अल्कोहल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

alkohal/ alkohal/ ailkohaaul

karbanik yaugik se ek ya ek se adhik haidrojan paramanu ka pratisthapan ek ya ek se adhik -O-H samooh dvara kar diya jae to banane vale yaugik alkohal kahalate hai. alkohal ve karbanik padarth hain, jinamen ek ya ek se adhik haidraauksil samooh (OH) rahate hain. haidraauksil samooh benzin karban se snyukt nahin rahana chahie. yadi benzin karban ke sath haidraauksil samooh snyukt rahata hai to aise karbanik padartho ko 'finol' kahate hain.

rasayanik abhikriyaen

alkohal ki rasayanik abhikriyaen vishesh prakar ki hoti hain aur unake lakshanik gun kisi vishesh alkohal, jaise- methil alkohal, ethil alkohal, glaikol, glisirol adi ke lakshanon se prakat hote hain.

prakar

sngathan ki drishti se alkohal tin prakar ke hote hain-

  1. prathamik - methil alkohal aur ethil alkohal CH3CH2OH, prathamik alkohal ke udaharan hain. inamen prathamik CH2OH, samooh rahata hai.
  2. dvitiyak - aisopropil alkohal (CHCH3CHOHCH3) dvitiyak alkohal ke udaharan hain. inamen dvitiyak samooh rahata hai.
  3. tritiyak - traimethil alkohal (CH3)3COH tritiyak alkohal ke udaharan hain. inamen tritiyak samooh COH rahata hai.


prathamik alkohal ke upachayan se aildihaid aur karboksiliy aml banate hain, jinamen karban paramanuon ki snkhya vahi rahati hai jo alkohal men rahati hai. dvitiyak alkohal ke upachayan se kiton aur karboksiliy aml banate hain. kiton men karban paramanu ki snkhya vahi rahati hai jo alkohal men hai, parntu amlon men karban paramanuon ki snkhya ghat jati hai. tritiyak alkohal ke upachayan se bhi aildihaid, kiton aur karboksiliy aml prapt hote hain, parntu in sabamen karban paramanuon ki snkhya alkohal ke karban paramanuon ki snkhya se kam hoti hai. tinon prakar ke alkohalon ke avakaran se tadanukool haidrokarban banate hain.

jal nikasi par

alkohal se jal nikal lene par eethar, ethilin aauksaid aur asntript haidrokarban banate hain. amlon ke sath abhikriya se alkohal estar banate hain. yadi alkohal men ek hi haidraauksil samooh rahe to aise alkohal ko mono-haidraauksin athava mono-haidrik alkohal, do haidraauksil samooh hon to use dai-haidraauksil athava daihaidrik alkohal aur tin haidraauksil samooh hon to use trai-haidraauksil athava traihaidrik alkohal adi kahate hain.

gndh

alkohal ya to drav hote hain athava thos. drav alkohal men vishesh prakar ki gndh hoti hai. anubhar ki vriddhi se gndh kam hoti jati hai aur kuchh thos alkohalon men gndh bilakul hoti hi nahin.

upayogi padarth

alkohal bade upayogi padarth hain. pratidin vyavahrit hone vali vastuon se lekar anek udyog dhndhon tak men inaka vyavahar hota hai. methil aur ethil alkohal utkrisht koti ke vilayak hain. anek prakar ke plastikon ke nirman men methil alkohal ka upayog hota hai. sab suraon men ethil alkohal rahata hai. anek oshadhiyon ka ethil alkohal ek atyavashyak ang hai. alkohal se kritrim rabar bhi taiyar hota hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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