पदार्थ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

duniya ki koee bhi vastu jo sthan gherati ho, jisaka dravyaman hota ho aur jo apani snrachana men parivartan ka virodh karati ho, padarth kahalate hain. udaharan- jal, hava, baloo adi.
bharat ke mahanh rishi kanad ke anusar sabhi padarth atyant sookshmakanon se bane hain, jise paramanu kaha gaya hai. prarnbh men bharatiyon aur yoonaniyon ka anuman tha ki prakriti ki sari vastuen panch tatvon ke snyog se bani hain, ye panch tattv hain-

padarthon ka vargikaran

thos

padarth ki vah bhautik avastha jisaka akar evn ayatan donon nishchit ho, thos kahalata hai.

drav

padarth ki vah bhautik avastha jisaka akar anishchit evn ayatan nishchit ho 'drav' kahalata hai.

gais

padarth ki vah bhautik avastha jisaka akar evn ayatan donon anishchit ho 'gais' kahalata hai.

vishesh tippani
  • gaison ka koee prishth nahin hota hai, isaka visaran bahut adhik hota hai tatha ise asani se snpidit (Compress) kiya ja sakata hai.
  • tap evn dab men parivartan karake kisi bhi padarth ko badala ja sakata hai. parantu isake apavad bhi hain, jaise- lakadi, patthar. ye keval thos avastha men hi rahate hain.
  • jal tinon bhautik avastha men rah sakata hai.
  • padarth ki tinon bhautik avasthaon men nimn roop se samy hota hai:- thos→drav→gais. udaharan- jal.
  • padarth ki chauthi avastha plazma evn panchavi avastha bos-ainstain kndanaset hai.

tatv

tattv vah shuddh padarth hai, jise kisi bhi gyat bhautik evn rasayanik vidhiyon se n to do ya do se adhik padartho men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai, aur n hi any saral padarthon ke yog se banaya ja sakata hai.

yaugik

vah shuddh padarth jo rasayanik roop se do ya do se adhik tatvon ke ek nishchit anupat men rasayanik snyog se bane hain, yaugik kahalate hain.

mishran

vah padarth jo do ya do se adhik tatvon ya yaugikon ke kisi bhi anupat men milane se prapt hota hai, mishran kahalata hai. ise tin bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai. mishran ke do prakar hote hai:-

mishranon ka prithakkaran

mishran men upasthit ghatakon ko vibhinn vidhiyon dvara alag-alag kiya jata hai. mishranon ke prithakkaran ki kuchh samany vidhiyon nimnalikhit hain-

  1. ravakaran: is vidhi ke dvara akarbanik thos mishran ko alag kiya jata hai.
  2. asavan vidhi: jab do dravon ke qvathanankon men antar adhik hota hai, to usake mishran ko asavan vidhi se prithakh karate hain.
  3. oordhvapatan: is vidhi dvara do aise thoson ke mishran ko alag karate hain, jisamen ek thos oordhvapatit ho, doosara nahin.
  4. anshik asavan: is vidhi se vaise mishrit dravon ko alag karate hain, jisamen qvathanankon men antar bahut kam hota hai.
  5. prabhaji asavan: vibhinn kvathanank vale mishrit dravon ko bhinn-bhinn tapon par asut karake unhen prithakh karane ki prakiya ko prabhaji asavan kahate hai.
  6. varnalekhan: yah vidhi is tathy par adharit hai ki kisi mishran ke vibhinn ghatakon ki avashoshan (absorption) kshamata bhinn-bhinn hoti hai.
  7. bhap asavan: is vidhi se karbanik mishran ko shuddh kiya jata hai.

padarth ki avastha parivartan

dravanank

garm karane par thos padarth drav avastha men parivartit hote hain, to unamen se adhikansh men yah parivartan ek vishesh dab par tatha ek niyat tap par hota hai. yah niyat tap vastu ka dravanank kahalata hai.

himank

kisi vishesh dab par vah niyat tap jis par koee drav jamata hai, himank kahalata hai.

ayatan parivartan
  • kristaliy padarthon men se adhikansh padarth galane par ayatan men badh jate hain, aisi dasha men thos apane hi gale hue drav men doob jata hai.
  • dhala hua loha, barph, entimoni, bismath, pital adi galane par ayatan men sikudate hain. atah is prakar ke thos apane hi gale drav men plavan karate rahate hain. isi vishesh gun ke karan barf ka tukada gale hue pani men plavan karata hai.
  • sanche men keval ve padarth dhale ja sakate hain, jo thos banane par ayatan men badhate hain, kyonki tabhi ve sanche ke akar ko poornataya prapt kar sakate hain.
  • mudran dhatu aise padarth ke bane hote hain, jo jamane par ayatan men badhate hain.
  • chandi ya sone ki mudraen dhali nahin jatin, keval muhar lagakar banayi jati hain.
  • mishradhatuon ka dravanank unhen banane vale padarthon ke galanank se kam hota hai kyonki ashuddhiyan dal dene par padarth ka galanank ghat jata hai.

himakari mishran

kisi thos ko usake dravanank par galane ke lie ooshma ki avashyakata hogi jo usaki gupt ooshma hogi. himakari mishran ka banana isi siddhant par adharit hai.

vashpikaran

drav se vashp men parinat hone ki kriya 'vashpikaran' kahalati hai. yah do prakar ki hoti hai-


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

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