बिहार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

India-flag.gif
bihar
Bihar-map.jpg
rajadhani patana
rajabhasha(en) hindi bhasha, angrezi bhasha, urdoo bhasha, bhojapuri bhasha, magahi bhasha, maithili bhasha
janasnkhya 10,38,04,637[1]
· ghanatv 1,102[1] /varg kimi
kshetraphal 94,163 varg kimi [1]
bhaugolik nirdeshank 25.37°N 85.13°E
tapaman 27 °C (ausat)
· grishm 34 °C
· sharad 10 °C
zile 38[1]
ling anupat 1000:916 ♂/♀
saksharata 63.82[1]%
· stri 53.33%
· purush 73.39%
uchch nyayalay patana uchch nyayalay
rajyapal saty pal malik
mukhyamntri nitish kumar
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
Bihar-Seal.gif

bihar (angrezi:Bihar) bharat ke pramukh rajh‍yon men se ek hai. isake uttar men nepal, poorv men pashchim bngal, pashchim men uttar pradesh tatha dakshin men jharakhand rajh‍y hain. yahan anek nadiyan bahati hain jinamen gnga pramukh hai. anh‍y nadiyan hain- son, pupun, phalgu, karmanasha, durgavati, kosi, gndak, ghaghara adi. bihar gnga tatha usaki sahayak nadiyon ke maidan men basa hai. jharakhand ke alag hone ke bad bihar ki bhoomi mukhyatah nadiyon ke maidan aur samatal bhoobhag hai. bihar gnga ke poorvi maidan men hai. gnga nadi pradesh ke lagabhag bichon bich hokar bahati hai. uttari bihar bagamati, kosi, gndak, son aur unaki sahayak nadiyon ka samatal maidan hai. bihar ke uttar men himalay parvat shreni hai aur dakshin men chhota nagapur pathar hai jisaka hissa ab jharakhnd hai. uttar se kee nadiyan bihar se hokar bahati hain aur gnga men mil jati hain. in nadiyon men, varsha ritu men badh bahut badi samasya hai. bihar men sthit odntapuri 'purana nam udntapuri' ko terahavin sadi ke prarambh men musalaman akrantaon ne nasht kar diya.

itihas

bihar ka ulh‍lekh vedon, puranon aur prachin mahakavh‍yon men milata hai. yah rajh‍y mahath‍ma buddh aur 24 jain tirthakaron ki karmabhoomi raha hain. eesa poorv kal men is kshetr par bimbisar, pataliputr ki sh‍thapana karane vale udayan, chandragupt maury aur samrat ashok sahit maury, shung tatha kanh‍v rajavnsh ke nareshon ne raj kiya isake pashh‍chat kushan shasakon ka samay aya aur bad men guph‍t vnsh ke chandragupt vikramadity ne bihar par raj kiya. madhh‍yakal men muslim shasakon ka is kshetr par adhikar raha. bihar par sabase pahale vijay pane vala muslim shasak 'mohamh‍mad bin bakhtiyar khilaji' tha. khilaji vnsh ke bad tugalaq vnsh tatha mugal vnsh ka adhipath‍y raha tha. daauktar ansari (1880-1936 ee.) ek pramukh musalaman rashtriyatavadi neta the. unaka janm bihar men hua.

bhoogol

prakritik roop se yah rajy gnga nadi dvara do bhagon men vibhajit hai, uttar bihar maidan aur dakshin bihar maidan. sudoor pashchimottar men himalay ki taraee ko chhodakar gnga ka uttari maidan samudr tal se 75 mitar se bhi kam ki oonchaee par jalodh samatali kshetr ka nirman karata hai aur yahan badh ane ki snbhavana hamesha bani rahati hai. ghaghara gndak, bagamati, kosi, mahannda aur any nadiyan nepal men himalay se niche utarati hain aur alag-alag jalamargon se hoti huee gnga men milati hain.
vaishali, bihar
jhilon aur gart lupt ho chuki in dharaon ke praman hain. vinashakari badh lane ke lie lnbe samay tak 'bihar ka shok' mani jane vali kosi nadi ab kritrim potarohanon men simit ho gee hai. uttari maidan ki mitti zyadatar nee kachhari mitti hai, jisamen boodhi gndak nadi ke pashchim men khadiyayukt v halki kan vali (zyadatar domat baluee) aur poorv men khadiyamukt v bhari kan vali (domat chikani) mitti hai. himalay ke bhooknpiy kshetr men sthit hone ke karan yah kshetr ek any prakritik apada (bhooknpiy gatividhiyon) se prabhavit hai. 1934 aur 1988 ke bhishan bhooknp ne bhari tabahi huee aur jan-mal ko kshati pahunchi.

