बुद्ध  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(गौतम बुद्ध se punarnirdeshit)
buddh vishay soochi
snkshipt parichay
buddh
paradarshi chivar dharan kie hue buddh
any nam siddharth, gautam buddh, mahatma buddh, shaky muni
avatar bhagavan vishnu ke das avataron men nauven avatar
pita raja shuddhodan
mata rani mahamaya
janm vivaran 563 eesa poorv, lumbini (kapilavastu)
dharm-snpraday bauddh dharm- 'theravad', 'mahayan', 'vajrayan'
vivah yashodhara
sntan rahul
shasan-rajy shaky ganarajy
any vivaran bauddh dharm ko paintis karod se adhik log manate hain aur yah duniya ka chautha sabase bada dharm hai.
mrityu 483 eesa poorv, kushinagar (ayu- 80 varsh)
snbndhit lekh saranath, sankashy, kaushanbi, vairnja, kanyakubj
jaynti vaishakh ki poornima (buddh poornima)
antim shabd "he bhikshuon, is samay aj tumase itana hi kahata hoon ki jitane bhi snskar hain, sab nash hone vale hain, pramad rahit ho kar apana kalyan karo."[1]
any janakari mathura men anek bauddh kalin moortiyan mili hain. jo maury kal aur kushan kal men mathura ki ati unnat moorti kala ki amooly dharohar hain.

buddh ko 'gautam buddh', 'mahatma buddh' adi namon se bhi jana jata hai. ve snsar prasiddh bauddh dharm ke snsthapak mane jate hain. bauddh dharm bharat ki shraman parampara se nikala dharm aur darshan hai. aj bauddh dharm sare snsar ke char bade dharmon men se ek hai. isake anuyayiyon ki snkhya din-pratidin aj bhi badh rahi hai. is dharm ke snsthapak buddh raja shuddhodan ke putr the aur inaka janm sthan lumbini namak gram tha. ve chhathavin se panchavin shatabdi eesa poorv tak jivit the. unake guzarane ke bad agali panch shatabdiyon men, bauddh dharm poore bharatiy upamahadvip men phail gaya aur agale do hazar salon men madhy, poorvi aur dakshin-poorvi jamboo mahadvip men bhi phail gaya. aj bauddh dharm men tin mukhy sampraday hain- 'theravad', 'mahayan' aur 'vajrayan'. bauddh dharm ko paintis karod se adhik log manate hain aur yah duniya ka chautha sabase bada dharm hai.

Seealso.gifbuddh ka ullekh in lekhon men bhi hai: bimbisar, bodhagaya, madhuvan, piparava evn pataliputr

jivan parichay

janm

gautam buddh ka mool nam 'siddharth' tha. sinhali, anushruti, kharavel ke abhilekh, ashok ke sinhasanarohan ki tithi, kaintan ke abhilekh adi ke adhar par mahatma buddh ki janm tithi 563 ee.poorv svikar ki gayi hai. inaka janm shakyavnsh ke raja shuddhodan ki rani mahamaya ke garbh se lumbini men vaishakh poornima ke din hua tha. shaky ganarajy ki rajadhani kapilavastu ke nikat lumbini men unaka janm hua. siddharth ke pita shakyon ke raja shuddhodhan the. buddh ko shaky muni bhi kahate hain. siddharth ki mata mayadevi unake janm ke kuchh der bad mar gee thi. kaha jata hai ki phir ek rishi ne kaha ki ve ya to ek mahanh raja banenge, ya phir ek mahanh sadhu. lumbini men, jo dakshin madhy nepal men hai, samrat ashok ne tisari shatabdi eesa poorv men buddh ke janm ki smriti men ek stambh banavaya tha. mathura men anek bauddh kalin moortiyan mili hain. jo maury kal aur kushan kal men mathura ki ati unnat moorti kala ki amooly dharohar hain. buddh ki jivan-kathaon men varnit hai ki siddharth ne kapilavastu ko chhodane ke pashchath anoma nadi ko apane ghode knthak par par kiya tha aur yahin se apane paricharak chhndak ko vida kar diya tha.

