नालन्दा विश्‍वविद्यालय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay
nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay
vivaran desh-videsh ke chhatr shiksha ke lie nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay ate the. ajakal isake avashesh dikhalaee dete hain.
rajy bihar
zila nalanda zila
nirman kal 450-470 ee.
sthapana guptakalin samrat kumaragupt pratham ne 415-454 ee. poo. men nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay ki sthapana ki.
bhaugolik sthiti uttar- 25° 8' 12.47", poorv- 85° 26' 37.78"
marg sthiti patana se 95 kilomitar, rajagir se 12 kilomitar, bodhagaya se 90 kilomitar (gaya hokar), pavapuri se 26 kilomitar ki doori par sthit hai.
kaise pahunchen viman, rel, bas, kar adi.
havaee adda patana aur gaya havaee adda
relave steshan nikatavarti relave sh‍teshan rajagir v nalanda
yatayat bas, taksi, aauto riksha adi
kya dekhen nalanh‍da puratath‍viy sngrahalay
kahan thaharen hotal, dharmashala, atithi grah
es.ti.di. kod 61194
e.ti.em lagabhag sabhi
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr
kshetraphal 2367 varg kilomitar
any janakari ab tak ke mile avasheshon se aisa pratit hota hai ki yahan par vyakhyan hetu 7 bade kaksh evn 300 chhote kaksh banaye gaye the.

nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay (angrezi: Nalanda University) prachin bharat men uchchh shiksha ka sarvadhik mahatvapoorn aur vikhyat kendr tha. bihar ke nalanda zile men ek nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay tha, jahan desh - videsh ke chhatr shiksha ke lie ate the. ajakal isake avashesh dikhalaee dete hain. patana se 90 kilomitar door aur bihar sharif se qarib 12 kilomitar dakshin men, vishv prasiddh prachin bauddh vishvavidyalay, nalnda ke khandahar sthit hain. yahan 10,000 chhatron ko padhane ke lie 2,000 shikshak the. prasiddh chini yatri hvenasang ne 7vin shatabdi men yahan jivan ka mahattvapoorn ek varsh ek vidyarthi aur ek shikshak ke roop men vyatit kiya tha. prasiddh 'bauddh sariputr' ka janm yahin par hua tha.

pustakalay ke pas stoop, nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay

itihas

is vishvavidyalay ke nirman ke vishay men nishchit janakari ka abhav hai phir bhi gupt vnshi shasak kumaragupt (414-455 ee.) ne is bauddh sngh ko pahala dan diya tha. hnenasang ke anusar 470 ee. men gupt samrat narasinh gupt baladity ne nalanda men ek sundar mandir nirmit karavakar isamen 80 phut oonchi tanbe ki buddh pratima ko sthapit karavaya.