dakshin-pashchim men son ghati ke par sthit kaimoor pathar men kshaitij balukashm ki parat choona-patthar ki paraton se dhaki hai. uttar ke muqabale dakshin gangey maidan zyada vividh hai aur anek pahadiyon ka utthan kachhari satah se hota hai. son nadi ko chhodakar sabhi nadiyan chhoti hain, jinake jal ko sinchaee naharon ki or mod diya jata hai. yahan ki mrida kali chikani ya pili domat mitti se snghatit apekshakrit purani jalodhiy hai. yah khasakar kshetr ke dakshin ki or anurvar v ratili hai.

jalavayu

bihar men mukhy roop se tin rituen hain:-

  1. march se mukhy joon tak grishm ritu
  2. madhy joon se aktoobar tak dakshin-pashchim maaunasoon vali varsha ritu
  3. navnbar se faravari tak shit ritu hai.

sudoor uttar ko chhodakar mee rajy ka sabase garm mahina hota hai, jisamen tapaman 32°C ko bhi par kar jata hai. rajy men samany varshik varsha pashchim-madhy men 1,016 mimi aur sudoor uttar men 1,524 mimi ke bich hoti hai. lagabhag snpoorn varsha (85-90 pratishat) joon aur aktoobar ke bich hoti hai aur salana varsha ka lagabhag 50 pratishat julaee v agast mahine men hota hai. bihar men shit ritu varsha ka sabase suhavana mausam hota hai.

arthavyavastha

bihar ki lagabhag 75 pratishat janasnkhya krishi kary men snlagn hai. 20vin shatabdi ke uttarardh men khanan v vinirman men men ullekhaniy upalabdhi ke babajood bihar prati vyakti ay ke mamale men desh men sabase akhir men hai aur rajy ki lagabhag adhi abadi prashasanik taur par garibi rekha ke niche hai. jharakhnd ke gathan ke sath hi isaki musibaten badhin hain aur bihar ko khanij snpada ke vishal bhndar se vnchit hona pada. nimnatam prati vyakti ay v atyadhik saghan janasnkhya vale bihar ki arthavyavastha pichhadati ja rahi hai.

krishi

bihar ki arthavyavastha krishi par adharit hai. bihar ka kul bhaugolik kshetr lagabhag 93.60 lakh hekh‍teyar hai jisamen se keval 56.03 lakh hekh‍teyar par hi kheti hoti hai. rajh‍y men lagabhag 79.46 lakh hekh‍teyar bhoomi krishi yogh‍y hai. vibhinh‍n sadhanon dvara kul 43.86 lakh hekh‍teyar bhoomi par hi sinchaee suvidhaen upalabh‍dh hain jabaki lagabhag 33.51 lakh hekh‍teyar bhoomi ki sinchaee hoti hai. bihar ki pramukh khady fasalen hain- dhan, gehoon, makh‍ka aur dalen. mukhh‍y nakadi fasalen hain- ganna, aloo, tnbakoo, tilahan, ph‍yaj, mirch, patasan. lagabhag 6,764.14 varg ki. mi. kshetr men van phaile hain jo rajh‍y ke kul bhaugolik kshetr ka lagabhag 7.1 pratishat hain.