lunbini gram

shishu buddh ka pratham snan

kapilavastu ke pas hi lumbini gram sthit tha, jahan par gautam buddh ka janm hua tha. isaki pahachan nepal ki taraee men sthit roominadeee namak gram se ki jati hai. bauddh dharm ka yah ek pramukh kendr mana jane laga. ashok apane rajy-kal ke bisaven varsh dharmayatra karata hua lumbini pahuncha tha. usane is sthan ke charon or patthar ki dival khadi kar di. vahan usane ek stnbh ka nirman bhi kiya, jis par usaka ek lekh khuda hua hai. yah stnbh ab bhi apani jagah par vidyaman hai. vidvanon ka aisa anuman hai ki ashok ki yah lat thik usi jagah khadi hai, jahan buddh ka janm hua tha. ashok ne vahan ke nivasiyon ko kar men bhari chhoot de di thi. jo tirthayatri vahan ate the, unhen ab yahan yatra-kar nahin dena padata tha. vah kapilavastu bhi aya hua tha. gautam buddh ke jis stoop ka nirman shakyon ne kiya tha, use usane akar men duguna kara diya tha.

bhavishyavani

yah vidhata ki lila hi thi ki lumbini men janm lene vale buddh ko kashi men dharm pravartan karana pada. tripitak tatha jatakon se kashi ke tatkalin rajanitik mahattv ki sahaj hi kalpana ho jati hai. prachin bauddh grnthon men buddh kal men (kam se kam panchavi shatabdi ee.poorv) kashi ki ganana champa, rajagrih, shravasti, saket evn kaushambi jaise prasiddh nagaron men hoti thi. buddh (siddharth) ke janm se pahale unaki mata ne vichitr sapane dekhe the. pita shuddhodan ne 'ath' bhavishy vaktaon se unaka arth poochha to sabhi ne kaha ki mahamaya ko adbhut putr ratn ki prapti hogi. yadi vah ghar men raha to chakravarti samrat banega aur yadi usane grih tyag kiya to snnyasi ban jaega aur apane gyan ke prakash se samast vishv ko alokit kar dega. shuddhodan ne siddharth ko chakravarti samrat banana chaha, usamen kshatriyochit gun utpann karane ke liye samuchit shiksha ka prabndh kiya, kintu siddharth sada kisi chinta men doobe dikhaee dete the. ant men pita ne unhen vivah bndhan men bandh diya. ek din jab siddharth rath par shahar bhraman ke liye nikale the to unhonne marg men jo kuchh bhi dekha usane unake jivan ki disha hi badal dali. ek bar ek durbal vriddh vyakti ko, ek bar ek rogi ko aur ek bar ek shav ko dekh kar ve snsar se aur bhi adhik virakt tatha udasin ho gaye. par ek any avasar par unhonne ek prasannachitt snnyasi ko dekha. usake chehare par shanti aur tez ki apoorv chamak virajaman thi. siddharth us drishy ko dekh-kar atyadhik prabhavit hue.

grihatyag

buddh pratima, rajakiy sngrahalay, mathura

siddharth ke man men nivritti marg ke prati ni:sarata tatha nivriti marn ki or sntosh bhavana utpann ho gayi. jivan ka yah saty siddharth ke jivan ka darshan ban gaya. vivah ke das varsh ke uparant unhen putr ratn ki prapti huee. putr janm ka samachar milate hi unake munh se sahasa hi nikal pada- 'rahu'- arthath bndhan. unhonne putr ka nam 'rahul' rakha. isase pahale ki sansarik bndhan unhen chhinn-vichchhinn karen, unhonne sansarik bndhanon ko chhinn-bhinn karana prarnbh kar diya aur grihatyag karane ka nishchay kiya. ek mahanh ratri ko 29 varsh ke yuvak siddharth gyan prakash ki trishna ko tript karane ke liye ghar se bahar nikal pade.

  • kuchh vidvanon ka mat hai ki gautam ne ygyon men ho rahi hinsa ke karan grihatyag kiya.
  • kuchh any vidvanon ke anusar gautam ne doosaron ke du:kh ko n sah sakane ke karan ghar chhoda tha.