vishh‍vavidyalay ki sthapana

  • guptakalin samrat kumaragupt pratham ne 415-454 ee.poo. nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay ki sthapana ki thi.
  • nalnda snskrit shabh‍d 'nalamh + da' se bana hai. snsh‍krit men 'nalam' ka arth 'kamal' hota hai. kamal gyan ka pratik hai. nalamh + da yani kamal dene vali, gyan dene vali. kalakram se yahan mahavihar ki sh‍thapana ke bad isaka nam 'nalnda mahavihar' rakha gaya.
sariputta stoop, nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay
  • maharaj shakadity, sambhavat: guptavnshiy samrat kumar gupt, 415-455 ee., ne is jagah ko vishvavidyalay ke roop men vikasit kiya. usake bad unake uttaradhikari any rajaon ne yahan anek viharon aur vishvavidyalay ke bhavanon ka nirman karavaya. inamen se gupt samrat baladity ne 470 ee. men yahan ek sundar mndir banavakar bhagavan buddh ki 80 phit ki pratima sthapit ki thi.
  • nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay men adhyayan karane ke lie java, chin, tibbat, shrilnka v koriya adi ke chhatr ate the.
  • jab hvenasang bharat aya tha us samay nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay men 8500 chhatr evn 1510 adhyapak the. isake prakhyat adhyapakon shilabhadr ,dharmapal, chandrapal, gunamati, sthiramati, prabhamitr, jinamitr, dikanag, gyanachandr, nagarjun, vasubandhu, asng, dharmakirti adi the.
  • videshi yatriyon ke varnan ke anusar nalanda vishvavidyalay men chhatron ke rahane ki uttam vyavastha thi. ullekh milata hai ki yahan ath shalaen aur 300 kamare the. kee khndon men vidyalay tatha chhatravas the. pratyek khnd men chhatron ke snan lie sundar taranatal the jinamen niche se oopar jal lane ka prabndh tha. shayanasthan pattharon ke bane the. jab nalanda vishvavidyalay ki khudaee ki gee tab usaki vishalata aur bhavyata ka gyan hua. yahan ke bhavan vishal, bhavy aur sundar the. kalatmakata to inamen bhari padi thi. yahan tanbe evn pital ki buddh ki moortiyon ke praman milate hain.
  • is vishh‍vavidyalay men pali bhasha men shikshan kary hota tha. 12vin shati men bakhtiyar khilaji ke akraman se yah vishvavidyalay nasht ho gaya tha.
  • pahale yahan keval ek bauddh vihar bana tha jo dhire-dhire ek mahanh vidyalay ke roop men parivartit ho gaya. is vishvavidyalay ko gupt tatha maukhari nareshon tatha 'kanyakubjadhip' harsh se nirntar arth sahayata aur snrakshan prapt hota raha
  • yuvanachvang ke pashchath bhi agale 30 varshon men nalnda men prayah gyarah chini aur koriyayi yatri ae the.
  • nalanda vishvavidyalay ke shikshak apane gyan evn vidya ke lie vishv men prasiddh the. inaka charitr sarvatha ujjval aur dosharahit tha. chhatron ke lie kathor niyam tha. jinaka palan karana avashyak tha. chini yatri henasang ne nalnda vishvavidyalay men bauddh darshan, dharm aur sahity ka adhyayan kiya tha. usane das varshon tak yahan adhyayan kiya. usake anusar is vishvavidyalay men pravesh pana saral nahin tha. yahan keval uchch shiksha prapt karane vale chhatr hi pravesh pa sakate the. pravesh ke lie pahale chhatr ko pariksha deni hoti thi. isamen uttirn hone par hi pravesh snbhav tha. vishvavidyalay ke chh: dvar the. pratyek dvar par ek dvar pandit hota tha. pravesh se pahale vo chhatron ki vahin pariksha leta tha. is pariksha men 20 se 30 pratishat chhatr hi uttirn ho pate the. vishvavidyalay men pravesh ke bad bhi chhatron ko kathor parishram karana padata tha tatha anek parikshaon men uttirn hona anivary tha. yahan se snatak karane vale chhatr ka har jagah samman hota tha.
  • chin men itsing aur huili aur koriya se hainih, yahan ane vale videshi yatriyon men mukhy hai. 630 ee. men jab yuvanachvang yahan ae the tab yah vishvavidyalay apane charamotkarsh par tha. is samay yahan das sahastr vidyarthi aur ek sahastr achary the.
sariputta stoop, nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay
  • vidyarthiyon ka pravesh nalnda vishvavidyalay men kafi kathinaee se hota tha kyonki keval uchchakoti ke vidyarthiyon ko hi pravisht kiya jata tha.
  • shiksha ki vyavastha mahasthavir ke niyntran men thi. shilabhadr us samay yahan ke pradhanachary the. ye prasiddh bauddh vidvanh the. yahan ke any khyatiprapt acharyon men nagarjun, padamasnbhav, jinhonne tibbat men bauddh dharm ka prachar kiya, shantirakshit aur dipnkar, ye sabhi bauddh dharm ke itihas men prasiddh hain.
  • nalnda 7vin shati men tatha usake pashchath kee sau varshon tak eshiya ka sarvashreshth vishvavidyalay tha. yahan adhyayan ke lie chin ke atirikt chnpa, knboj, java, sumatra, brahmadesh, tibbat, lnka aur eeran adi deshon ke vidyarthi ate the aur vidyalay men pravesh pakar apane ko dhany manate the.
  • nalanda vishvavidyalay men shiksha, avas, bhojan adi ka koee shulk chhatron se nahin liya jata tha. sabhi suvidhaen ni:shulk thin. rajaon aur dhani sethon dvara diye gaye dan se is vishvavidyalay ka vyay chalata tha. is vishvavidyalay ko 200 gramon ki ay prapt hoti thi.
nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay men mandir ke avashesh
  • nalnda ke vidyarthiyon ke dvara hi eshiya men bharatiy sabhyata evn snskriti ka vistrit prachar v prasar hua tha. yahan ke vidyarthiyon aur vidvanon ki mang eshiya ke sabhi deshon men thi aur unaka sarvatradar hota tha. tibbat ke raja ke nimntran par bhadnt shantirakshit aur padmasnbhav tibbat ge the aur vahan unhonne snskrit, bauddh sahity aur bharatiy snskriti ka prachar karane men apratim yogyata dikhaee thi.
  • nalnda men bauddh dharm ke atirikt hetuvidya, shabdavidya, chikitsa shastr, atharvaved tatha sankhy se snbndhit vishay bhi padhae jate the. yuvanachvang ne likha tha ki nalnda ke ek sahastr vidvanh acharyon men se sau aise the jo sootr aur shastr janate the, panch sau, 3 vishayon men parngat the aur bis, 50 vishayon men. keval shilabhadr hi aise the jinaki sabhi vishayon men saman gati thi.