udyog

rajh‍y ke mukhh‍y udyog hain -

  1. mujaphpharapur aur mokama men 'bharat vaigan limited' ka relave vaigan snyntr.
  2. barauni men bharatiy tel nigam ka telashodhak karakhana hai.
  3. barauni ka ech.pi.si.el. aur amajhor ka pairaits phaaush‍phet end kaimikalh‍s limited (pi.pi.si.el.) rajh‍y ke urvarak snyntr hain.
  4. sivan, bhagalapur, pndaul, mokama aur gaya men panch badi soot kataee milen hain.
  5. uttar v dakshin bihar men 13 chini milen hain, jo niji kshetr ki hain tatha 15 chini milen sarvajanik kshetr ki hain jinaki kul peraee kshamata 45,00 ti.pi.di. hai.
  6. isake alava gopalagnj, pashchimi chnparan, bhagalapur aur riga (sitamadhi zila) men sharab banane ke karakhane hain.
  7. pashchimi chnparan, mujaphpharapur aur barauni men chamada prasnsh‍karan ke udyog hai.
  8. katihar aur samash‍tipur men tin bade patasan ke karakhane hain.
  9. hajipur men davaen banane ka karakhana, aurngabad aur patana men khady prasnsh‍karan aur vanash‍pati banane ke karakhane hain.
  10. isake alava bnjari men kalh‍yanapur siment limited namak siment karakhane ka bihar ke audyogik nakh‍she men mahath‍vapoorn sh‍than hai.
patana ka drishy

sinchaee

bihar men kul sinchaee kshamata 28.63 lakh hekh‍teyar hai. yah kshamata badi tatha mnjholi sinchaee pariyojanaon se jutaee jati hai. yahan badi aur madhh‍yam sinchaee pariyojanaon ka srijan kiya gaya hai aur 48.97 lakh hekh‍teyar kshetraphal ki sinchaee pramukh sinchaee yojanaon ke madhh‍yam se ki jati hai.

parivahan

bihar ki parivahan vyavastha shuroo se hi nadiyon se prabhavit rahi hai. nauka dvara nadiyon ke kinaron par parivahan ki vyavastha rahati hai. rajy ki parivahan vyavastha gnga nadi par vishesh roop se nirbhar hai. gnga nadi ke uttar tatha dakshini maidani bhagon men rel tatha sadakon dvara parivahan ki vyavastha badh adi se prabhavit hoti hai, isalie nadi ke kinaron par sudridh tatabndhon ka nirman karaya gaya hai. bihar se uttar bharat ke anek rajy sadak marg se jude hain. sherashah ne peshavar tak sadak marg ka nirman karaya tha. yah marg us samay 'sadak-e-azam' kahalata tha, ajakal is sadak ko 'The Grand Trunk Road / graind trnk rod / ji. ti. rod' ke nam se jana jata hai. sherashah ne 1542 ee. men isaka nirman karaya tha. yah sadak peshavar se kolakata tak jati hai. bihar ki parivahan vyavastha men sadak aur relamarg bahut mahattvapoorn hai kintu jal parivahan ka vikas simit hi hua hai. bihar men yatayat ke mukhyatah char sadhan hain-

sadak

purane samay se hi bihar uttar bharat ke any bhagon se sadak marg se juda hua hai. prachin shasakon ki prashasanik aur arthik vyavastha sthal margon par hi adharit thi. samrat ashok ne vaibhavashali magadh ko rajadhani banaya tha, aur rajagaur aur pataliputr ke bich rajy marg ka nirman karaya tha. madhyakal men mugal shasakon aur sherashah soori ne sadak ka nirman kiya tha. 1947 ee. men bihar men kul sadakon ki lambaee 1315 kilomitar thi. ajakal sadakon ki lambaee 67116 kilomitar hai. rashtriy marg rajy ki prathamik sadak vyavastha hai. isake rakharakhav ki vyavastha kendriy sarakar par hai. rajy men 4717 kilomitar lambe sadak marg ka nirman kiya gaya hai. isake atirikt 26092 ki.mi. lambi sadakon ko do len ka kiya ja raha hai.