gyan ki prapti

grihatyag karane ke bad siddharth gyan ki khoj men bhatakane lage. binbisar, udrak, alar evamh kalam namak sankhyopadeshakon se milakar ve uruvela ki ramaniy vanasthali men ja pahunche. vahan unhen kaundily adi panch sadhak mile. unhonne gyan-prapti ke liye ghor sadhana prarnbh kar di. kintu usamen asaphal hone par ve gaya ke nikat ek vat vriksh ke niche asan laga kar baith gaye aur nishchay kar liya ki bhale hi pran nikal jae, main tab tak samadhisth rahoonga, jab tak gyan n prapt kar loon. sat din aur sat ratri vyatit hone ke bad, athaven din vaishakh poornima ko unhen gyan prapt hua aur usi din ve tathagat ho gaye. jis vriksh ke niche unhen gyan prapt hua vah aj bhi 'bodhivriksh' ke nam se vikhyat hai. gyan prapti ke samay unaki avastha 35 varsh thi. gyan prapti ke bad 'tapassu' tatha 'kallik' namak do shoodr unake pas aye. mahatma buddh nen unhen gyan diya aur bauddh dharm ka pratham anuyayi banaya.

buddh pratima, bodhagaya, bihar

bodhagaya se chal kar ve saranath pahunche tatha vahan apane poorvakal ke panch sathiyon ko upadesh dekar apana shishy bana diya. bauddh parnpara men yah upadesh 'dharmachakr pravartan' nam se vikhyat hai. mahatma buddh ne kaha ki in do atiyon se sadaiv bachana chahiye-

  • kam sukhon men adhik lipt hona tatha
  • sharir se kathor sadhana karana. unhen chhod kar jo madhyam marg mainne khoja hai, usaka sevan karana chahiye.[2]

yahi upadesh inaka 'dharmachakr pravartan' ke roop men pahala upadesh tha. apane panch anuyaiyon ke sath ve varanasi pahunche. yahan unhonne ek shreshthi putr ko apana anuyayi banaya tatha poornarup se 'dharm pravarttan' men jut gaye. ab tak uttar bharat men inaka kafi nam ho gaya tha aur anek anuyayi ban gaye the. kee varshon bad maharaj shuddhodan ne inhen dekhane ke liye kapilavastu bulavana chaha, lekin jo bhi inhen bulane ata vah svayn inake upadesh sun kar inaka anuyayi ban jata tha. inake shishy ghoom-ghoom kar inaka prachar karate the. inhen bhi dekhen: bodhagaya evn saranath

buddh ki shiksha

bauddh bhikshuon ko shiksha dete hue bhagavan buddh

manushy jin du:khon se pidit hai, unamen bahut bada hissa aise du:khon ka hai, jinhen manushy ne apane agyan, galat gyan ya mithya drishtiyon se paida kar liya hain un du:khon ka prahan apane sahi gyan dvara hi sambhav hai, kisi ke ashirvad ya varadan se unhen door nahin kiya ja sakata. saty ya yatharthata ka gyan hi samyak gyan hai. at: saty ki khoj du:kh moksh ke lie paramavashyak hai. khoj agyat saty ki hi ki ja sakati hai. yadi saty kisi shastr, agam ya upadeshak dvara gyat ho gaya hai to usaki khoj, khoj nahin. at: buddh ne apane poorvavarti logon dvara ya parampara dvara batae saty ko nakar diya aur apane lie ne sire se usaki khoj ki. buddh svayn kahin pratibaddh nahin hue aur n to apane shishyon ko unhonne kahin bandha. unhonne kaha ki meri bat ko bhi isalie chupachap n man lo ki use buddh ne kahi hai. us par bhi sandeh karo aur vividh parikshaon dvara usaki pariksha karo. jivan ki kasauti par unhen parakho, apane anubhavon se milan karo, yadi tumhen sahi jan pade to svikar karo, anyatha chhod do. yahi karan tha ki unaka dharm rahasyadambaron se mukt, manaviy snvedanaon se otaprot evn hriday ko sidhe sparsh karata tha.

