri baladev upadhyay
  4. 2, 3, 6, 8
  5. munishri nathamal ji
  6. anhisa (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 09 navnbar, 2016.

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