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avart sarani

avart sarani (angrezi:Periodic Table) rasayanik tatvon ko unaki sngat visheshataon ke sath ek sarani ke roop men darshane ki ek vyavastha hai. avart sarani men rasayanik tattv paramanu kramank ke badhate kram men sajaye gaye hain tatha avart, prathamik samooh, dvitiyak samooh men vargikrit kiya gaya hai. vartaman avart sarani men 118 gyat tatv sammilit hain. sabase pahale roosi rasayan-shastri mendaliph (sahi uchcharan- mendeleyev) ne san 1869 men avart niyam prastut kiya aur tatvon ko ek sarani ke roop men prastut kiya. isake kuchh mahinon bad jarman vaigyanik lothar meyar (1830-1895) ne bhi svatantr roop se avart sarani ka nirman kiya. mendeleyev ki sarani se alphred varnar (Alfred Werner) ne avart sarani ka vartaman svaroop nirmit kiya. san 1952 men kosta rika ke vaigyanik gil chaveri (scientist Gil Chaverri ) ne avart sarani ka ek naya roop prastut kiya jo tatvon ke ilektranik snrachana par adharit tha. rasayan shastriyon ke liye avart sarani atyant mahatvapoorn evn upayogi hai. mojale ne adhunik arvat sarani ko banaya jisake anusar-

  • arvat sarani men rakhe hue tatvon ke rasayanik tatha bhautik gun unake paramanu kramankon ke avarti phalan hote hain.
  • arvat sarani men udagr kataron ko samooh aur kshaitij kataron ko avadhi kahate hain.
  • in tatvon ke ilektraaunik vinyason ke adhar par inhen char unake blaaukon men vibhajit kiya gaya hai.
  1. S Block ke tatvon ke sabase antim ilektraaun S upakosh men hote hain.
  2. P Block ke tatvon ke sabase antim ilektraaun P upakosh men hote hain.
  3. isi prakar d aur f blaauk ke tatvon ke sabase antim ilektraaun d aur f upakoshon men hote hain. d aur f blaauk ke tattv parivarti snyojakata pradarshit karate hain.

is adhunik arvat sarani men sat kshaitij pnktiyan hoti hain jinhen arvat kahate hain. arvat ki snkhya tattv ke sabase bahari kaksha ki snkhya ko pradarshit karatin hain. arvat sarani men 9 urdhvadhar khane hote hain jinhen samooh kahate hain. punah 8 samoohon ko do-do upasamooh men vibhajit kiya gaya hai. inhen A aur B upasamooh kahate hain. upasamooh A men sthit kisi tattv ka antim ilektraaun S ya P upakosh men hota hai. d aur f blaauk ke tattv upasamooh B ke antargat ate hain. 8ven samooh ko 3 bhagon men vibhajit karake sabhi 9 tatvon ko upayukt sthan diya gaya hai.

is prakar kul samoohon ki snkhya 16 hoti hai jo is prakar hain- IA, IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB, VIIIB, IB, IIB, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, Zero.

avart sarani aisi sarani he jisamen tatvon ka kramabaddh samoohon men vargikaran rahata hai tatha saman gunavale tatv kshaitij athava urdhvadhar anukram se snbndhit sthanaen par pae jate hain. is sarani se gyat tatvon ke agyat gunon ke atirikt agyat tatvon ke gun bhi, sarani men unaki sthiti dekhakar batae ja sakate hain.

itihas-bharat, arab aur yunan ke saman purane deshon men char ya panch tatv mane jate the--chhiti-jal-pavak-gagan-samira (tulasi), arthath‌ prithivi, jal, tej, vayu, aur akash. par baauyal (1627-91) ne tattvon ki ek nee paribhasha di, jisase rasayangyon ko rasayanik parivartanon aur pratikriyaon ke samajhane men badi sahayata mili. sath hi sath baauyal ne yah bhi bataya ki tatvon ki snkhya simit nahin mani ja sakati. isaka phal yah hua ki shighr hi ne ne tatvon ki khoj hone lagi aur 18vin sadi ke ant tak tatvon ki snkhya 60 se adhik pahunch gee. isamen se adhikansh tatv thos the; bromin aur parad se saman kuchh tatv sadharan tap par drav bhi pae ge aur haidrojan, aksijan adi tatv gais avastha men the. ye sabhi tatv dhatu aur adhatu do vargo men bhi bante ja sakate the, par kuchh tatvon, jaise bisamath aur aintimani, ke lie yah kahana kathin tha ki ye dhatu hain ya adhatu.