trividh dharmachakr pravartan

bhagavan buddh prgya v karuna ki moorti the. ye donon gun unamen utkarsh ki parakashtha prapt kar samaras hokar sthit the. itana hi nahin, bhagavan buddh atyant upayakushal bhi the. upay kaushal buddh ka ek vishisht gun hai arthath ve vividh prakar ke viney janon ko vividh upayon se sanmarg par aroodh karane men atyant pravin the. ve yah bhalibhanti janate the ki kise kis upay se sanmarg par aroodh kiya ja sakata hai. phalat: ve viney janon ke vichar, ruchi, adhyashay, svabhav, kshamata aur paristhiti ke anuroop upadesh diya karate the. bhagavan buddh ki doosari visheshata yah hai ki ve sanmarg ke upadesh dvara hi apane jagatkalyan ke kary ka sampadan karate hain, n ki varadan ya riddhi ke bal se, jaise ki shiv ya vishnu adi ke bare men anek kathaen puranon men prachalit hain. unaka kahana hai ki tathagat to matr upadeshta hain, krityasampadan to svayn sadhak vyakti ko hi karana hai. ve jisaka kalyan karana chahate hain, use dharmon (padarthon) ki yatharthata ka upadesh dete the. bhagavan buddh ne bhinn-bhinn samay aur bhinn-bhinn sthanon men viney janon ko anant upadesh diye the. sabake vishay, prayojan aur patr bhinn-bhinn the. aisa hone par bhi samast upadeshon ka antim lakshy ek hi tha aur vah tha viney janon ko du:khon se mukti ki or le jana. moksh ya nirvan hi unake samast upadeshon ka ekamatr ras hai.

bauddh dharm ka prachar

bauddh dharm bharat ki shraman parampara se nikala dharm aur darshan hai. isake snsthapak mahatma buddh, shakyamuni (gautam buddh) the. ve chhathavin se panchavin shatabdi eesa poorv tak jivit the. unake guzarane ke bad agali panch shatabdiyon men, bauddh dharm poore bharatiy upamahadvip men phaila, aur agale do hazar salon men madhy, poorvi aur dakshin-poorvi jamboo mahadvip men bhi phail gaya.
bauddh dharm ka pratik
aj, bauddh dharm men tin mukhy sampraday hain: theravad, mahayan aur vajrayan. bauddh dharm ko paintis karod se adhik log manate hain aur yah duniya ka chautha sabase bada dharm hai.

saranath

saranath kashi se sat mil poorvottar men sthit bauddhon ka prachin tirth hai, gyan prapt karane ke bad bhagavan buddh ne pratham upadesh yahan diya tha, yahan se hi unhonne "dharm chakr pravartan" prarambh kiya, yahan par sarnganath mahadev ka mandir hai, yahan savan ke mahine men hinduon ka mela lagata hai. yah jain tirth hai aur jain granthon men ise sinhapur bataya hai. saranath ki darshaniy vastuyen-ashok ka chaturmukh sinhastambh, bhagavan buddh ka mandir, dhamekh stoop, chaukhandi stoop, rajakiy sngrahalay, jain mandir, chini mandir, moolngadhakuti aur navin vihar hain, muhammad gauri ne ise lagabhag khatm kar diya tha, sanh 1905 men puratattv vibhag ne yahan khudaee ka kam kiya, us samay bauddh dharm ke anuyayon aur itihasavettaon ka dhyan is par gaya.

braj (mathura)

kayasth bhattipriy dvara sthapit buddh pratima, mathura sngrahalay

mathura aur bauddh dharm ka ghanishth snbndh tha. jo buddh ke jivan-kal se kushan-kal tak akshuhn raha. 'anguttaranikay' ke anusar bhagavan buddh ek bar mathura aye the aur yahan upadesh bhi diya tha.[3] 'vernjak-brahman-sutt' men bhagavanh buddh ke dvara mathura se vernja tak yatra kie jane ka varnan milata hai.[4] pali vivaran se yah gyat hota hai ki buddhatv prapti ke barahaven varsh men hi buddh ne mathura nagar ki yatra ki thi. [5] mathura se lautakar buddh vernja aye phir unhonne shravasti ki yatra ki. [6] bhagavan buddh ke shishy mahakachyayan mathura men bauddh dharm ka prachar karane ae the. is nagar men ashok ke guru upagupt[7], dhruv (sknd puran, kashi khnd, adhyay 20), evn prakhyat ganika vasavadatta[8] bhi nivas karati thi. mathura rajy ka desh ke doosare bhagon se vyaparik snbndh tha. mathura uttarapath aur dakshinapath donon bhagon se juda hua tha.[9] rajagrih se takshashila jane vale us samay ke vyaparik marg men yah nagar sthit tha.[10]