nam lamh‍baee (ki.mi)
rashtriy rajamarg snkhya-2 392 kilomitar
rashtriy rajamarg snkhya-6 bihar men lambaee 22 kilomitar
rashtriy rajamarg snkhya- 23 250 kilomitar lambaee
rashtriy rajamarg snkhya-28 259 kilomitar lambaee
rashtriy rajamarg-30 230 kilomitar lambaee
rashtriy rajamarg-31 437 kilomitar lambaee
  • prantiy rajamarg, jo zila mukhyalayon aur pradesh ki rajadhani ko jodate hain. bihar ke maidani bhag men sadaken barasat men pani men doob jati hain.
  • sthaniy sadaken, jo zila mukhyalay ko kasbon aur ganvon ko apas men jodati hain. ye kachchi aur pakh‍ki donon tarah ki hoti hain. yah eenton se banin hain aur varsha se inamen toot-phoot ho jati hai.
  • march, 2008 tak bihar men 45,721.059 kilomitar pakh‍ki sadaken thin. inamen 3,734.38 kilomitar rashh‍triy rajamarg, 3,766.029 kilomitar prantiy rajamarg, 7,992.65 pramukh zila sadaken, 2,828 kilomitar anh‍y zila sadaken tatha 27,400 kilomitar gramin sadaken shamil thin.
relave

bihar men rel lainon ka achh‍chha jal bichha hua hai. mokama men ekamatr relave pul hone ke karan uttari bihar ke lie parivahan vh‍yavash‍tha men thodi pareshani hai. kuchh mahath‍vapoorn sh‍thanon ko jodane vale relamargo, jaise- mujaphpharapur-samash‍tipur-barauni-katihar aur samash‍tipur rajh‍y ke mukhh‍y relave jnkh‍shan hain.

uddayan

rajh‍y men sabhi bade zilon men havaee pattiyon ke alava patana men antararashh‍triy havaee adda hai. parivahan ke dvara rajy ki arthik pragati tatha vikas hota hai. parivahan ki samuchit vyavastha se audyogikaran, krishi aur samajik jivan ka vikas hota hai.

shiksha

yadyapi 20vin sadi ke uttarardh men bihar ki shiksha dar lagabhag tiguni hokar rajy ki janasnkhya ke qarib 48 pratishat tak pahunch gee hai, phir bhi yah desh ke any rajyon ki shiksha dar ki tulana men kafi niche hai. mahila saksharata dar (33.57 pratishat) ki tulana men purush saksharata dar (60.32 pratishat) lagabhag dugani hai. 14 varsh tak ke sabhi bachchon ko shikshit karana rajy ka pradhan lakshy hai. inamen se lagabhag 90 pratishat bachche prathamik skoolon men dakhila lene ke yogy hain, lekin inamen se bahut kam hi madhyamik star tak pahunch pate hain, kyonki inaki arthik avashyakataen inhen kam karane ke lie badhy karati hain. vyavasayik aur takaniki shikshan snsthaen sarakari vibhagon dvara sahayata prapt hain. bihar ke uchch shikshan snsthanon men patana sthit prachin v mahattvapoorn patana vishvavidyalay; muzaffarapur men bi. ar. e. bihar vishvavidyalay aur bhagalapur sthit 'tilaka manjhi bhalapur vishvavidyalay' shamil hain. bad ke donon shikshan snsthan vibhinn vishayon men snatak star ke pathyakram snchalit karate hain aur inase anek mahavidyalay snbaddh hain. d patana skool aauf arts aind krafts men vishisht vishayon ke shiksha di jati hai.

  • prachin kal men bihar shiksha ka pramukh kendr tha. shiksha ka pramukh kendr nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay , vikramashila vishh‍vavidyalay, varjasan vishh‍vavidyalay evn odantapuri vishh‍vavidyalay the.
  • bihar men shiksha madhyakal se prarambh huee thi. is samay adhikanshat: muslim hi uchch shiksha grahan karate the. shiksha ka madhyam pharasi tha kintu kahin snskrit ke bhi shikshan snsthan the.
  • ajimabad (patana) bihar men pharasi ka sabase bada kendr tha. bihar ke prasiddh vidvanon men qazi gulam muzaphphar the.
  • adhunik shiksha ka prarambh 1835 ee. men laaurd viliyam baintik dvara kiya gaya. shiksha ka madhyam snskrit-pharasi ke sath angrezi bhi tha lekin angrezi bhasha ki sarv pramukhata thi.
  • poorniya ke bihar sharif tatha chhapara men ek angrezi shiksha kendr ki sthapana ki gee.

