वैशाली  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vaishali
vaishali, bihar
vivaran 'vaishali' bihar ke pramukh paryatan sthalon men se ek hai. yah atynt prachin nagar hai, jisaka mahatma buddh se nikat ka sambndh raha hai.
rajy bihar
zila vaishali
prachin nam 'vishala', 'vaisali' (pali)
snsthapak raja vishal
prashasanik bhasha maithili, hindi
vishesh buddh ko vaishali nagar bada hi priy tha, yahi karan tha ki bauddh log is nagar ki ganana apane dharmik tirth ke roop men karane lage the.
snbndhit lekh bauddh dharm, buddh, bauddh dharmik sthal buddh ki shiksha
any janakari vaishali ke kee upanagaron ke nam pali sahity se prapt hote hai, jaise- 'kundanagar', 'kollag', 'nadik', 'vaniyagam', 'hatthigam' adi.

vaishali gnga ghati ka nagar hai, jo aj ke bihar evn bngal prant ke bich sushobhit hai. is nagar ka ek doosara nam 'vishala' bhi tha. isaki sthapana mahatejasvi 'vishal' namak raja ne ki thi, jo bharatiy parampara ke anusar ikshvaku vnsh men utpann hue the. isaki pahachan mujaphpharapur zile men sthit adhunik basadh se ki jati hai. vahan ke ek prachin tile ko sthaniy janata ab bhi 'raja vishal ka gadh' kahati hai.

sthiti tatha itihas

prachin nagar 'vaishali', jise pali men 'vaisali' kaha jata hai, ke bhagnavashesh vartaman basadh namak sthan ke nikat sthit hain jo mujaphpharapur se 20 mil dakshin-pashchim ki or hai. isake pas hi 'bakhara' namak gram basa hua hai. is nagari ka prachin nam 'vishala' tha, jisaka ullekh valmiki ramayan men hai. gautam buddh ke samay men tatha unase poorv lichchhavi ganarajy ki rajadhani yahan thi. yahan vrijiyon[1] ka snsthagar tha, jo unaka snsad-sadan tha. vrijiyon ki nyayapriyata ki buddh ne bahut sarahana ki thi.[2]

nyay vyavastha

vaishali ke snsthagar men sabhi rajanitik vishayon ki charcha hoti thi. yahan aparadhiyon ke lie dnd vyavastha bhi ki jati thi. kathit aparadhi ka dnd siddh karane ke lie vinishchayamahamaty, vyavaharik, sootradhar ashtakulik, senapati, uparaj ya upaganapati aur ant men ganapati kramik roop se vichar karate the aur aparadh pramanit n hone par koee bhi adhikari doshi ko chhod sakata tha. 'dnd vidhan snhita' ko 'pravenipustak' kahate the. vaishali ko prashasan paddhati ke bare men yahan se prapt mudraon se bahut kuchh janakari hoti hai. vaishali ke bahar sthit 'kootagarashala' men tathagat kee bar rahe the aur apane jivan ka antim varsh bhi unhonne adhikanshat: vahin vyatit kiya tha. isi sthan par ashok ne ek prastar stnbh sthapit kiya tha.

chaityagrih

vaishali ke char prasiddh chaity the-

  1. poorv men udayan
  2. dakshin men gautamak
  3. pashchim men saptabhrak
  4. uttar men bahuputrak

any chaityon ke nam the- 'koramattak' tatha 'chapal' adi. bauddh kivadnti ke anusar tathagat ne chapal chaity hi men apane priy shishy anand se kaha tha ki- "tin mas pashchath mere jivan ka ant ho jaega." lichchhavi log vir the, kintu apas ki phoot ke karan hi ve magadh ke raja ajatashatru ki rajy lipsa ka shikar bane.[2]

buddh ki priy nagari

'ekapann jatak'[3] ke prarnbh men varnan hai ki "vaishali ke charon or tin bhittiyan thin, jinake bich ki doori ek ek kos thi aur nagari ke tin hi sinhadvar the, jinake oopar prahariyon ke lie sthan bane hue the." yuddh ke samay vaishali ati samriddhishali nagari thi. bauddh sahity men yahan ki prasiddh ganika amrapalika ke vishal prasad tatha udyan ka varnan hai. isane tathagat se unake dharm ki diksha grahan kar li thi. tathagat ko vaishali tatha usake nivasiyon se bahut prem tha. unhonne yahan ke ganapramukhon ko devon ki upama di thi. antim samay men vaishali se kushinara ate samay unhonne karoonapoorn dhng se kaha tha ki- "anand ab tathagat is sundar nagari ka darshan n kar sakege."[4]

