जल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bahata hua jal

jal prithvi par paya jane vala prakriti dvara pradatt ek taral padarth hai, jo sabhi praniyon ke jivan ka bhautik adhar hai. isake bina prithvi par jivan ki kalpana nahin ki ja sakati. yah ek am rasayanik padarth hai, jisaka anu do haidrojan paramanu aur ek aauksijan paramanu se bana hota hai. vigyan men jal ka rasayanik sootr 'H2O' hota hai.

darshanik vyakhya

sootrakar kanad ke anusar roop, ras, sparsh namak gunon ka ashray tatha snigdh dravy hi jal hai.[1] prashastapad ne prithvi ke saman jal men bhi samavay sambandh se chaudah gunon ke paye jane ka ullekh kiya hai. jal ka rng apakaj aur abhasvar shukl hota hai. yamuna ke jal men jo nilapan hai, vah yamuna ke srot men paye jane vale parthiv kanon ke snyog ke karan aupadhik hai. jal men sneh ke sath-sath sansiddhik dravatv hain.[2] jal ka shaity hi vastavik hai. usamen keval madhur ras hi paya jata hai.[3] usake avantar svad kharapan, khattapan adi parthiv paramanuon ke karan hote hain. adhunik vigyan ke anusar jal sarvatha svadarahit hota hai, at: jal ke madhury ke sambandh men vaisheshikon ka mat chinty hai.[4] prithvi ki tarah jal bhi paramanu roop men nity aur karyaroop men anity hota hai. karyaroop jal men sharir, indriy (rasana) aur vishay-bhed se tin prakar ka dravyarambhakatv samavayikaranatv mana jata hai. arthath jal sharirarambhak, indriyarambhak aur vishayarambhak hota hai. sarita, him, karaka adi vishay roop jal hai. jal ka gyan pratyaksh praman se hota hai.

avasthaen

jal tin avasthaon men paya jata hai. yah un kuchh padarthon men se hai, jo prithvi par prakritik roop se sabhi tin avasthaon men milate hain. jal prithvi par kee alag alag roopon men milata hai- asaman men jal vashp aur badal; samudr men samudri jal aur kabhi-kabhi himashail; pahadon men himanad aur nadiyan; aur taral roop me bhoomi par ekviphar ke roop men. jal men kee prakar ke padarthon ko ghola ja sakata hai, jo ise ek alag svad aur gndh pradan karate hain. vastav men manav aur any janavaron men samay ke sath ek drishti vikasit ho gayi hai, jisake madhyam se ve jal ke pine aur yogyata ka moolyankan karane men saksham hote hain aur vah bahut namakin ya sada hua jal nahin pite. manushy thnde se gunaguna jal pina pasnd karate hain; thnde jal me roganuon ki snkhya kafi kam hone ki snbhavana hoti hai. shuddh pani H2O svad me phika hota hai, jabaki jharane ke pani ya lavanit jal[5] ka svad iname mile khanij lavanon ke karan hota hai. jharane ke pani ya lavanit jal ki gunavatta se abhipray inamen vishaile tatvon, pradooshakon aur roganuon ki anupasthiti se hota hai.

sagar ka jal

nal se ata jal

soory ke prakash men sat rng hote hain. koee vastu kis rng ki dikhaee degi, yah is bat par nirbhar karata hai ki vah soory ke prakash men mile sat rngon men se kis rng ko paravartit karati hai. yah us vastu ya padarth ki snrachana par nirbhar karata hai ki vah kis rng ko paravartit karegi. samanyat: samudr ke pani ki visheshata hoti hai ki vah sirf nile rng ko hi paravartit karata hai, isalie sabhi samudron ka jal nila dikhaee deta hai. andh mahasagar ke tal par hare paudhe bahutayat men hain. in paudhon ke nasht hone ke karan pila rng mahasagar ke pani men ghulata rahata hai. is karan mahasagar ka pani hara dikhaee deta hai, jo nile aur pile rng se milakar bana hai. choonki bhoomadhy sagar ke jal men pila rng nahin ghulata, isalie vah any sagaron ki tarah sirf nile rng ko hi paravartit karata hai aur pani nila dikhaee deta hai. bhoomadhy sagar aur andh mahasagar ki visheshata hai ki inhen inake rng ke adhar par pahachana ja sakata hai.

bhautik tatha rasayanik gun

jal ke kuchh mahattvapoorn bhautik tatha rasayanik gun nimnalikhit hain-

  1. jal paradarshi hota hai, isalie jaliy paudhe isamen jivit rah sakate hain, kyonki unhen soory ki roshani milati rahati hai. keval shaktishali parabaingani kiranon ka hi kuchh had tak yah avashoshan kar pata hai.
  2. aauksijan ki vaidyut rinatmakata haidrojan ki tulana men uchch hoti hai, jo jal ko ek dhruviy anu banati hai. aauksijan kuchh rinaveshit hoti hai, jabaki haidrojan kuchh dhanaveshit hoti hai, jo anu ko dvi-dhruviy banati hai. pratyek anu ke vibhinn dvi-dhruvon ke bich parasparik snpark ek shuddh akarshan bal ko janm deta hai, jo jal ko uchch prisht tanav pradan karata hai.
  3. jal ka kvathanank sidhe bairomitar ke dabav se snbndhit hota hai. udaharan ke lie, evarest ke shirsh par, jal 68°C par ubal jata hai, jabaki samudr tal par yah 100°C ubalata hai. isake viparit gahare samudr me bhoo-ushmiy chhidron ke nikat jal ka tapaman saikadon digri tak pahunch sakata hai aur isake bavajood yah dravavastha me rahata hai.
  4. apani dhruviy prakriti ke karan jal me uchch asnjak gun bhi hote hain.
  5. jal ek bahut prabal vilayak hai, jise sarv-vilayak bhi kaha jata hai. ve padarth jo jal me bhali bhanti ghul jate hai, jaise- lavan, sharkara, aml, kshar, aur kuchh gaisen vishesh roop se aauksijan, karban daiaauksaid unhen haidrophilik kaha jata hai, jabaki doosari or jo padarth achchhi tarah se jal ke sath mishran nahin bana pate hain, jaise- vasa aur tel, haidrophobik kahalate hain.
  6. shuddh jal ki vidyut chalakata kam hoti hai, lekin jab isamen ayanik padarth sodiyam kloraid mila dete hain, tab yah ashcharyajanak roop se badh jati hai.
  7. jal ko haidrojan aur aauksijan men vidyut apaghatan dvara vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai.
  8. jal ek eendhan nahin hai. yah haidrojan ke dahan ka antim utpad hai.
  9. jal ko vidyut apaghatan dvara vapas haidrojan aur aauksijan men vibhajan karane ke lie avashyak oorja, haidrojan aur aauksijan ko punarsnyojan se utsarjit oorja se adhik hoti hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. rooparasasparshavaty apo drava: hinagdha:, vai.soo. 2.1.2
  2. dravatvn sansiddhakiroopen jalasyadharanamh, setu pri. 241
  3. kiranavali, pri. 67-68
  4. dharmendranath shastri, nya.si.mu. vyakhya, pri. 200
  5. minaral vatar

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