prachin shiksha kendr

prachin kal se bihar shiksha ka pramukh kendr raha hai. jo nimn hain-

nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay

  • guptakalin samrat kumaragupt pratham ne 415-454 ee.poo. nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay ki sthapana ki thi.
  • nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay men adhyayan karane ke lie java, chin, tibbat, shrilnka v koriya adi ke chhatr ate the.
  • jab hvenasang bharat aya tha us samay nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay men 8500 chhatr evn 1510 adhyapak the. isake prakhyat adhyapakon shilabhadr, dharmapal, chandrapal, gunamati, sthiramati, prabhamitr, jinamitr, dikanag, gyanachandr, nagarjun, vasubandhu, asng, dharmakirti adi the.
  • is vishh‍vavidyalay men pali bhasha men shikshan kary hota tha. 12vin shati men bakhtiyar khilaji ke akraman se yah vishvavidyalay nasht ho gaya tha.

vikramashila vishh‍vavidyalay

  • palavnshiy shasak ne 770-810 ee. men vikramashila vishh‍vavidyalay ki sthapana ki thi.
  • vikramashila vishh‍vavidyalay bauddh dharm ki vajrayan shakha ka pramukh kendr tha. yahan nyay, tatvgyan evn vyakaran ki shiksha di jati thi.
  • vikramashila vishh‍vavidyalay ke vidvanon men rakshit virochan, gyanabhadr, buddh jetarit, rath‍nakar, shantigyan, shrimitr, abhaynkar the.
  • is vishvavidyalay men tibbat ke chhatron ki snkhya sarvadhik thi.

odantapuri vishh‍vavidyalay

pal vnsh ke pratham shasak gopal ne odantapuri vishh‍vavidyalay ki sthapana ki thi. yah vishh‍vavidyalay bihar sharif nagar ke samip hai. yah vishh‍vavidyalay tantr vidya ka kendr tha. maharakshit aur shilarakshit namak prasiddh vidvanh the.

tilak mahavidyalay

  • magadh men shiksha ka kendr tilak mahavidyalay tha. isaka ullekh chini yatriyon (hvenasang evn itsing) ne apane yatra snsmaranon men kiya hai.
  • haryak vnsh ke shasakon ne is vidyalay ki sthapana ki thi. yah vidyalay mahayan sampraday ka kendr tha.is kendr men prgyanabhadr nam ke vidvanh the.
  • tilak mahavidyalay ki pachan nalanda ke pas ke tillas ganv ke roop men ki gayi hai.

phoolahari shikshan snsthan

  • phoolahari shikshan snsthan nalanda ke pas tha.
  • yahan bauddh acharyon aur tibbati vidvanon ka nivas raha hai.

sanskritik jivan

bihar ka sanskritik kshetr bhashaee kshetr ke sath qaribi sambandh darshata hai. maithili prachin mithila (videh, vartaman tirahut) ki bhasha hai, jisamen brahmanavadi jivan vyavastha ki pradhanata hai. maithili bihar ki ekamatr boli hai, jisaki apani lipi (tirahut) aur samriddh sahityik itihas hai. maithili ke prachinatam aur sarvadhik prasiddh rachanakaron men vidyapati apane shrringarik v bhakti giton ke lie vikhyat hain.

buddh pratima, bodhagaya
sahity

bhojapuri boli men shayad hi koee likhit sahity hai, lekin isaka maukhik lok sahity prachur hai. magahi ka lok sahity bhi kafi samriddh hai. adhunik hindi v urdoo sahity men bihar ke maidani kshetron ke rachanakaron ka bhi ullekhaniy yogadan hai.

adivasi snskriti

adhikatar adivasi ganvon men ek nrity mnch, gram purohit dvara ishtadev ki pooja ke lie ek pavitr upavan (sarana) v avivahiton ke lie ek shayanagar (dhumakuriya) hota hai. saptahik hat janajatiy arthavyavastha men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhate hain. adivasi tyoharon men (jaise sarahul), vasntotsav (sohari) aur shitotsav (mage parv) umng v ullas ke parv hote hain. eesaeeyat, udyogikaran, ne snchar samparkon, adivasi kalyan karyakramon v samudayik vikas yojanaon ke karan mool adivasi snskriti tezi se badal rahi hai.