sankashy

gautam buddh ke jivan kal men sankashy khyati prapt nagar tha. pali kathaon ke anusar yahin buddh trayastrinsh svarg se avatarit hokar ae the. is svarg men ve apani mata tatha taintis devataon ko abhidhamm ki shiksha dene ge the. pali dntakathaon ke anusar buddh tin sidhiyon dvara svarg se utare the aur unake sath brahma aur shak bhi the. is ghatana se snbandh hone ke karan bauddh, sankashy ko pavitr tirth manate the aur isi karan yahan anek stoop evn vihar adi ka nirman hua tha. yah unake jivan ki char ashcharyajanak ghatanaon men se ek mani jati hai. sankashy hi men buddh ne apane pramukh shishy annad ke kahane se striyon ki pravrajya par lagaee huee rok ko toda tha aur bhikshuni utpalavarna ko diksha dekar striyon ke lie bhi bauddh sngh ka dvar khol diya tha. paligrnth abhidhanappadipika men snkass (sankashy) ki uttari bharat ke bis pramukh nagaron men ganana ki gee hai. panini ne [11] men sankashy ki sthiti ikshumati nadi par kahin hai jo snkisa ke pas bahane vali eekhan hai.

kaushanbi

udayan ke samay men gautam buddh kaushanbi men aksar ate-jate rahate the. unake sambandh ke karan kaushanbi ke anek sthan saikadon varshon tak prasiddh rahe. buddhacharit 21,33 ke anusar kaushanbi men, buddh ne dhanavan, ghoshil, kubjottara tatha any mahilaon tatha purushon ko dikshit kiya tha.
bauddh bhikshu dhyan sthali, kushinagar
yahan ke vikhyat shreshthi ghoshit (sambhavatah buddhacharit ka ghoshil) ne 'ghoshitaram' nam ka ek sundar udyan buddh ke nivas ke lie banavaya tha. ghoshit ka bhavan nagar ke dakshin-poorvi kone men tha. ghoshitaram ke nikat hi ashok ka banavaya hua 150 hath ooncha stoop tha. isi viharavan ke dakshin-poorv men ek bhavan tha jisake ek bhag men achary vasubndhu rahate the. inhonne vigypti matrata siddhi namak grnth ki rachana ki thi. isi van ke poorv men vah makan tha jahan ary asng ne apane grnth yogacharabhoomi ki rachana ki thi.

vairnja

buddhacharit 21, 27 men buddh ka is anabhigyat nagar men pahunchakar 'virinch' namak vyakti ko dharm ki diksha dene ka ullekh hai. yahan ke brahmanon ka bauddh sahity men ullekh hai. gautam buddh yahan par thahare the aur unhonne is nagar ke nivasiyon ke samaksh pravachan bhi kiya tha. bhagavan gautam buddh ke asnkhy anuyayi ban chuke the, lekin in anuyayiyon men brahmanon ki ek bahut badi snkhya thi. is prakar buddh ke pravachanon tatha unaki shikshaon ka brahmanon par bahut gahara prabhav pada tha.

kanyakubj

yuvanachvang likhata hai ki kanyakubj ke pashchimottar men ashok ka banavaya hua ek stoop tha, jahan par poorvakatha ke anusar gautam buddh ne sat din thahakar pravachan kiya tha. is vishal stoop ke pas hi any chhote stoop bhi the, aur ek vihar men buddh ka dant bhi surakshit tha, jisake darshan ke lie saikadon yatri ate the. yuvanachvang ne kanyakubj ke dakshinapoorv men ashok dvara nirmit ek any stoop ka bhi varnan kiya hai jo ki do sau phut ooncha tha. kinvadanti hai ki gautam buddh is sthan par chhah mas tak thahare the.

varanasi

bauddh sahity se pata chalata hai ki buddh varanasi men kee bar thahare the. bauddh grnthon men varanasi ka ullekh kashi janapad ki rajadhani ke roop men hua hai.[12] buddh poorv kal men kashi ek samriddh evn svatntr rajy tha. isaka sakshy dete hue svayn buddh ne isaki prashnsa ki hai.[13]

bauddh dharm ke any anuyayi

hven tsang

bharat men hven tsang ne buddh ke jivan se jude sabhi pavitr sthalon ka bhraman kiya aur upamahadvip ke poorv evn pashchim se lage ilaqo ki bhi yatra ki. unhonne apana adhikansh samay nalnda math men bitaya, jo bauddh shiksha ka pramukh kendr tha, jahan unhonne snskrit, bauddh darshan evn bharatiy chintan men dakshata hasil ki. isake bad hven tsang ne apana jivan bauddh dharmagrnthon ke anuvad men laga diya jo 657 grnth the aur 520 petiyon men bharat se lae ge the. is vishal khnd ke keval chhote se hisse (1330 adhyayon men qarib 73 grnth) ke hi anuvad men mahayan ke kuchh atyadhik mahattvapoorn grnth shamil hain.