any mahattvapoorn sthal

jain dharm ke antim tirthnkar mahavir bhi vaishali ke hi rajakumar the. inake pita ka nam 'siddharth' tatha mata ka nam 'trishala' tha. ye lichchhavi vnsh ke hi ratn the. inaka janm sthan vaishali ka upanagar 'kund' ya 'kund' tha, jisaka abhigyan basadh ke nikat 'vasukund' namak gram se kiya gaya hai. vaishali ke kee upanagaron ke nam pali sahity se prapt hote hai, jaise- 'kundanagar', 'kollag', 'nadik', 'vaniyagam', 'hatthigam' adi. 'mahavnsh' [5]ke anusar vaishali ke nikat 'balukaram' namak udyan sthit tha. baravara gram se ek mil door 'kolhoo' namak sthan ke pas ek mahnt ke ashram men ashok ka sinhashirsh stnbh hai, jo prayah pachas phut ooncha hai; kintu bhoomi ke oopar yah keval atharah phut hi hai. chini yatri yuvanachvang ne isaka ullekh kiya hai. pas hi 'markatahrad' namak tadag hai. kaha jata hai ki ise bndaron ke ek samooh ne buddh ke lie khoda tha. markatahrad ka ullekh 'buddhacharit'[6] men hai. yahan unhonne 'mar' ya 'kamadev' ko bataya tha ki ve tin mas men nirvan prapt kar lenge. tadag ke nikat 'kutagr' namak sthan hai. jahan buddh ne 'dharmachakr pravartan' ke panchave varsh men nivas kiya tha. basadh ke khndaharon men ek vishal durg ke dhvnsavashesh bhi sthit hain. isako 'raja vaishali ka gadh' kahate hai. ek stoop ke avashesh bhi pae ge hain.

prachin granthon men

yah nagar ek doosare se kuchh antar par bani huee tin divalon se ghira tha. inamen se ek mitti doosari eent tatha tisari patthar ki bani rahi hogi. prachin granthon men varnan milata hai ki nagar ki qilebandi yathasnbhav in tinon koti ki divalon se ki jay taki shatru ke liye nagar ke bhitar pahunchana asnbhav ho sake. snbhav hai ki yah nagar tin tarah ki khaiyon se ghira ho jinaka varnan kautily adi ne kiya hai; jaise sookhi khaee, jal tatha kichad se bhari khaee. asha hai ki is vishay par vahan bhavishy men hone vali khudaiyon dvara prakash padega.

is nagar ke kendriy bhag men vahan ke shasak lichchhavi log rahate the. huen-sang ne is hisse ko 'pailesasiti' (arthat vah bhag jahan par rajamahal vartaman tha) kaha hai. isaka ghera ek mil ke lagabhag tha. adhik savadhani baratane ke liye ise bhi suraksha ke sadhanon se yukt kar diya gaya tha. isake bhitar kuchh chune hue log hi pravesh kar pate the. shesh janata ko isake bahar basaya gaya tha. huen-sang ke anusar poore nagar ka ghera 14 mil ke lagabhag tha. is sthan par ullekhaniy hai ki nagar ke vibhajan ki yah pratha hadappa ki parampara ka smaran dilati hai, jo gnga ghati men prachalit thi. vahan bhi vishisht janata durg vale hisse men tatha sadharan janata laghu nagar men abad ki gee thi.

shasan vyavastha

lichchhaviyon ka shasan prajatntratmak adarshon par adharit tha. kade se kade masalon ka nirnay ve apane sabhagrih men bahumat dvara karate the. avastha ki drishti se ve koee bhed bhav nahin manate the. sabake rajanitik adhikar evn prabhav barabar hi the. isaki khilli udate huy lalitavistar namak granth men kaha gaya hai ki lichchhavi log apane se jyeshth, vriddh ya pad men uchch vyakti ke prati bhi koee adar ya shishtachar nahin dikhate the. sabake sab apane ko raja samajhate the. ve gautam buddh ke bade hi bhakt the. bauddh granthon men varnan milata hai ki is nagar men amrapali namak ek veshya rahati thi, jo pur ke shobha thi. sadharan veshyaon ki tulana men usaka sthan ooncha tha. buddh ke upadeshon sen vah atyant prabhavit thi.

nagarikon ka charitr

lichchhavi udyogi evn purusharthi samajhe jate the. magadh naresh ajatashatru tak ko unake vinash ki taiyari men lohe ke chane chabane pade the. ve bade hi atithiparayan the. jab nagar men koee bhi navagantuk ata tha, to usaka dil khol kar ve svagat karate the. utsav evn samaroh men ve khoob bhag lete the. abhooshan evn achchhe vastron ke ve shauqin the. ghode, hathi ya palaki par ve saj-dhaj kar aroodh ho rajamargon par nikalate the. ve apane sadachar sambandhi niyamon ka palan badi hi kadaee ke sath karate the. unake samay men vaishali men bauddh dharm ka prabhav kafi phail gaya tha. vahan ke bhikshusngh ke naitik adarshon se ve prabhavit rahe honge. ve vyabhichar ko sabase bada aparadh samajhate the. is jurm men pakade huye vyakti ko pranadand tak diya jata tha. isase chhoot keval unhin purushon ya mahilaon ko di jati thi, jo prayashchitt svaroop hai ki unake samay men yah nagar sundar rajamargon, mahalon, udyan sarovar tatha math adi se sushobhit tha.

