सारनाथ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

saranath vishay soochi
saranath
saranath stoop
vivaran varanasi se lagabhag 10 kilomitar door sthit saranath prasiddh bauddh tirth hai. pahale isaka nam 'rishipattan mrigaday' tha. gyan prapt karane ke bad gautam buddh ne apana pratham upadesh yahin par diya tha.
rajy uttar pradesh
zila varanasi
bhaugolik sthiti uttar- 25° 22' 52" - poorv- 83° 01' 17"
marg sthiti rashtriy rajamarg 28 saranath ko anek shaharon se jodata hai.
prasiddhi bhagavan buddh ka mandir
kab jaen aktoobar se march
kaise pahunchen taiksi, bas, rel adi
havaee adda saranath ka nikatatam havaee adda babatapur, varanasi men hai jo saranath se 30 kilomitar ki doori par hai.
relave steshan saranath ka nikatatam relave steshan varanasi kent hai jo lagabhag 6 kilomitar door hai. saranath ka bhi ek relave steshan hai lekin us par kam hi relagadi rukati hain.
bas adda saranath ke as-pas ke anek shaharon se saranath jane ke lie niyamit bason ki suvidha upalabdh hai.
yatayat viman, rel, bas, taiksi
kya dekhen ashok ka chaturmukh sinhastambh, dhamekh stoop, chaukhandi stoop, rajakiy sngrahalay, jain mandir adi.
kahan thaharen hotal, dharmashala, atithi grah
es.ti.di. kod 0542
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr
bhasha hindi aur angrezi

saranath kashi se sat mil poorvottar men sthit bauddhon ka prachin tirth hai, gyan prapt karane ke bad bhagavan buddh ne pratham upadesh yahan diya tha, yahan se hi unhonne "dharm chakr pravartan" prarambh kiya, yahan par sarnganath mahadev ka mandir hai, yahan savan ke mahine men hinduon ka mela lagata hai. yah jain tirth hai aur jain granthon men ise sinhapur bataya hai. saranath ki darshaniy vastuyen-ashok ka chaturmukh sinhastambh, bhagavan buddh ka mandir, dhamekh stoop, chaukhandi stoop, rajakiy sngrahalay, jain mandir, chini mandir, moolngadhakuti aur navin vihar hain, muhammad gori ne ise lagabhag khatm kar diya tha, san 1905 men puratattv vibhag ne yahan khudaee ka kam kiya, us samay bauddh dharm ke anuyayiyon aur itihasavettaon ka dhyan is par gaya.

parichay

kashi athava varanasi se lagabhag 10 kilomitar door sthit saranath prasiddh bauddh tirth hai. pahale yahan ghana van tha aur mrig-vihar kiya karate the. us samay isaka nam 'rishipattan mrigaday' tha. gyan prapt karane ke bad gautam buddh ne apana pratham upadesh yahin par diya tha.

samrat ashok ke samay men yahan bahut se nirman-kary hue. sinhon ki moorti vala bharat ka rajachihn saranath ke ashok ke stnbh ke shirsh se hi liya gaya hai. yahan ka 'dhamek stoop' saranath ki prachinata ka aj bhi bodh karata hai. videshi akramanon aur paraspar ki dharmik khinchatani ke karan age chalakar saranath ka mahattv kam ho gaya tha. mrigaday men sarnganath mahadev ki moorti ki sthapana huee aur sthan ka nam saranath pad gaya.

dhamekh stoop, saranath

prachin nam

isaka prachin nam rishipatan (isipatan ya mrigadav) (hiranon ka jngal) tha. rishipatan se tatpary ‘rishi ka patan’ se hai jisaka ashay hai vah sthan jahan kisi ek buddh ne gautam buddh bhavi snbodhi ko janakar nirvan prapt kiya tha.[1] mrigon ke vicharan karane vale sthan ke adhar par isaka nam mrigadav pada, jisaka varnan nigrodhamrig jatak men bhi aya hai.[2] adhunik nam ‘saranath’ ki utpatti ‘sarnganath’ (mrigon ke nath) arthath gautam buddh se huee.