tatvon ki avart sarani yah juliyas tamasen dvara nirmit ki gee thi aur yahan kuchh snshodhit roop men di gee hai. pratyek stnbh ek avart pradarshit karata hai. saman gunadharm ke tatvon ko rekhaon se snbndhit kiya gaya hai.

rasayangyon ne in tatvon ke snbndh men jyon-jyon adhik adhyayan kiya, unhen yah spasht hota gaya ki kuchh tatv gunadharmo men ek doosare se bahut milate julate hain, aur in samanataon ke adhar par unhonne inaka vargikaran karane ka prayatn kiya. daltan ka paramanu vad pratipadit hone ke anntar hi in tatvon ke paramanubhar bhi nikale ge the. sanh‌ 1820 men doberainar ne yah dekha ki saman gunavale tatv tin tin ke samoohon men pae jate hain jinhen trik (trayad) kaha gaya. ye trik do prakar ke the-pahale prakar ke trikon men tinon tatvon ke paramanubhar lagabhag paraspar barabar the, jaise loh (55.84), kobalt (58.94) aur nikel (58.69) men athava aausamiyam (190.2), iridiyam (193.1) aur plaitinam (195.25) men. doosare prakar ka trikon men bichavale tatv ka paramanubhar pahale aur tisare tatvon ke paramanubharon ka madhyaman ya ausat tha, jaise klorin (35.5), bromin (80) aur ayodin (127) men bromin tatv ka paramanu klorin aur ayodin ke paramanuon ke jod ke adhe ke lagabhag hai.

tatvon ke vargikaran ka ek naya prayas nyoolainds ne sanh‌ 1861 ke lagabhag kiya. usane tatvon ko paramanubhar ke kramon ke anusar vargikrit karana arnbh kiya. use yah dekhakar ashchary hua ki paramanubhar ke kram se rakhane par tatvon ke gunon men kramash: kuchh vishamataen badhati jati hain, par sat tatvon ke bad athavan tatv aisa ata hai jisake gun pahale tatv se bahut kuchh milate julate hain. ise saptak ka siddhant (laau aauv aauktebz) kaha gaya, jaise mano haramoniyam ke s re g m p dh ni s' re' g' m' p' dh' ni' adi svar hon, jisamen sat svaron ke bad svar ki phir avritti hoti hai. nyoolainds ke vargikaran ki tin pnktiyan ninnankit prakar ki thin:

ha li bnl bo ka na au 1 7 9 11 12 14 16 phlo so maigni ai si pha gn 19 23 24 27 28 31 32 klo po kai kro tai main lo 35.5 39 40 52 48 55 56

jaise-jaise saptak niyam aur age chalaya gaya, isaki saphalata men sndeh hone laga aur nyoolainds ke vargikaran se rasayangyon ko sntosh nahin hua. nyoolainds ke samay men hi sanh‌ 1862 ke lagabhag dichaikarto ne bhi paramanubhar ke kram se tatvon ko sarpakundali ki bhanti sajane ka prayatn kiya tha. yah prayatn bhi yah vyakt karata tha ki paramanubhar ke kram aur tatvon ke gunon ke avartan ka snbndh hai.

sanh‌ 1869 men roosi rasayangy mendaliph (dmitri ainovich mendeleef) ne pahali bar avart niyam spasht shabdon men ghoshit kiya. usane kaha ki tatvon ke bhautik aur rasayanik gun unake paramanubharon ke avartaphalan hain. avart athava avritti shabd ka arth lautana ya bar bar ana hai. ankaganit ki avart snkhyaon se sabhi ko parichay he, jaise 1= .076923076923... athava .076923, arthath‌ dashamalav banane men 076923 ye chhah ank bar bar aten hain. isi prakar ham yadi paramanubhar ke kram se tatvon ko sajaen to bar bar ek se hi gunadharmavale tatv ek se hi sthanon par pae jaynge. isi ko ganit ki bhasha men ham kahate hain ki tatvon ke gun paramanubharon ke avartaphalan hain.