lichchhaviyon men dosh

buddh ke parinirvan ke pashchath lichchhavi dvara vaishali men banavaya gaya asthi stoop

lichchhaviyon men dosh yah tha ki unamen jatigat bhavana parale darje ki thi. unhonne ek sarovar bana rakha tha, jisamen nahane ka adhikar ekamatr lichchhavi vnshaj ko hi tha. unaka itana atnk tha ki isake jal ko aur koee chh tak nahin sakata tha. yah sarovar oopar se ek lohe ki jali se dhaka tha, jisase pashu pakshi usake pani ko dooshit nahin kar sakate the. bauddh grnth anguttar-nikay ke varnan se aisa lagata hai ki kuchh lichchhavi navayuvak uddnd bhi the. ve kothe atariyon ke oopar se niche sadakon par chalane vali sundariyon ke oopar kabhi-kabhi dhool ya ganda padarth phenk dete the. is prakar ke durvyavaharon ke karan mahilaon ka ghar se bahar nikalana atyant dushkar ho jata tha. is bat ka spashtikaran yahan avashyak hai ki is tarah ke navayuvakon ki snkhya atyalp thi. adhikansh lichchhavi udaracharit, shisht evn gunasnmpann the.

mauryon se sambandh

gupt kal men lichchhavi vnsh ki kanya kumaradevi ka vivah chndragupt pratham se hua tha. isi rajakumari ke garbh se pratapi samudragupt paida hua. kumaradevi ke nam ka ullekh samudragupt ki prayag prashasti men hua hai. rajanitik drishti se yah vivah snbandh mahattv se bhara hua tha. isake phalasvaroop sampoorn lichchhavirajy gupt-rajy men mil gaya. lagata hai ki kumaradevi lichchhavi-rajy ki ek matr varis rah gee thi. is vivah ke smarak-roop men chandragupt aur kumaradevi donon ke hi nam par sikke chalaye gaye. ye sikke ek hi tarah ke hain. in par donon ke nam aur chitr tatha lichchhaviyon ka ullekh milata hai. vaishali ka nagar ab gupton ko prapt ho gaya. unhonne ise tirabhukti (tirahut prant) ki rajadhani bana di. vahan gupp vnshiy rajakumar rajyapal ki haisiyat se niyukt kiye gaye the. isaki pushti puratattviy sakshyon se bharapoor ho jati hai.

anand stoop, vaishali

dharmik tirth

buddh ko yah sthan bada hi priy tha, at: bauddh log is nagar ki ganana apane dharmik tirth ke roop men karane lage the. lagata hai ki ashok bauddh tirthon ka paryatan karata hua is nagar men bhi aya tha, jisake shirsh sthan par ek sinh-pratima milati hai. yah lat chunar ke baloodar patthar ki bani hai. chini yatriyon ne bhi is nagar ka varnan kiya hai. phahiyan likhata hai ki "isake uttar ki disha men ek udyan tha, jisamen ek dumnzila bhavan bana hua tha. lichchhaviyon ne gautam buddh ke vishram ki suvidha ke lie ise banava rakha tha." usane is nagar men tin stoopon ke vartaman hone ka ullekh kiya hai. ye un sthanon par bane huye the, jo gautam buddh ke jivan se sambandhit the. huyenasang likhata hai ki is nagar ke as-pas ki zamin bahut hi upajaoo thi. usamen kele, am tatha tarah-tarah ke phal-phool paida hote the. chini yatri ka yah kathan pramanik hai. aj bhi mujaphpharapur zile men, jahan vaishali ka nagar sthit tha, lichi, kele aur am ki fasal bahut achchhi hoti hai. huyenasang likhata hai ki "lichchhavi bade hi eemanadar, sushikshit tatha dharmaparayan the. apani jaban ki raksha ke liye ve pranon ki bazi laga dete the. usane ashok nirmit stambh ka ullekh kiya hai. usane bhi vahan kee stoopon ke hone ka ullekh kiya hai, jinamen buddh tatha unake priy shishyon ki asthiyan gadi gee thin. jain dharm ke pravartak mahavir svami ka janm isi nagari men hua tha. at: ve log is puri ko 'mahavir-janani' kahate the. vaishali ke nagarik unaki mrityu tithi ke avasar par ratri ko dipak jalate the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. lichchhaviyon ki ek shakha
  2. 2.0 2.1 aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 882 |
  3. kaavel, sn.149
  4. buddhacharit 25,34
  5. mahavnsh 4,150,4,63
  6. buddhacharit 23,63

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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