bodhisatv ki katha se snbndh

jisaka snbndh bodhisatv ki ek katha se bhi joda jata hai. vodhisatv ne apane kisi poorvajanm men, jab ve mrigadav men mrigon ke raja the, apane pranon ki bali dekar ek garbhavati harini ki jan bachaee thi. isi karan is van ko sar-ya sarng (mrig)- nath kahane lage. rayabahadur dayaram sahani ke anusar shiv ko bhi pauranik sahity men sarnganath kaha gaya hai aur mahadev shiv ki nagari kashi ki samipata ke karan yah sthan shivopasana ki bhi sthali ban gaya. is tathy ki pushti saranath men, saranath namak shivamndir ki vartamanata se hoti hai.

itihas

buddh ke pratham upadesh (lagabhag 533 ee.poo.) se 300 varsh bad tak ka saranath ka itihas agyat hai: kyonki utkhanan se is kal ka koee bhi avashesh nahin prapt hua hai.[3] saranath ki samriddhi aur bauddh dharm ka vikas sarvapratham ashok ke shasanakal men drishtigat hota hai. usane saranath men dharmarajika stoop, dhamekh stoop evn sinh stnbh ka nirman karavaya. ashok ke uttaradhikariyon ke shasan-kal men pun: saranath avanati ki or agrasar hone laga. ee.poo. doosari shati men shung rajy ki sthapana huee, lekin saranath se is kal ka koee lekh nahin mila. pratham shatabdi ee. ke lagabhag uttar bharat ke kushan rajy ki sthapana ke sath hi ek bar pun: bauddh dharm ki unnati huee. kanishk ke rajyakal ke tisare varsh men bhikshu bal ne yahan ek bodhisatv pratima ki sthapana ki. kanishk ne apane shasan-kal men n keval saranath men varanh bharat ke vibhinn bhagon men bahut-se viharon evn stoopon ka nirman karavaya.

ek sthaniy kinvadnti ke anusar bauddh dharm ke prachar ke poorv saranath shivopasana ka kendr tha. kintu , jaise gaya adi aur bhi kee sthanon ke itihas se pramanit hota hai bat isaki ulti bhi ho sakati hai, arthat bauddh dharm ke patan ke pashchath hi shiv ki upasana yahan prachalit huee ho. jan padata hai ki jaise kee prachin vishal nagaron ke upanagar ya nagarodyan the (jaise prachin vidisha ka sanchi, ayodhya ka saket adi) usi prakar saranath men moolat: rishiyon ya tapasviyon ke ashram sthit the jo unhonne kashi ke kolahal se bachane ke lie, kintu phir bhi mahanh nagari ke sannidhy men, rahane ke lie banae the.

dhamekh stoop, jain mndir, saranath

saranath ke itihas men sabase gauravapoorn samay guptakal tha. us samay yah mathura ke atirikt uttar bharat men kala ka sabase bada kendr tha. harsh ke shasan-kal men hven tsang bharat aya tha. usane saranath ko atynt khushahal bataya tha. harsh ke bad kee sau varsh tak saranath vibhinn shasakon ke adhikar men tha lekin inake shasanakal men koee vishesh upalabdhi nahin ho paee. mahamood gazanavi (1017 ee.) ke varanasi akraman ke samay saranath ko atyadhik kshati pahunchi. pun: 1026 ee. men samrat mahipal ke shasan kal men sthirapal aur basantapal namak do bhaiyon ne samrat ki prerana se kashi ke devalayon ke uddhar ke sath-sath dharmarajika stoop evn dharmachakr ka bhi uddhar kiya. gahadaval vesh ke shasan-kal men govindachndr ki rani kumar devi ne saranath men ek vihar banavaya tha.[4] utkhanan se prapt ek abhilekh se bhi isaki pushti hoti hai[5] isake pashchath saranath ki vaibhav ka ant ho gaya.

