कीटोन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kiton ve karbanik yaugik hain, jinamen karbanik samooh hota hai aur jinaka samany sootr R-CO-R hota hai. yadi R tatha R ek hi moolak ho to kiton ko 'saral kiton' aur yadi R tatha R vibhinnamoolak hon to use 'mishrit kiton' kahate hain. ve kiton jinamen do karbanil samooh hote hain 'dvi-kiton' kahalate hain. kuchh chakriy kiton, jinamen, karban ki snkhya adhik hoti hain, jaise- siveton ya masakon, sugndhit padarth banane ke kam ate hain.

prayog

saral kiton ka sabase sadharan udaharan aisiton hai, jo karbait namak visphotak padarth banane men vilayak ke roop men prayukt hota hai. mishrit kiton ka sadharan udaharan aisitophinon hai, jo hipanon ke nam se nind lane vali dava ke roop men prayukt hota hai.[1]

banane ki vidhiyan

  • dvitiyak ailakohalon ke aksikaran se
  • ooshma ya utprerakon ki sahayata se dvitiyak ailakohalon ke vihaidrojanikaran se
  • karbanik amlon ke kailsiyam lavanon ke shushk asavan karane se. isake lie thoria, jirakonia ya mainganas aksaid ka 400-450 se. upayog hota hai
  • aisitilin yaugikon ko tan salphayurik aml tatha marakyoorik salphet ki upasthiti men jalayojit karane se - R-C=CH-RCOCH3
  • naitrail, estar ya aml kloraid par grinayard abhikarmak ki kriya se
  • karbanik yaugikon men upasthit -CH2- moolak ka -CO- men siliniyam daiaauksaid ya kromik aml dvara aksikaran karane se
  • phridel kraft ki abhikriya se
  • aml kloraidon ke rojenamund vidhi dvara avakaran se
  • shrrinkhala ke bich ek hi karban men snsukt do hailojan paramanu vale yaugikon ke jal vishleshan se

samany abhikriyaen

karbanil samooh kitonon ke atirikt aildihaidon men bhi hota hai. antar keval itana hai ki aildihaidon men R ke sthan par haidrojan hota hai. isilie in do vargon ke yaugik apas men paryapt samanata pradarshit karate hain. sodiyam tatha elkohal dvara avakaran karane par karbanil >CO, samooh dvitiyak ailakohal >CHOH, men badal jata hai. kiton ke kaithod avakaran se prapt padarth pinekol kahalate hain. jink ya ailyoominiyam snras[2] tatha haidroklorik aml karbanik samooh ka - CH2- men avakaran kar dete hain. ailyoominiyam ailkasaid, lithiyam ya ailyoominiyam haidraid ya sodiyam borohaidraid jaise kuchh ne apachayak karbanil samooh ka to >CHOH men avakaran kar dete hain, parntu yaugik men upasthit any avakrit ho sakane vale samoohon par inaka kuchh prabhav nahin hota. kitonon ka aauksikaran karane se amlon ke mishran prapt hote hain, par pratyek aml men karban paramanuon ki snkhya kiton kam hoti hai. sodiyam baisalphait ya haidrojan sayanaid ke sath ye yogashil yaugik banate hain. phenil haidrazin (ya isake vyutpann), haidraksil aimin, semikarbazaid adi padarthon ke sath abhikriya karake kiton haidrojon, aksim ya semikarbazon banate hain.[1]

samooh

ve kiton, jinamen do karbanil samooh hote hain, dvi-kiton kahalate hain. yadi ye pas pas hue, jaise- dviaisitil CH3 COCO CH3 men, to inako ailpha dvikiton kahate hain. yadi inake bich men ek karban hua, jaise- aisitil aisiton CH3 CO CH2 CO CH3 men to inako bita-dvi-kiton kahate hain aur yadi bich men do karban hue, jaise- aisitonil aisiton CH3 CO CH2 CH2 CO CH3 men to inako gama-dvi-kiton kahate hain. bita-dvi-kiton tatha bita-kitonik-estar, jaise- aisitoai-sitik estar, anek prakar ke karbanik yaugikon ke snshleshan men vishesh mahatv rakhate hain.

kuchh chakriy kiton, jinamen karban ki snkhya adhik hoti hain, jaise- siveton ya masakon, sugndhit padarth banane ke kam ate hain. masakon men mushk ki gndh hoti hai. vanaspati varg se prapt kuchh kiton vishesh mahatv rakhate hain. aise kuchh kiton paeethrom[3] se tatha deris iliptika[4] se prapt hote hain aur inaka upayog kitanu nashak padarthon ke roop men kiya jata hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 kiton (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 15 joon, 2014.
  2. Amalgam
  3. Pyrethrum
  4. Derris elliptica

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah