ऑक्साइड  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

aauksaid (angrezi:Oxide) kisi tatv ka aauksijan ke snyog se banane vala yaugik hota hai. adhikansh tatvon (dhatu evn adhatu) ko aauksijan evn vayu men jalakar ek naya yaugik banaya ja sakata hai, jise aauksaid kahate hain.

  1. pani, haidrojan ka ek aauksaid hai.
  2. karban ka aauksaid, karban daaui-aauksaid (CO2) aur karban mono-aauksaid (CO) hain.
  3. lohe ke padarthon par jama jng bhi vastav men lohe ka aauksaid hi hai. lauh padarthon men jag lagane ki kriya vayu men aauksijan aur jalavashy ki ayaran se kriya ka parinam hota hai.
  4. kate hue seb ki satah par bhoore rng ki parat banana bhi ayaran aauksaid ki upasthiti darshata hain. vastutah seb men ayaran yani lauh tattv paya jata hai jo vayumandal ki aauksijan se kriya karake ayaran aauksaid banata hai.

kuchh aauksaidon ka vilayan nile litamas pepar ko lal kar deta hai. in vilayanon ko aml kahate hain. kuchh aise aauksaid hote hain jinaka vilayan isaki viparit pratikriya darshata hai arthath vah lal litamas pepar ko nila kar deta hai. in vilayanon ko ksharak kahate hain.

aksaid kisi tatv ke sath aksijan ke yaugik hain. ye sarvatr bahutayat se milate hain. haidrojan ka aksaid pani (ha2au) prithvi par bahut badi matra men hai. isake atirikt hava men kee prakar ke gaisiy aksaid hain, jaise karban dai aksaid, salphar dai aksaid adi. khanijon, chattanon aur dharati ki oopari tah men bhi vibhinn aksaid hain. aksijan kuchh tatvon ko chhodakar lagabhag sabhi tatvon se pratyaksh athava apratyaksh kriya karata hai. isase anek aksaid upalabdh hain.

aksaid banane ke lie vaise to bahut si vidhiyan hain, parntu sadharanataya nimnankit vidhiyon ka prayog hota hai:

aksijan ke sidhe snyog se-sodiyam, phasphoras, loh, karban, gndhak, maignishiyam ityadi hava ya aksijan men garam karane par aksaid banate hain. inamen kuchh to sadharan tap par hi dhire-dhire aksijan se kriya karate hain, jaise sodiyam, phasphoras adi.

pani ki kriya dvara-moracha lagane se athava garam lohe par bhap ki kriya se lohe ka aksaid prapt hota hai. kuchh dhatuon ke naitret ya karabonet ko adhik garam karane par (lavan ke vighatan se) aksaid prapt hota hai, jaise kapar naitret ya kailsiyam karabonet se kramanusar tanbe tatha naitrojan ke aur kailsiyam tatha karban ke aksaid. isi vidhi se haidraauksaid (jaise ferik haidraauksaid) bhi aksaid dete hain.

rasayanik gun athava aksijan ke anupat ke anusar in aksaidon ko kram se rakhane par pratyek samooh ke pratinidhi aksaid dha2aai ya dha aai ityadi hote hain (yahan = dha koee dhatu, aai = aksijan). parntu kuchh tatv kee aksaid banate hain, jinamen aksijan ki matraen bhinn hoti hain.

rasayanik gun ke vichar se aksaid nimnankint vargon men vibhakt kie ja sakate hain:

amliy aksaid-ye pani se milakar aml banate hain athava kshar ya kshariy aksaid ke lavan; jaise karban dai aksaid, salphar dai aksaid. kuchh aksaid mishrit ainahaidraid hote hain, jaise naitrojan paraksaid pani ke sath naitras aur naitrik aml donon banata hai.

kshariy aksaid-ye pani se milakar kshar banate hain athava aml ya amliy aksaid se lavan; jaise sodiyam, potaishiyam, kailishayam ke aksad.

udasin aksaid - inaki kriya se n lavan hi banata hai aur n kshar athava aml; jaise naitras aksaid, karban monoksaid. vaise to naitras aksaid haiponaitras aml ka ainahaidraid hai, parntu pani se milakar aml nahin banata.

ubhayadharmi (ainphotarik) aksaid - ye aml se kshariy aksaid ke sadrish tatha kshar se amliy aksaid ke sadrish kriya karate hain, jaise zink aksaid aml tatha kshar donon se lavan deta hai.

paraksaid-inamen sadharan se adhik aksijan hota hai. aise (kshariy) paraksaid pani athava aml se haidrojan aksaid banate hain (jaise sodiyam ya beriyam paraksaid). inamen bhi do prakar hain, pahala supar aksaid tatha doosara bahu (paauli) aksaid.

dohare ya mishrit aksaid - kuchh dhatu ke aise do aksaid, jinamen se ek men aksijan ki matra kam hai tatha doosari men adhik, milakar mishrit aksaid dete hain. jaise loau tatha lae2au3 se lo3aai4 (lo = loha ya lauh).

aksaid ke namakaran men aksijan ki matra ke anusar mono (ek), daee (dvi), seskvi (adhyarddh) ityadi ka prayog hota hai.[1]

aksaidon ka upayog bahut tarah ke rasayanik yaugikon ke banane men hai. kee prakar ke utprerakon (kaitaliston) tatha unake unnayakon (promotars) men aksaid ka bahut upayog hota hai.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 344 |
  2. sn.grn-je.dablyoo. melar: e kaaumprihensiv tratiz aaun inaaurgainik aind thyoretikal kemistri (1922); je.ar. paratingatan: tekst buk aauv inaaurgenik kemistri.

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