saranath ka utkhanan

saranath ke sndarbh ke aitihasik janakari puratattvavidon ko us samay huee jab kashinaresh chet sinh ke divan jagat sinh ne dharmarajika stoop ko agyanavash khudava dala. is ghatana se janata ka akarshan saranath ki or badha. is kshetr ka sarvapratham simit utkhanan karnal kaikenji ne 1815 ee. men karavaya[6] lekin unako koee mahattvapoorn saphalata nahin mili. is utkhanan se prapt samagri ab kalakatta ke bharatiy sngrahalay men surakshit hai. kaikenji ke utkhanan ke 20 varsh pashchath 1835-36 men kaningham ne saranath ka vistrit utkhanan karavaya. utkhanan men unhonne mukhy roop se dhamekh stoop, chaukhndi stoop evn madhyakalin viharon ko khod nikala.[7] kaningham ka dhamekh stoop se 3 phut niche 600 ee. ka ek abhilikhit shilapatt (28 ¾ inch X 13 inch X 43 inch akar ka) mila.[8]
bauddh bhikshuon ko shiksha dete hue bhagavan buddh
isake atirikt yahan se badin snkhya men bhavanon men prayukt pattharon ke tukade evn moortiyan bhi milin, jo ab kalakatta ke bharatiy sngrahalay men surakshit hain. 1851-52 ee. men mejar kitoee ne yahan utkhanan karavaya jisamen unhen dhamekh stoop ke asapas anek stoopon evn do viharon ke avashesh mile, parntu is utkhanan ki riport prakashit n ho saki. kitoee ke uparant edavard thamas[9] tatha pro. phitj edavard harn[10] ne khoj kary jari rakha. unake dvara utkhanit vastuen ab bharatiy sngrahalay kalakatta men hain.

is kshetr ka sarvapratham vistrit evn vaigyanik utkhanan ech.bi. oratal ne karavaya.[11] utkhanan 200 varg phut kshetr men kiya gaya. yahan se mukhy mndir tatha ashok stnbh ke atirikt badi snkhya men moortiyan evn shilalekh mile hain. pramukh moortiyon men bodhisatv ki vishal abhilikhit moorti, asanasth buddh ki moorti, avalokiteshvar, bodhisatv, mnjushri, nilaknth ki moortiyan tatha tara, vasundhara adi ki pratimaen bhi hain.

puratattv vibhag ke dayarektar janaral jan marshal ne apane sahayogiyon stenakono aur dayaram sahani ke sath 1907 men saranath ke uttar-dakshin kshetron men utkhanan kiya. utkhanan se uttar kshetr men tin kushanakalin mathon ka pata chala. dakshin kshetr se visheshakar dharmarajika stoop ke asapas tatha dhamekh stoop ke uttar se unhen anek chhote-chhote stoopon evn mndiron ke avashesh mile. inamen se kumaradevi ke abhilekhon se yukt kuchh moortiyan vishesh mahattv ki hain.[12] utkhanan ka yah kary bad ke varshon men bhi jari raha. 1914 se 1915 ee. men ech. haragrivs ne mukhy mndir ke poorv aur pashchim men khudaee karavaee. utkhanan men mauryakal se lekar madhyakal tak ki anek vastuen mili.[13]

is kshetr ka antim utkhanan dayaram sahani ke nirdeshan men 5 satron tak chalata raha.[14] dhamekh stoop se mukhy mndir tak ke snpoorn kshetr ka utkhanan kiya gaya. is utkhanan se dayaram sahani ko ek 1 phut 9 ½ inch lnbi, 2 phut 7 inch chaudi tatha 3 phut gahari ek nali ke avashesh mile.[15]

uparyukt utkhananon se nimnalikhit smarak prakash men ae hain-

chaukhndi stoop

chaukhndi stoop, saranath

dhamekh stoop se adha mil dakshin yah stoop sthit hai, jo saranath ke avashisht smarakon se alag hain. is sthan par gautam buddh ne apane panch shishyon ko sabase pratham upadesh sunaya tha jisake smarakasvaroop is stoop ka nirman hua. hvenasang ne is stoop ki sthiti saranath se 0.8 ki.mi. dakshin-pashchim men bataee hai, jo 91.44 mi. ooncha tha.[16] isaki pahachan chaukhndi stoop se thik pratit hoti hai. is stoop ke oopar ek ashtaparshviy burji bani huee hai. isake uttari daravaze par pade hue patthar par farasi men ek lekh ullikhit hai, jisase gyat hota hai ki todaramal ke putr govarddhan sanh 1589 ee. (996 hijari) men ise banavaya tha. lekh men varnit hai ki humayoon ne is sthan par ek rat vyatit ki thi, jisaki yadagar men is burj ka nirman snbhav hua.[17]