milind (minandar)

uttar-pashchim bharat ka 'hindi-yoonani' raja 'manendar' 165-130 ee. poo. lagabhag (bharatiy ullekhon ke anusar 'milind') tha. pratham pashchimi raja jisane bauddh dharm apanaya aur mathura par shasan kiya. bharat men rajy karate hue vah bauddh shramanon ke sampark men aya aur achary nagasen se usane bauddh dharm ki diksha li. bauddh grnthon men usaka nam 'milind' aya hai. 'milind panho' nam ke pali grnth men usake bauddh dharm ko svikrit karane ka vivaran diya gaya hai. minandar ke anek sikkon par bauddh dharm ke 'dharmachakr' pravartan ka chihn 'dharmachakr' bana hua hai, aur usane apane nam ke sath 'dhramik' (dharmik) visheshan diya hai.

fahyan

fahyan ka janm chin ke 'vu-vng' namak sthan par hua tha. yah bauddh dharm ka anuyayi tha. usane lagabhag 399 ee. men apane kuchh mitron 'huee-ching', 'taoncheng', 'huee-ming', 'hueeveee' ke sath bharat yatra prarambh ki. fahyan ki bharat yatra ka udeshy bauddh hastalipiyon evn bauddh smritiyon ko khojana tha. isilie fahyan ne unhin sthanon ke bhraman ko mahattv diya, jo bauddh dharm se sambandhit the.

ashok

samrat ashok ko apane vistrit samrajy ke behatar kushal prashasan tatha bauddh dharm ke prachar ke lie jana jata hai. jivan ke uttarardh men ashok gautam buddh ke bhakt ho ge aur unhin (mahatma buddh) ki smriti men unhonne ek stambh khada kar diya jo aj bhi nepal men unake janmasthal-lumbini men mayadevi mandir ke pas ashok sh‍tamh‍bh ke roop men dekha ja sakata hai. usane bauddh dharm ka prachar bharat ke alava shrilnka, afaganistan, pashchim eshiya, misr tatha yoonan men bhi karavaya. ashok ke abhilekhon men praja ke prati kalyanakari drashtikon ki abhivyakti ki gee hai.

kanishk

kushan raja kanishk ke vishal samrajy men vividh dharmon ke anuyayi vibhinn logon ka nivas tha, aur usane apani praja ko sntusht karane ke lie sab dharmon ke devataon ko apane sikkon par ankit karaya tha. par is bat men koee sandeh nahin ki kanishk bauddh dharm ka anuyayi tha, aur bauddh itihas men usaka nam ashok ke saman hi mahattv rakhata hai. achary ashvaghosh ne use bauddh dharm men dikshit kiya tha. is achary ko vah pataliputr se apane sath laya tha, aur isi se usane bauddh dharm ki diksha li thi.

buddh pratimaen

buddh pratima ka nichala bhag, mathura

mathura ke kushan shasak, jinamen se adhikansh ne bauddh dharm ko protsahit kiya, moorti nirman ke pakshapati the. yadyapi kushanon ke poorv bhi mathura men bauddh dharm evn any dharm se sambandhit pratimaon ka nirman kiya gaya tha. vidit hua hai ki kushan kal men mathura uttar bharat men sabase bada moorti nirman ka kendr tha aur yahan vibhinn dharmon sambandhit moortiyon ka achchha bhandar tha. is kal ke pahale buddh ki svatntr moorti nahin milati hai. buddh ka poojan is kal se poorv vividh pratik chihnon ke roop men milata hai. parantu kushan kal ke prarambh se mahayan bhakti, pnth bhakti utpatti ke sath nagarikon men buddh ki saikadon moortiyon ka nirman hone laga. buddh ke poorv janm ki jatak kathayen bhi pattharon par utkirn hone lagi. mathura se bauddh dharm sambandhi jo avashesh mile hain, unamen prachin dharmik evn laukik jivan ke adhyayan ki apar samagri hai. mathura kala ke vikas ke sath–sath buddh evn baudhitsav ki sundar moortiyon ka nirman hua. gupt kalin buddh pratimaon men ang pratyng ke kala poorn vinyas ke sath ek divy saundary evn adhyatmik ganbhiry ka samanvay milata hai.

