नमक  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif is lekh ka punarikshan evn sampadan hona avashyak hai. ap isamen sahayata kar sakate hain. "sujhav"
namak
Salt

namak ek prasiddh kshar padarth jo mukhyatah khare jal se taiyar kiya jata hai aur kahin-kahin chattanon ke roop men bhi milata hai. rasayanik drishti se yah sodiyam kloraid (NaCl) hai jisaka kristal paradarshak evn ghanakar hota hai. shunddh namak rngahin hota hai, kintu lohamay apadravyon ke karan isaka rng pila ya lal ho jata hai. isaka dravanank 804° sen., apekshik ghanatv 2.16, vartanank 10.542 tatha kathorata 2.5 hai. yah thnde jal men sugamata se ghul jata hai aur garam jal men isaki vileyata kuchh badh jati hai. him ke sath namak ko mila dene se mishran ka tap- 21° sen. tak gir sakata hai. bhaumiki men lavan ko hailait kahate hain.

prapti

namak samudr, prakritik namakin jalasroton evn shailiy lavananikshepon ke roop men prapt hota hai. vishv ke vibhinn bhagon men in nikshepon ke vishal bhndar hain. sabhi yugon ke staron men ye pray: upalabdh hain, kintu adhikatar kainvrayan yug se mesozoik yug ke staron men upalabdh hote hain. pnjab, pakistan, eeran, snyukt rajy amarika, anateriau kainada, nauva skaausha, kolorado, utah, jarmani, vaaulga kshetr tatha donet besin (soviyat sngh) men namak ke pramukh nikshep pae jate hain. namak ki kee sau phut tatha kahin-kahin kee hazar phut tak moti tahen parvaton ke roop men evn dharatal ke niche paee jati hain. prakritik namakin srot ke antargat namakin jal ki jhilen, kuan tatha srot ate hain. namakin jal ki ye jhilen kisi samay mahasagaron ke hi bhag hota gaya hai jisase jal men namak ka ansh paryapt badh gaya hai. is jal ko vashpit kar sugamata se namak prapt kiya jata hai. samudr ke jal men namak prachur matra men vidyaman hai.

khananakary

san 1947 ke poorv bharat men namak ka pradhan srot lavanashreni thi. khaibar pakistan men namak ki vishal khanen hain. yahan namak ki tah ki motaee 100 phut se bhi adhik hai. yah namak itana adhik varnahin evn paradarshak hai ki yadi namak ki 10 phut moti dival ke ek or prakashapunj rakha jae to doosari or koee bhi vyakti saralata se padh sakata hai. is namak nikshep par paryapt lnbe samay se khananakary hota chala a raha hai. yahan namak ke khananakary ke samay ek prakar ki dhool vipul matra men banati hai.

yah lavaniy dhool inpiriyal kemikal indastrij dvara snchit ki jati hai jo isaka upayog kshariy snyatr men karate hain. is kshetr se namak ke utpadan ki matra bharat vibhajan ke poorv 1,87,490 tan tha. khaibar namak ki shuddhata 90 pratishat se bhi adhik hai. isake atirikt anek sthan aur bhi hain jahan namak ke samriddh star prapt hue hain. aisa hi ek sthan vachhi tatha doosara kohar hai. yahan par namak ke atirikt potasiyam kloraid bhi kuchh anshon men vidyaman hai. vibhajan ke pashchath yah bhag pakistan men chala gaya hai. is samay bharat ka shaily namak srat keval himachal pradesh ke mndi zile men sthit namak ki khanen hain. yahan par do sthanon gunma tatha dhrng men namak ki khudaee ka kary bahut samay se hota raha hai. sadak ke kinare-kinare jogindar nagar se mndi tak anek sthanon par lavan jal ke jharane hain. gunma men namak ka ek nikshep 150 phut se adhik mota hai, kintu is namak men 10-15 pratishat tak baloo ke roop men silika mila hua hai. at: yah namak poorn roop se manushy ke khane ke yogy nahin hai. lnbe samay se yah namak pashuon ko khilane ke upayog men laya jata raha hai. gunma men lavan nikshepon se ek poornat; shuddh evn shvet prakar ka namak utpann karane ki yojana bharat sarakar bana rahi hai. dhrng men bhi lavan jal ke anek vishal jharane hain, jahan namak ke vilayan ko vashpit kar uchch prakar ka namak prapt kiya ja sakata hai.