jis samay roos men mendaliph tatvon ke is prakar ke vargikaran ka prayas kar raha tha, lotharamayar ne bhi (1870 men) avart niyam ki doosari tarah se abhivyakti ki. usane vibhinn tatvon ke paramanu ayatan nikale, arthath‌ tatvon ke paramanuon ko unake ghanatvon se vibhajit karake jo snkhyaen prapt ki unhen usane tatvon ka paramanu ayatan ke hisab se ek vakr khincha. aisa karane par use ek avartavakr prapt hua aur usane dekha ki saman gunadharmavale tatv is vakr par ek si hi sthiti par hain.

mendaliph ke samay tak sab tatvon ki khoj nahin ho paee thi, phir bhi apani avart sarani ko mendaliph ne itani savadhani se racha ki usake adhar par usane kee agyat tatvon ke gunadharmo ki bhavishyavani ki, jo ab skaindiyam, gailiyam aur jarmeniyam kahalate hain. usane jis snbhavit tatv ka nam eka-boran diya tha usaka pata sanh‌ 1879 men chala aur use skaindiyam kaha gaya. usane jise eka-ailyoominiyam kaha tha usaka nam 1876 men gailiyam pada aur mendaliph ka eka-silikan 1876 men avishkrit hone par jarmeniyam nam se vikhyat hua. mendaliph ne apane avart niyam ke adhar par bahut se tatvon ke prachalit paramanubharon ko bhi snshodhit kiya aur bad ke prayogon ne mendaliph ke snshodhanon ki pushti ki.

mendaliph ke samay ke bad se usaki avart sarani men bahut se parivartan aur sudhar hue. sanh‌ 1913 men mosale ne yah bataya ki pratyek tatv ki ek nishchit paramanusnkhya hai. yah paramanusnkhya paramanubhar se bhi adhik mahatv ki hai, kyonki ek hi tatv kee alag alag paramanubharon ka to ho sakata hai, par tatv ki paramanusnkhya sthir hai badalati nahin. mosale ke samay se avart niyam paramanubhar ki apeksha se nahin, prastut paramanu snkhya ki apeksha se vyakt kiya jane laga. ab hai, n ki paramanu ke kram se. paramanubhar ke kram se sajjit karane men kabhi kabhi vargikaran men dosh a jate the aur mendaliph bhi in doshon se avagat tha. usane apani sarani men paramanubharon ke kram ki kee sthalon par upeksha ki hai, jaise telyooriyam ko ayodin ke pahale sthan diya hai, yadyapi telyooriyam ka paramanubhar ayodin se adhik hai. isi prakar paramanubhar ke kram ki avahelana karake nikel ko kobalt ke bad sthan diya hai. paramanu ka kram dene par ye dosh mit jate hain.

mendaliph ke samay men vayumndal ki hiliyam, nian, argan, kriptanadi gaisen gyat n thin. jab raimaze ne inaka avishkar kiya aur rasayangyon ne dekha ki in tatvon ke yaugik nahi banate aur is arth men ye akriy hain, to inhen sarani men ek alag samooh men rakha gaya. isaka nam shoonyasamooh pada. vidyuddhanatmk aur vidyudrinatmak pravrittiyon ke tatvon ke samoohon ko snyukt karanevala shoony vidyutapravritti ka ek samooh hona hi chahie tha.

mendaliph ki avart sarani-mendaliph ki avart sarani men nau samooh hain jinhen kramash:shoony, pratham, dvitiy...ashtam samooh kahate hain. ye samooh un tatvon ki snyojakataon ke bhi dyotak hain. pratyek samooh men do upasamooh hain-k aur kh. baeen or se daeen or ki janevali das pnktiyan hain, jinhen kal kahate hain. vastut: kal sat hain, par chauthe, panchave aur chhathe kalon men se pratyek men do do shreniyan hain. is prakar kul pnktiyan das huee. lotharamayar ke vakr men bhi ye saton kal spasht hain.