mathura aur dilli sngrahalay se prapt buddh pratimaen

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antim upadesh evn parinirvan

bauddh dharm ka prachar buddh ke jivan kal men hi kafi ho gaya tha, kyonki un dinon karmakand ka zor kafi badh chuka tha aur pashuon ki hatya badi snkhya men ho rahi thi. inhonne is nirarthak hatya ko rokane tatha jiv matr par daya karane ka upadesh diya.
buddh, kushinagar
pray: 44 varsh tak bihar tatha kashi ke nikatavartti pranton men dharm prachar karane ke uparant ant men kushinagar ke nikat ek van men shal vriksh ke niche vriddhavastha men inaka parinirvan arthath sharirant hua. mrityu se poorv unhonne kushinara ke parivrajak subhachchh ko apana antim upadesh diya.

kushinagar

kushinagar buddh ke mahaparinirvan ka sthan hai. uttar pradesh ke gorakhapur zile se 51 kimi ki doori par sthit hai. bauddh grnth mahavnsh[14] men kushinagar ka nam isi karan kushavati bhi kaha gaya hai. bauddh kal men yahi nam kushinagar ya pali men kusinara ho gaya. ek any bauddh kinvadnti ke anusar takshashila ke ikshvaku vnshi raja taleshvar ka putr takshashila se apani rajadhani hatakar kushinagar le aya tha. usaki vnsh parampara men barahaven raja sudinn ke samay tak yahan rajadhani rahi. inake bich men kush aur mahadarshan namak do pratapi raja hue jinaka ullekh gautam buddh ne[15] kiya tha.

mukh se nikale antim shabd

bhagavan buddh ne jo antim shabd apane mukh se kahe the, ve is prakar the-

"he bhikshuon, is samay aj tumase itana hi kahata hoon ki jitane bhi snskar hain, sab nash hone vale hain, pramad rahit ho kar apana kalyan karo." yah 483 ee. poo. ki ghatana hai. ve assi varsh ke the.[16]

inhen bhi dekhen: mahatma buddh ke prerak prasng

buddh ke any nam

buddh pratima, rashtriy sngrahalay, dilli
bhagavan buddh ke any nam

inhen bhi dekhen: sanchi, vaishali, saranath, kapilavastu, kushinagar, sankashy, stoop evn bauddh dharm

panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hadn hani bhikkhaye, amntayami vo, vayadhmma snkhara, appamaden sampadeya -mahaparinibvan sutt, 235 (yah 483 ee. poo. ki ghatana hai. ve assi varsh ke the.)
  2. vinay pitak 1, 10
  3. anguttanikay, bhag 2, pri 57; tatraiv, bhag 3,pri 257
  4. bharat sinh upapadhyay, buddhakalin bharatiy bhoogol, pri 109
  5. divyavadan, pri 348 men ullikhit hai ki bhagavan buddh ne apane parinirvan kal se kuchh pahale hi mathura ki yatra ki thi. bhagavanh...parinirvanakalasamaye...mathuramanuprapt:. pali parnpara se isaka mel baithana kathin hai.
  6. ullekhaniy hai ki vernja uttarapath marg par padane vala buddhakal men ek mahattvapoorn padav tha, jo mathura aur soreyy ke madhy sthit tha.
  7. vi e smith, arli histri aauph indiya (chaturth snskaran), pri 199
  8. mathurayan vasavadatta nam ganikan.' divyavadan (kavel evn nilavala snskaran), pri 352
  9. ar si sharma, buddhisth art aph mathura, pri 5
  10. bharat sinh upadhyay, buddhikalin bharatiy bhoogol, pri 440
  11. pali kathaon 4,2,80
  12. sumngalavilasini, jild 2, prishth 383
  13. ‘‘bhootapubbn bhikkhave brahmadatte nam kashiraja ahosi addho mahaddhano mahabbalo, mahabahano, mahavijito, paripunnakosakotthamaro.’’
    mahabaggo (vinayapitak), dutiyo bhago, prishth 262
  14. mahavnsh 2,6
  15. mahadarshanasutt ke anusar
  16. hadn hani bhikkhaye, amntayami vo, vayadhmma snkhara, appamaden sampadeya -mahaparinibvan sutt, 235

snbndhit lekh

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