dvitiy srot

bharat men namak ka dvitiy srot rajasthan hai. sanbhar ke samip lagabhag 90 varg mil ka ek brihat kshetr hai jo ek gart hai. is gart ke nikatavarti kshetron ka jal ekatr ho jata hai aur is prakar namakin jal ki ek jhil ban jati hai. snbhavat: isaka karan nikatavarti kshetron ki mitti men namak ka vidyaman hona hi hai. yah lavan jal kyariyon men ekatr kiya jata hai. yahan isaka dhoop dvara vashpikaran hota hai, kyonki is kshetr men prachnd dhoop padati hai. navnbar ke mahine men ye kyariyan lavanajal se bhari jati hain tatha aprail, mee tak avakshipt namak ko ekatr kar liya jata hai aur jo bitarn shesh rahata hai use jhil ke ek bhag men snchit kar diya jata hai. is prakar se prapt namak uttam hota hai. namak ka utpadan is kshetr men paryapt hota hai. abhi tak is namak ke udbhav ka spashtikaran nahin hua hai. kuchh vidvanon ka kahana hai ki yah vayujanit namak hai jo samudr se vayu ke sath ata hai aur varsha ke sath rajasthan men gir jata hai tatha is vishal jhil men snchit ho jata hai. bitarn ka bahut samay tak koee mooly hi nahin samajha jata tha, kintu lekhak ne anusndhan karake pata lagaya hai ki is bitarn men lagabhag 62 pratishat samany lavan, 25 pratishat sodiyam salphet tatha 8 pratishat sediy karbonet hota hai. is kshetr men sodiyam salphet tatha sodiyam kloraid ke lavanon ka vipul matra men sngrah ha sakata hai. upayukt sadhanon se namak se sodiyam salphet tatha sodiyam karbonet ka prithakkaran snbhav ho sakata hai. sanbhar jhil kshetr men ek lnbe samay se khananakary kiya ja raha hai, kintu abhi tak namak ke utpadan tatha matra men koee hras nahin hua hai. at: yah jhil namak ka ek chirasthayi srot samajhi ja sakati hai.

isake atirikt rajasthan men namak ke do any srot vidyaman hain, pratham digana jhil tatha doosari didavana jhil. ye jhilen bhi thik usi prakar ki hain jaisi sanbhar. inamen se ek men sodiyam salphet ke brihat nikshep prapt hue hain. jhil ke jal se prithakh hokar shuddh sodiyam salphet ka avakshepan ho jata hai. kuchh varshon tak yah jhil sodiyam salphet ka sasta srot rahi hai.

tritiy srot

namak ka tritiy srot samudr ka khara jal hai. gujarat pradesh ke samudri tat ke kathiyavad se dakshini bnbee tak tatha madras, chennee ke tatavarti kshetron men tootikorin ke sip jvar ke samay lavanajal ka ekatr kar namak ka utpadan kiya jata hai. yah kary manasoon ke pashchath prarnbh kiya jata hai tatha manasoon ane se pahale hi samapt kar diya jata hai. badauda se bnbee jane vali relave lain par donon or namak ke bade-bade dher dikhaee padate hain.

samudri jal se lavan banane ki pashchath jo bitarn shesh rahata hai usamen maignishiyam kloraid badi matra men rahata hai. lavan ke kuchh karakhane kharaghoda men is ashay se sthapit kie ge hain ki is bitarn se maignishiyam kloraid prapt kiya jae jo vipul matra men sugamata se mil sakata hai. is srot se namak ka utpadan brihath‌ matra men hota hai aur utpadan bahut badhaya ja sakata hai. kathiyavad men dhrangadhra, porabndar tatha dvaraka ke samip kshar ke karakhane prarnbh ho chuke hain jo saaulve ki vidhi dvara sodiyam karbonet ka vanijy star par utpadan karate hain. chilaka jhil (udisa) bhi lavaniy jal ki jhil hai jo samudr se snbndhit hai. yahan bhi brihat star par namak ke utpadan ka prayatn kiya ja raha hai.

bngal bhi paryapt matra men namak ka utpadan karata hai aur yahan bhi utpadan badhane ka prayatn kiya ja raha hai, kintu yahan namak banane men ek badi kathinaee yah hai ki yahan gnga aur brahmaputr nadiyon ke girane se bngal ki khadi ke jal men lavan ka ansh paryapt kam ho jata hai.

any srot

in sroton ke atirikt kuchh kshetr aise hain jahan par sthaliy jal atynt namakin hota hai. prachin samay men is jal ko vashpit kar namak taiyar kiya jata tha. rajasthan men bharatapur ke samip ek aisa kshetr hai jahan kuon ka jal nitant lavaniy hai. yah jalakuon se chamade ke puron dvara khincha jata hai aur vashpit kar namak banane ke kam ata hai. vanijy star par is srot se namak prapt karane ki yojanaon ke vikas ka poorn prayatn kiya ja raha hai. kuchh laghu srot bhi aise hain jinase namak ki prapti hoti hai, udaranarth, bnbee ke buladana zile ki loonar jhil. yah 400 phut gahari hai. varsha ritu men isamen jal ekatrit ho jata hai aur varsha samapt hone par shanai: shanai: vashpikaran ke pashchath yah jhil namak ke atirikt sodiyam salphet tatha sodiyam karbonet bhi utpann karati hai. abhi hal men hi himachal pradesh men ghrag namak kshetr men namak ke bade vishal srot mile hain jo bahut lnbe samay tak namak ka utpadan karate rahenge. khane ke atirikt namak ke upayog bahut badi matra men dahak soda, klorin aur sodiyam dhatu ke nirman tatha any udyogon men hota hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

“khand 6”, hindi vishvakosh, 1966 (hindi), bharatadiskavari pustakalay: nagari pracharini sabha varanasi, 241.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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