jab tatvon ke paramanuon ke ilektran vinyas ka pata chala, tab avart niyam ka mahatv aur bhi adhik spasht ho gaya. tatvon ki paramanusnkhya yah bhi batati hai ki us tatv men vibhinn paridhiyon par chakkar laganevale kitane ilekatran hain (dr. 'paramanu'). tatvon ke vinyas men kee kakshaen ya paridhiyan hain aur in kakshaon ya paridhiyon men kitane ilektran a sakate hain, yah snkhya bhi nishchim hai. in kakshaon athava paridhiyon par adhik se adhik kramash: 2, 8, 18, 32, ... ilektran rah sakate hain. sath hi sath yah bhi niyam hai ki sabase bahari paridhi par ath se adhik nahin rahenge aur usase pichhe vali par 18 ilektran se adhik nahin. is niyam ne yah spasht kar diya ki kuchh kalon men kyon 18 aur kuchh kyon 32 tatv hen. isane yah bhi vyakt kiy ki dushprapy parthiv tatv (lainthenam ke bad paramanusnkhya 58 se 71 tak) kyon 14 hi ho sakate hain.

jooliyas tamasen ne ilektran vinyas ke hisab se jo avart vargikaran diya, vah bhi mahatvapoorn hai. yah vargikaran batata hai ki avartan 2, 8, 18, 32,... paramanusnkhyaon par hota hai (dr.chitr).

yooreniyam ki paramanusnkhya 92 hai. avart vargikaran men sabase pahala tatv ab haidrojan nahin, balki nyootran mana jata hai, jisaki paramanu snkhya shoony (0) hai. haidrojan se lekar yooreniyam tak ke 92 tatv bhoostar par prakriti men pae jate hain, shesh nahin; par ab to kritrim vidhi se yooreniyam ke bad ke bhi sat ath tatv banae ja sakate hain-nepchyooniyam (93), plootoniyam (94), amarikiyam (95), kyooriyam (96), barkeliyam (97), kailiphorniyam (98), ainstiyam (99), shatamh‌ (100) adi. inhen aiktinaid kaha jata hai. jaise lainthenam (57) ke bad 14 viral parthiv tatv hain, usi prakar aiktiniyam (89) ke bad 14 tatvon ka hona, jinaka abhi pata nahin hai, asnbhav bat nahin hai. in ne tatvon ka astitv avart niyam ke sarvatha anukool hain.[1]

roosi rasayangy maindaliph ne apane samay (1869) tak gyat tatvon ko, badhate hue paramanuon ke kram men ek sarani ke roop men vyavasthit kiya. ise maindaliph ki avart sarani kahate hain. adhunik avart sarani men maindaliph ke pashchath‌ maloom kie ge kee tatv sammilit hain aur is vargikaran men tatvon ka sthan unaki paramanu snkhya par adharit hai (dr. chitr).

adhunik avart sarani ko kabhi kabhi bor ki sarani bhi kahate hain. is sarani ki mukhy baten nimnalikhit hain:

(1) isamen 16 urdhvadhar khane hain jinhen upavarg kahate hain. vibhinn upavargo ko IA, IB, IIA, IIB...VIIA, VIIB, VIII tatha 0 snkhyaon dvara soochit kiya jata hai.

(2) isake kshaitij khanon ko avart kahate hain. avart sarani ki sahayata se rasayan ka adhyayan bahut saral ho jata hai. ab tak pramanik roop se gyat 114 tatvon ka adhyayan keval nau vargasoomahon ke adhyayan men badal jata hai. choonki ek vargasamooh ke sabhi tatvon ke gunon men samanata hoti hai, atn: kisi ek tatv ke gun ka sadharan gyan prapt kar us vargasamooh ke any tatvon ke gunon ka bhi adhyayan ho jata hai. jais, Na ke gunon ka adhyayan yadi kar lijie to upavarg I A ke any tatvon ke gunon ka adhyayan saman taur par ho jata hai.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 451-55 |
  2. sn.grn.-je.dablyoo. melar: e kaaumprihensiv tritiz aaun inaaurgenik aind thyoretikal kemistri (1922); ee. raibinovitash aur ee. thilo: piriodishes sistem (stut gart 1930).

snbndhit lekh

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