prachinakalin vikhyat sthal

rajy ke maidan dharmik v sanskritik mahatv ke sthanon se sambaddh hain. nalanda men prachinakalin vikhyat nalanda bauddh vishvavidyalay tha. rajagir aur isake samip ke prachin v adhunik mandiron v dharmasthalon ki anek dharmon ke shraddhaluon dvara yatra ki jati hai. pavapuri men hi jain dharm ke pravartak mahavir ko mahanirvan (gyanaprapti ya punarjanm ke antahin chakr se mukti) ki prapti huee thi. gaya ek mahattvapoorn hindoo tirthasthal hai aur isake nikat bauddh dharm ka pavitr sthal bodhagaya sthit hai, jahan buddh ko bodhitv ki prapti huee thi. patana ke uttar men sonapur ke samip harihar kshetr men pratyek navambar men bharat ke prachinatam v vishal pashu melon men se ek ka ayojan hota hai. bihar ke anek hindoo tyoharon men holi aur chhath (mukhyataya striyon dvara soory ki aradhana) ka sthan atyadhik mahattvapoorn hai.

bhasha

bihar ki adhikarik bhashaen hindi bhasha aur urdoo hain, parantu adhikansh log bolachal men bihari bhasha (magadhi, maithili, bhojapuri aur angika) ka prayog karate hain.

paryatan sh‍thal

bihar paryatan sthalon, aitihasik dharoharon, dharm, adhyatm aur snskriti ka kendr raha hai. yahan ki paramparaen, snskriti, riti-rivaj aur jivan-paddhatiyan, mele, parv, tyohar hamesha se paryatakon ko akarshit karate rahe hain.

  • rajh‍y ke pramukh paryatan kendr hain- rajagir, nalnda, vaishali, pavapuri jahan bhagavan mahavir ne antim sans li aur nirvan ko praph‍t hue, bodhagaya, vikramashila uchh‍ch shiksha ke bauddh vishh‍vavidyalay ke avashesh, patana pataliputr ka prachin nagar aur sasaram sherashah soori ka maqabara aur madhubani.
  • anh‍y mahath‍vapoorn paryatan sh‍thal hain : mundeshh‍vari mndir, kaimoor, rohatasagadh qila, rohatas, jain tirth sh‍thal, kundalapur, nalnda, bihar yog kendr, munger, maner shariph, patana, gramin

paryatan sh‍thal nepura, nalnda, kesariya, poorvi chnparan.

