bharatakosh ke snsthapak/snpadak ke fesabuk laiv ke lie yahan klik karen.

अणु  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Molecula.jpg

(angrezi:Molecule) padarth anuon se milakar bane hote hain aur anu paramanuon se.

rasayan vigyan men tatv tatha yaugik ka vah chhota se chhota kan jo svatntr avastha men rah sakata hai aur jisamen dravy ke sab gun vidyaman rahate hain, anu kahalata hai. sadharanataya inaka vyas se 20Å tak hota hai. ( = 10-10mitar). kisi padarth ke anu men us padarth ke koee bhautik evn rasayanik gun nahin hote. vastav men ek anu n thos hota hai, n drav aur n gais. kisi bhi padarth ka anu usi roop men kabhi rasayanik kriya nahin karata. isake lie anu ka paramanuonn men vibhajan avashyak hai.

  • anu men sadharanat do ya adhik paramanu (aitam) rahate hain. anu ki parikalpana ke poorv paramanu ko hi tatvon tatha yaugikon donon ka sookshmatam kan mana jata tha. daltan aur barjiliyas ne tab yah kalpana ki thi ki saman tap tatha dab par sab gaison ke ek nishchit ayatan men upasthit paramanuon ki snkhya saman hohi hai. is kalpana se jab ge-loosak ke gais ayatan snbndhi niyam ko samajhane ka prayatn kiya gaya tab kathinaee upasthit huee. isi kathinaee ko hal karane ke lie itali ke vaigyanik amidio avogrado (1776-1856) ne anuon ki kalpana ki. (ra. ch. me.)
  • pratyek padarth chhote-chhote anuon se milakar bana hai. in anuon ke bich khali sthan rahata hai jisamen anu tivr gati se bhraman karate rahate hain. anuon ke bich ki khali sthan vali yah doori bhinn padarthon men bhinn hoti hai. ek hi padarth ki tin avasthaon men antar is bich ki doori ke karan hi paya jata hai. arthath‌ thos avastha men anu pas-pas rahate hain. dravon men anuon ke bich ki doori thos ki apeksha adhik hoti hai. doori badhane se anuon ke parasparik akarshan men kami a jati hai aur anuon ko gatishil hone ki adhik svatntrata mil jati hai. gais ho jane par anuon ke bich ki doori bahut adhik ho jati hai aur unake bich akarshan bal nahin ke barabar rah jata hai. isase ve lagabhag poornat svatntr hokar pratyek disha men nirntar svachchhnd gati ki sthiti men a jate hain.
  • anuon ka pariman janane ke lie yadi ham unako chhoti-chhoti genden manakar pas-pas satakar rakh den to 1 sen. mi. lnbe sthan men lagabhag 10 karod anu a jaenge. anu ek ya ek se adhik paramanuon se milakar bane hote hain. tatvon ke anu saman paramanuon se milakar aur yaugik ke anu asaman paramanuon se milakar bane hote hain. vivinn padarthon ke anu vibhinn prakar ke hote hain.
  • anu sootr kisi tatv athava yaugik ka vah sootr hai jo usake lie ek anu ke paramanu ki poorn snkhya ka dyotak hai. jaise aksijan (tatv) aur sodiyam kloraid (yaugik) ke anu sootr kramash 02 tatha NaC1 hai.
  • anubhar anuon ke bhar vyakt karane ke lie karban (C12 samasthanik) ke paramanu ke bhar ke barahaven bhag ko bhar ki ikaee man liya gaya hai. kisi padarth ka anubhar usake ek anu ka sapeksh bhar hai jabaki tulana ke lie karban ke ek paramanu ka bhar 12 mana jae. yah keval ek ank matr hi hai. udaharan ke lie maiganisiyam karbonet ka anubhar 84 hai jisaka arth yah hai ki maiganisiyam karbonet ka ek anu karban ke ek paramanu se sat guna ya karban ke ek paramanu ke barahaven bhag se 84 guna bhari hai.[1]

yah anu men upasthit paramanuon ke paramanu bharon ko jodane se bhi nikal jata hai.
jaise-

NaC1 ka anubhar =Na ka paramanu bhar +C1 ka paramanu bhar


= 23 +35.5=58.5



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 87,88 |

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