pustakalay

nalnda vishvavidyalay ke tin mahanh pustakalay the-

  1. ratnodadhi,
  2. ratnasagar
  3. ratnarnjak.
stoop aur mndir, nalanda vishh‍vavidyalay

inake bhavanon ki oonchaee ka varnan karate hue yuvanachvang ne likha hai ki 'inaki satamnjili atariyon ke shikhar badalon se bhi adhik oonche the aur in par pratahkal ki him jam jaya karati thi. inake jharokhon men se soory ka satarnga prakash andar akar vatavaran ko sundar evn akarshak banata tha. in pustakalayon men sahastron hastalikhit grnth the.' inamen se anekon ki pratilipiyan yuvanachvang ne ki thi. jain grnth 'sootrakritang' men nalnda ke 'hastiyan' namak sundar udyan ka varnan hai. 1303 ee. men musalamanon ke bihar aur bngal par akraman ke samay, nalnda ko bhi usake prakop ka shikar banana pada. yahan ke sabhi bhikshuon ko akrantaon ne maut ke ghat utar diya. musalamanon ne nalnda ke jagath prasiddh pustakalay ko jalakar bhasmasat kar diya aur yahan ki satamnjili bhavy imaraton aur sundar bhavanon ko nasht-bhrasht karake khndahar bana diya. is prakar bharatiy vidya, snskriti aur sabhyata ke ghar nalnda ko jisaki suraksha ke bare men snsar ki kathor vastavikataon se door rahane vale yahan ke bhikshu vidvanon ne shayad kabhi nahin socha tha, ek hi akraman ke jhatake ne dhool men mila diya.

utkhanan

ab tak hue utkhanan men mile avasheshon se aisa pratit hota hai ki yahan par vyakhyan hetu 7 bade kaksh evn 300 chhote kaksh banaye gaye the. vidyarthiyon ke rahane ke lie chhatravason ki suvidha thi. shailendr shasak balaputr dev ne tatkalin magadh naresh devapal ki anumati se nalanda men java se aye bhikshuon ke nivas ke lie ek vihar ka nirman karavaya tha. yahan hastalikhit grnthon ka ek nau mnjila 'dharmagaj' namak pustakalay tha jo tin bade bhavan ratnasagar ratnodadhi evn ratnarnjak nam se vibhajit tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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