pramukh paryatan sh‍thal
nagar vivaran
patana yah bihar pradesh ki rajadhani hai. ajatashatru ke putr udayabhadr ne 444 - 460 ee. poo. men pataliputr ki sthapana ki thi aur use apani rajadhani banaya tha. patana men aitihasik sthal, sikhon ke dasaven guru ka janm sthal pramukh darshaniy sthal hain.
rajagir rajagir garm jharanon ke lie jana jata hai. shitakal men bhraman aur svasthy ke lie uttam hai. yahan pratham vishh‍v bauddh sngiti ka ayojan hua tha. yahan jain v hinduon ke anek pavitr dharmik sthal hain.
nalanda prachinakal men nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay tha, jahan desh-videsh ke chhatr shiksha ke lie ate the. ajakal isake avashesh dikhalaee dete hain.
gaya gaya hinduon ka mahattvapoorn tirth sthal hai. yahan poorvajon ki atma ki shanti ke lie pindadan kiya jata hai. bhagavan shri ramachandr ne apane pita dasharath ka pindadan yahan kiya tha.
baksar baksar men vishvamitr ka ashram tha. yahin par ram aur lakshman ka prarambhik shikshan-prashikshan hua. prasiddh tadaka rakshasi ka vadh ram dvara yahin pa kiya gaya tha. 1764 ee. ka 'baksar yuddh' bhi itihas prasiddh hai.
maner maner bihar pradesh ki rajadhani patana se 29 kilomitar ki doori par hai. yahan shahadaulat aur shekh yahiya maneri ke maqabare hain.
madhubani madhubani nagar madhubani chitrakala ke lie prakhyat hai. 2003 ee. men landan men ayojit kala pradarshani men madhubani pentings ko bahut prashnsa mili thi.
munger munger men aitihasik qila hai. yahin par prasiddh yog vishh‍vavidyalay bhi hai. prachin ang samrajy ka munger pramukh kendr tha.
sonapur sonapur men kartik mah men eshiya ka sabase bada pashu mela lagata hai. sonapur men prasiddh aitihasik hariharanath ji ka mandir hai.
vaishali chhathi sadi ee. poo. men vaishali nagar ganatantr tha. vaishali vishh‍v ke prachinatam ganatantr ke lie prasiddh hai. prasiddh jain tirthnkar mahavir ka janm sthal hai.
valmiki nagar yah sthan valmiki rishi ke janm sthal ke lie prasiddh hai. prachin kal men valmiki rishi ka ashram yahan tha. valmiki nagar men ek prasiddh abhayarany bhi hai.
vikramashila vikramashila bhagalapur zile men gnga ke tat par sthit hai. prachin samay men vikhyat vikramashila vishh‍vavidyalay tha. usake aitihasik avashesh ab bhi yahan hain.
jiradeyoo jiradehyoo bharat ke pratham rashtrapati daau. rajendr prasad ka janm sthal hai.
sasaram soor vnsh ke snsthapak aphagan shasak sherashah soori ka maqabara sasaram men hai aur desh ka prasiddh 'grand trnk rod' bhi isi shahar se hokar gujarata hai.
sitamadhi sitamadhi hinduon ka pramukh tirth sthal hai. sitamadhi ke poonaura namak sthan par jab raja janak ne khet men hal jota tha, us samay dharati se sita ka janm hua tha. sita ji ke janm ke karan is nagar ka nam sitamadhi pada.
visapi yah sthan madhubani / darabhnga zile men hai. visapi men maithili kavi vidyapati ka janm hua tha.
pavapuri pavapuri patana se 104 kilomitar aur nalanda se 25 kimi doori par sthit hai. yahin jain dharm ke pravartak mahavir ji ne nirvan prapt kiya tha. yahan ka jal mandir, maniyar math tatha venuvan darshaniy sthal hain.
barauni barauni uttari bihar ka pramukh audyogik nagar hai. yahan tel shodhan karakhana, gnga par sadak aur rel pul hai.
bhagalapur bhagalapur bihar ke aitihasik nagaron men se ek hai. bhagalapur vishh‍vavidyalay yahan ka pramukh shiksha kendr hain. barari ki guphaen darshaniy hain. vishnu mandir, shiv mandir prasiddh hai . yahan 'tasar resham' ka utpadan hota hai.
ara ara patana se 32 mil ki doori par hai. ara ke darshaniy sthalon men arany devi, madhiya ka ram mandir prasiddh hai.
katihar katihar zile men barari guru bazar ka gurudvara prasiddh hai. sikhon ke naven guru tegabahadur dvara lngar ka ayojan kiya gaya tha. salamari steshan ke pas shiv ji ka gorakhanath mandir, rani indravati ki rajadhani sauriya prasiddh hain.
bihar sharif bihar sharif patana se 85 kilomitar ki door dakshin-poorv men hai. yah muslim snskriti ka pramukh kendr hai . yahan makhadoom sahab ki daragah tatha malik ibrahim vayan ka maqabara hai.
poorniya poorniya mahabharat kalin dharm-sthal tha. yah uttar-poorvi bihar men hai. yahan se nepal jane ka rasta hai. banabhakhi ke sikaligadh prachin garimapoorn sthal hai.
barabar pahadi barabar pahadi men sat prachin guphaen vistrit prakoshthon ke roop men nirmit hain. in sat guphaon men se tin men ashok ke abhilekh ankit hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
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vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Bihar State Profile (angrezi) (ech.ti.em.el) bihar ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 3 joon, 2011.

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