गंधक  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gndhak
halke pile rng ke gandhak ke kristal

gndhak ki varnakram rekhaen
sadharan gunadharm
nam, pratik, snkhya gndhak, S, 16
tatv shreni adhatu
samooh, avart, kaksha 16, 3, p
manak paramanu bhar 32.065g·mol−1
ilektraaun vinyas 1s2 2s2 2p6, 3s2 3p4
ilektraaun prati shel 2, 8, 6
bhautik gunadharm
avastha thos
ghanatv (nikat k.ta.) (alfa) 2.07 g·cm−3
ghanatv (nikat k.ta.) (bita) 1.96 g·cm−3
ghanatv (r.t.) (gama) 1.92 g·cm−3
taral ghanatv
(galanank par)
1.819 g·cm−3
galanank 388.36 K, 115.21 °C, 239.38 °F
kvathanank 717.8 K, 444.6 °C, 832.3 °F
snkat bindu 1314 K, 20.7 MPa
snlayan ooshma (mono) 1.727 kilo jool-mol
vashpan ooshma (mono) 45 kilo jool-mol
vishisht ooshmiy
kshamata
22.75

jool-mol−1kilo−1

vashp dab
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 375 408 449 508 591 717
paramanvik gunadharm
aauksikaran avastha 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2
(amliy aauksaid)
ilektronegetiviti 2.58 (pailing paimana)
ayanikaran oorjaen
(adhik)
1st: 999.6 ki.jool•mol−1
2nd: 2252 ki.jool•mol−1
3rd: 3357 ki.jool•mol−1
sahasnyojak trijya 105±3 pm
vaindair vals trijya 180 pm
vividh gunadharm
kristal snrachana vishamalnbaksh
chumbakiy kram pratichumbakiy
vaidyut pratirodhakata (20 °C) emphoterik aauksaid
2×1015Ω·m
ooshmiy chalakata (300 K) emphoterik aauksaid
0.205 W·m−1·K−1
sthool mapank 7.7 GPa
mohs kathorata mapank 2.0
si.e.es pnjikaran
snkhya
7704-34-9
samasthanik
samasthanik pra. prachurata arddh ayu ksharan avastha ksharan oorja
(MeV)
ksharan utpad
32S 95.02% 32S 16 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
33S 0.75% 33S 17 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
34S 4.21% 34S 18 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
35S syn 87.32 d β 0.167 35Cl
36S 0.02% 36S 20 nyootraaun ke sath sthir

gndhak ya salphar (angrezi:Sulfur) avart sarani ke upavarg VIA ka ek tattv hai. 'salphar' shabd ki utpatti snskrit shabd shulvari se huee hai, jisaka arth hota hai - tanbe ka shatru. isaka snket 'S', paramanu snkhya 16 tatha paramanu bhar 32.1 hota hai. isaka ilektraaunik vinyas- 1s2, 2s2 2p6, 3s2 3p4 hota hai. gndhak (salphar) ke paramanu ki bahyatam kaksha men 6 ilektraaun rahate hain. yah parivartanashil snyojakata pradarshit karata hai.

prapti

prakriti men gndhak mukt aur snyukt donon hi avasthaon men prachur matra men paya jata hai. bhoopatal par gndhak ki pratishatata 0.05% hai. snyukt rajy amerika (USA) ke lusiyana evn teksas rajyon men prithvi ki satah se lagabhag 800 phut niche gndhak prachur matra men payi jati hai. snsar men gndhak ke kul utpadan ka 80% bhag lusiyana aur teksas se (USA) prapt hota hai. mukt avastha men gndhak jvalamukhi kshetron mukhyatah itali ke sisali dvip tatha japan men payi jati hai. snyukt avastha men gndhak mukhyatah dhatuon ke salphaid aur salphet ke roop men payi jati hai. pyaj, lahasun, anda, sarason tel adi padarthon men bhi gndhak payi jati hai. pyaj men kadavahat ka karan gndhak ke yaugik ki upasthiti hai. gndhak ki prapti phraaush vidhi tatha sisili vidhi dvara ki jati hai.

prakriti

gndhak ke anu men gndhak ke 8 paramanu paraspar judakar valay jaisi snrachana banate hain. gndhak thos hota hai, kyonki isake 8 anu paraspar jatil roop se jude rahate hain. sadharan gndhak halka pila, bhngur evn ravedar hota hai. yah jal men aviley kintu karban dai salphaid men viley hota hai. yah ooshma aur vidyut ka kuchalak hota hai. dhatuon ke sath gndhak snyog kar dhatuon ke salphaid ka nirman karati hai. lohe ke burade aur gndhak ke choorn ke mishran ko garm karane par kale rng ka pheras salphaid (FeS) banata hai. gndhak ke oordhvapatan ke phalasvaroop prapt hone vale barik choorn ko gndhak ka phool kaha jata hai.

aparoop

ravedar aparoop
  • vishamalambaksh ya ashtaphalakiy gndhak ya a - gndhak
  • prijmiy ya ekanataksh gndhak ya b gndhak
beravadar aparoop
  • plastik gndhak
  • shvet gndhak
  • dudhiya gndhak
vishesh
  • vishayalambaksh ya ashtaphalakiy ya a- gndhak, gndhak ka sabase sthayi aparoop hai.
  • ubalate hue gndhak ko jal men dal dene par plastik gndhak prapt hota hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


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