dharmarajika stoop

is stoop ka nirman ashok ne karavaya tha. durbhagyavash 1794 ee. men jagat sinh ke adamiyon ne kashi ka prasiddh muhalla jagatagnj banane ke lie isaki eenton ko khod dala tha. khudaee ke samay 8.23 mi. ki gaharaee par ek prastar patr ke bhitar sngaramaramar ki mnjoosha men kuchh haddiya: evn suvarnapatr, moti ke dane evn ratn mile the, jise unhonne vishesh mahattv ka n manakar gnga men pravahit kar diya.[18] yahan se prapt mahipal ke samay ke 1026 ee. ke ek lekh men yah ullekh hai ki sthirapal aur basntapal namak do bndhuon ne dharmarajika aur dharmachakr ka jirnoddhar kiya.[19]

dhamekh stoop par naqqashi, saranath

utkhanan se is stoop se do moortiyan milin. ye moortiyan saranath se prapt moortiyon men mukhy hain. pahali moorti kanishk ke rajy snvatsar 3 (81 ee.) men sthapit vishal bodhisatv pratima aur doosari dharmachakrapravartan mudra men bhagavan buddh ki moorti. ye moortiyan saranath ki sarvashreshth kalakritiyan hain.

moolagndh kuti vihar

moolagndh kuti vihar, saranath

yah vihar dharmarajika stoop se uttar ki or sthit hai. poorvabhimukh is vihar ki kursi chaukor hai jisaki ek bhuja 18.29 mi. hai. satavin shatabdi men bharat-bhraman par ae chini yatri hven tsang ne isaka varnan 200 phut oonche moolagndh kuti vihar ke nam se kiya hai.[20] is mndir par bane hue naqqashidar gole aur natodar dhalaee, chhote-chhote stnbhon tatha sudnr kalapoorn katavon adi se yah nishchit ho jata hai ki isaka nirman guptakal men hua tha.[21] parntu isake charon or mitti aur choone ki bani huee pakki pharshon tatha divalon ke bahari bhag men prayukt ast-vyast naqqashidar pattharon ke adhar par kuchh viddhanon ne ise 8vin shatabdi ke lagabhag ka mana hai.

aisa pratit hota hai ki is mndir ke bich men bane mndap ke niche prarnbh men bhagavanh buddh ki ek sone ki chamakili adamaqad moorti sthapit thi. mndir men pravesh ke lie tinon dishaon men ek-ek dvar aur poorv disha men mukhy pravesh dvar (sinh dvar) tha. kalantar men jab mndir ki chhat kamazor hone lagi to usaki suraksha ke lie bhitari dakshinapath ko divaren uthakar band kar diya gaya. at: ane jane ka rasta keval poorv ke mukhy dvar se hi rah gaya. tinon daravajon ke bnd ho jane se ye kothariyon jaisi ho gee, jise bad men chhote mndiron ka roop de diya gaya.

ashok stnbh, saranath

ashok stnbh

mukhy mndir se pashchim ki or ek ashokakalin prastar-stnbh hai jisaki oonchaee prarnbh men 17.55 mi. (55 phut) thi. vartaman samay men isaki oonchaee keval 2.03 mitar (7 phut 9 inch) hai. stnbh ka oopari sira ab saranath sngrahalay men hai. ninv men khudaee karate samay yah pata chala ki isaki sthapana 8 phut X16 phut X18 inch akar ke bade patthar ke chabootare par huee thi.[22] is stnbh par tin lekh ullikhit hain. pahala lekh ashok kalin brahmi lipi men hai jisamen samrat ne adesh diya hai ki jo bhichhu ya bhikshuni sngh men phoot dalenge aur sngh ki ninda karenge: unhen safed kapade pahanakar sngh ke bahar nikal diya jaega. doosara lekh kushan-kal ka hai. tisara lekh gupt kal ka hai, jisamen sammitiy shakha ke acharyon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai.[23]

sngharam kshetr

saranath ka pravesh dvar

bhikshuon ke nivas ke lie kee sngharamon ka nirman kiya gaya tha. in sngharamon men do kushan kal ke the. in sabhi sngharamon men mukhyat: ek pravesh dvar, bich men angan, angan ke charon or khnbhon par ashrit baramada aur kothariyan banin thin.

