बेरिलियम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

beriliyam

sadharan gunadharm
nam, pratik, snkhya bereliyam, Be, 4
tatv shreni kshariy parthiv dhatu
samooh, avart, kaksha 2, 2, s
manak paramanu bhar 9.012182g·mol−1
ilektraaun vinyas 1s2 2s2
ilektraaun prati shel 2, 2
bhautik gunadharm
avastha thos
ghanatv (nikat k.ta.) 1.85 g·cm−3
taral ghanatv
(galanank par)
1.690 g·cm−3
galanank 1560 K, 1287 °C, 2349 °F
kvathanank 2742 K, 2469 °C, 4476 °F
snlayan ooshma 12.2 kilo jool-mol
vashpan ooshma 297 kilo jool-mol
vishisht ooshmiy
kshamata
16.443

jool-mol−1kilo−1

vashp dab
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1462 1608 1791 2023 2327 2742
paramanvik gunadharm
aauksikaran avastha 2, 1
(ubhayadharmi aauksaid)
ilektronegetiviti 1.57 (pailing paimana)
ayanikaran oorjaen
(adhik)
1st: 899.5 ki.jool•mol−1
2nd: 1757.1 ki.jool•mol−1
3rd: 14848.7 ki.jool•mol−1
paramanvik trijya 112 pm
sahasnyojak trijya 96±3 pm
vaindair vals trijya 153 pm
vividh gunadharm
kristal snrachana shatkon
chumbakiy kram pratichumbakiy
vaidyut pratirodhakata (20 °C) 36 nΩ·m
ooshmiy chalakata (300 K) 200 W·m−1·K−1
ooshmiy prasar (25 °C) 11.3 µm·m−1·K−1
dhvani chal (patali chhad men) (r.t.) 12870 m·s−1
yng mapank 287 GPa
aparoopan mapank 132 GPa
sthool mapank 130 GPa
paauyazan anupat 0.032
mohs kathorata mapank 5.5
vikars kathorata 1670 MPa
brainal kathorata 600 MPa
si.e.es pnjikaran
snkhya
7440-41-7
samasthanik
samasthanik pra. prachurata arddh ayu ksharan avastha ksharan oorja
(MeV)
ksharan utpad
7Be tres 53.12 d ε 0.862 7Li
γ 0.477 -
8Be tres 7×10−17s α 4He
9Be 100% 9Be 5 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
10Be tres 1.36×106 y β 0.556 10B

beriliyam (angrezi:Beryllium) avart sarani ke dvitiy samooh ka pahala tatv hai. beriliyam ka keval ek sthir samasthanik paya gaya hai, jisaki dravyaman snkhya 9 hai, parntu dravyaman snkhya 7, 8 aur 10 vale asthir samasthanik kritrim vidhiyon se nirmit hue hain. panna aur berooj beriliyam ke yaugik hain, jo puratan kal se ratn ke roop men apanae ge hain. anekon aise khanij padarth gyat hain, jinamen beriliyam snyukt avastha men rahata hai. any sroton se beriliyam prapt karana bahut mnhaga padata hai.

beriliyam ki khoj

1798 ee. men sarvapratham voklain ne beriliyam ko beril ayask se prithakh‌ kiya, jisake adhar par isaka nam beriliyam rakha gaya tha. beriliyam ke viley lavan mithe svad ke hote hain. is karan beriliyam ka nam glusinam bhi rakha gaya tha, parntu ab yah nam lupt ho gaya hai. 1828 ee. men sarvapratham valar ne beriliyam dhatu taiyar ki.

nirman

sarvapratham beril ayask ko kailsiyam athava sodiyam karbonet, ke sath sngalit karate hain. tatpashchath‌ salphyoorik aml ke sath uchch tap par garm jal men ghulate hain. vilayan se ailuminiyam ko amoniyam elam ke roop men kristalikrit kiya jata hai. bache vilayan se beriliyam salphet ke kristal prapt ho jaenge, jise jalane par beriliyam aauksaid prapt hoga.

gun

beriliyam halki, chamakadar, shvet rng ki kathor dhatu hai. beriliyam men ispat ki si pratyasthata hai. beriliyam men eks vikiran ailyoominiyam se 17 guna adhik pravesh kar sakata hai. beriliyam dhatu men dhvani ka veg ispat se dhaee guna adhik (12,600 mitar prati seknd) hai. isake kuchh bhautik sthirank nimnankit hain :

beriliyam ke snket Be, paramanu snkhya 4, paramanu bhar 9.012, galanank 1,280° sen., kvathanank 2,770° sen. ghanatv 1.86 gram prati gh.senmi., paramanu vyas 2.25 aingstraaum (A°), vidyut pratirodhakata 5.88 maikroom senmi. tatha ayanikaran vibhav 9.320 ivo. hai.

rasayanik abhikriyaon men beriliyam ki samanata maignishiyam tatha ailyoominiyam donon se hai. is karan is samanata ko vikarn samamiti kahate hain. beriliyam men maignishiyam se kam, parntu ailyuminiyam se adhik, dhatu gun hain. ailyoominiyam ki bhanti beriliyam ko vayu men garm karane par, usaki satah par aauksaid ki patali parat jam jati hai, jo aauksijan ke adhik akraman ko rokati hai. beriliy dhatu amlon dvara ghul jati hai, parntu usake lavan shighr jalavishleshit hote hain. beriliyam dhatu hailojan tatvon se uchch tap par abhikriya kar, yaugik banati hai. 1,200 °sen. tap par beriliyam karban aur naitrojan se abhikriya karata hai.

upayog

  • eks-re upakaranon men beriliyam ke gavaksh prayukt ho rahe hain.
  • beriliyam se vayuyanon ke karaburetar, phloorosent, tayoobs, niaaun sigrals, saiklotran tatha visphotak padarth bhi banaye jate hain.
  • beriliyam ka sarvadhik upayog mishradhatuon ke nirman men kiya jata hai.
  • jngarodhi ispat men 1 pratishat beriliyam ki sookshm matra milane par, usase bana hua spring atynt kathor ho jata hai. beriliyam-tamr mishradhatu ka spring banane men bahut upayog ho raha hai. yah spring snksharan pratirodhi tatha tikaoo hota hai. any dhatuon men beriliyam ki sookshm matra (0.005 pratishat) milane par, ve aauksikaran pratirodhi ho jate hain.

prapti sthan

beriliyam ki prapti agney chattanon se hoti hain. bharat men aisa beril, jo beriliyam nirman ke lie uttam siddh hua hai, ajamer, bihar rajy tatha tamilanadu rajy men milata hai.

beriliyam ki prapti ke pramukh kshetr hain- jharakhand men hazaribag, kodarama tatha, bihar men gaya zile ke kshetr, rajasthan men udayapur, bansavada, doongarapur tatha ajamer zile, andhr pradesh ka nellaur tatha tamilanadu ka koyambatoor zila.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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