लोहा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

loha
bhoore rng ke sath chamakadar dhatu
sadharan gunadharm
nam, pratik, snkhya loha, Fe, 26
tatv shreni snkraman dhatu
samooh, avart, kaksha 8, 4, d
manak paramanu bhar 55.845g·mol−1
ilektraaun vinyas 1s2, 2s2 2p6, 3s2 3p6 3d6, 4s2
ilektraaun prati shel 2, 8, 14, 2
bhautik gunadharm
avastha thos
ghanatv (nikat k.ta.) 7.874 g·cm−3
taral ghanatv
(galanank par)
6.98 g·cm−3
galanank 1811 K, 1538 °C, 2800 °F
kvathanank 3134 K, 2862 °C, 5182 °F
snlayan ooshma 13.81 kilo jool-mol
vashpan ooshma 340 kilo jool-mol
vishisht ooshmiy
kshamata
25.10

jool-mol−1kilo−1

vashp dab
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1728 1890 2091 2346 2679 3132
paramanvik gunadharm
aauksikaran avastha 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2 -->
ilektronegetiviti 1.83 (pailing paimana)
ayanikaran oorjaen
(adhik)
1st: 762.5 ki.jool•mol−1
2nd: 1561.9 ki.jool•mol−1
3rd: 2957 ki.jool•mol−1
paramanvik trijya 126 pm
sahasnyojak trijya 132±3 (low spin), 152±6 (high spin) pm
vividh gunadharm
chumbakiy kram lohachumbakiy
ooshmiy chalakata (300 K) 80.4 W·m−1·K−1
ooshmiy prasar (25 °C) 11.8 µm·m−1·K−1
yng mapank 211 GPa
aparoopan mapank 82 GPa
sthool mapank 170 GPa
paauyazan anupat 0.29
mohs kathorata mapank 4
vikars kathorata 608 MPa
brainal kathorata 490 MPa
si.e.es pnjikaran
snkhya
7439-89-6
samasthanik
samasthanik pra. prachurata arddh ayu ksharan avastha ksharan oorja
(MeV)
ksharan utpad
54Fe 5.8% >3.1×1022y 2ε capture  ? 54Cr
55Fe syn 2.73 y ε capture 0.231 55Mn
56Fe 91.72% 56Fe 30 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
57Fe 2.2% 57Fe 31 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
58Fe 0.28% 58Fe 32 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
59Fe syn 44.503 d β 1.565 59Co
60Fe syn 2.6×106 y β 3.978 60Co

loha (angrezi:Iron) mukt avastha men bahut kam paya jata hai. hemetait, mainnetait, ayaran, payaraitin adi isake pramukh ayask hain. hemetait ke roop men yah bharat men sinhabhoomi, mayooragnj, maisoor adi sthanon men paya jata hai. bharat men tata ayaran end stil kampani, maisoor ayaran varkas, indiyan ayaran end stil kampani kulati adi lohe ke pramukh qarakhane hain. adhunik samay men bharat poori tarah se loh utpadan men atm-nirbhar ho chuka hai.

prakar

lohe men upasthit karban ke adhar par yah, dhalavan, pitavan v stil tin prakar ka hota hai. isaka rng dhoosar hota hai v kvathanank 2800° C hota hai. dhalavan, pitavan v stil men payi jane vali karban v any tatvon ki matra tatha inake gun v upayog nimn sarani pradarshit hain.

ispat

yah lohe ka ek prakar hai, jisamen 0.5 se 1.5% tak loha paya jata hai. yah mridu kristaliy tatha chamakadar hota hai, jise asani se pitakar moda ja sakata hai. yah mukhyatah pitavan lohe tatha dhalavan lohe se banaya jata hai. karban ki matra ke adhar par yah tin prakar ka hota hai:-

mridu ispat

isamen karban ki matra 0.15% hoti hai. isaka upayog rel udyog tatha snrachanatmak karyon men hota hai.

madhyam ispat

isamen karban ki matra 0.15 se 0.6% tak hoti hai. isaka upayog rel udyog tatha snrachanatmak karyon men hota hai.

adhik karbanayukt ispat

isamen karban ki matra 0.6% se 1.5% tak hoti hai. isaka upayog rejar tatha shaly kriya men kam ane vale yntr banane men hota hai.

mishradhatu

isake alava bahut uchch koti ke ispat nikil, mainganij, tngstan, kromiyam ityadi dhatuon ke mishradhatu ke roop men prapt kiye jate hain, jinaka upayog vayuyan, bal beyaring, aml ke patr, ghadi ityadi ko banane men hota hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

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