sngharam 1 (dharmachakrajin vihar)

is vihar ka nirman kannauj ke gahadaval shasak govindachnd (1114-1154 ee.) ki patni kumaradevi ne karavaya tha. is vihar ki poorv se pashchim lnbaee 760 phut thi.[24] isake angan ki pharsh paki eenton se dhaki thi jisake tin or kamare nirmit the. vihar ki kursi 8 phut oonchi thi jisamen prayukt eenton ki chinaee niyamit hai, yadyapi bhikshuon ke rahane ke kaksh ab dhah chuke hain. pravesh ke lie poorv ki or do sinh dvar the jinake bich ki doori 88.89 mi. (290 phut) thi.[25] pravesh ke donon or bade kaksh the. dvar ki burjiyon men judaee sundar evn alnkrit hain. is vihar ke niche poorvakalin tin viharon ke avashesh pae ge hain. pashchimi kinare par vihar snkhya-2, kumaradevi vihar ke poorvi toran ke samane vihar-snkhya-3 aur do sinh dvaron ke madhy zamin ke niche vihar snkhya-4 hain.

is vihar ke pashchim ki or ek pati huee surng (54.85 mi. lnbi) mili hai jisaki chaudaee 1.83 min. hai. isaki divalon men patthar aur eenton ki chinaee hai. yah surng ek kamare men jakar samapt ho jati.[26] yahan se prapt sabhi moortiyan madhyakalin hain.

dhamekh stoop par naqqashi, saranath
sngharam 2, 3, 4
  • sngharam 2 arnbhik guptakal ka hai. isake madhy men 27.69 min. (90 phut) ka ek chaukor angan tha, jisake charon or 0.99 mitar (3 phut 3 inch) akar ki chhoti dival thi jisake oopar baramade ke khambhe uthae ge the. baramade ke pichhe kakshon ki pnktiyan thin jinamen se ab keval nau kamaron ke chihn bache hain.[27]
  • sngharam 3 ki kursi atyant nichi hai aur isaka talapattan sngharam 2 ke sadrishy tha. utkhanan se pashchim ki or ek mandir, dakshin ki or char kaksh, baramade ka kuchh bhag tatha angan ke avashesh mile hain. bahari dival 5 phut 6 inch chaudi thi. khnbhon par bani shaili se yah vihar kushanakalin pratit hota hai. divalon ki ausat oonchaee 3.04 (10 phut) thi. inhen dekhane se aisa pratit hota hai ki yah imarat do mnzil ki rahi hogi. utkhanan se angan ke bich men 10 inch gahari aur 7 inch chaudi ek dhaki nali ke bhi avashesh mile hain.[28]
  • sngharam 4 ka angan bhoomi se 4.42 mitar (14 phut 6 inch) niche tha. utkhanan men angan aur baramade ka kuchh bhag tatha poorv ki or do kothariyon ke avashesh prakash men ae hain. baramade ke khnbhon ki pnkti sngharam 3 ki bhanti 2 phut 2 inch oonchi dival par nirmit thi. baramade ki chaudee 7 phut 10 inch tak thi.[29]

dhamekh stoop (dharmachakr stoop)

dhamekh stoop, jain mndir, saranath

yah stoop ek thos golakar burj ki bhanti hai. isaka vyas 28.35 mitar (93 phut) aur oonchaee 39.01 mitar (143 phut) 11.20 mitar tak isaka ghera sundar alnkrit shilapatton se achchhadit hai. isaka yah achchhadan kala ki drishti se atynt sundar evn akarshak hai. alnkaranon men mukhy roop se svastik, nandyavart sadrish vividh akritiyan aur phool-patti ke katav ki belen hain. is prakar ke vallari pradhan alnkaran banane men guptakal ke shilpi parngat the. is stoop ki ninv ashok ke samay men padi. isaka vistar kushan-kal men hua, lekin guptakal men yah poornat: taiyar hua. yah sakshy pattharon ki sajavat aur un par gupt lipi men ankit chihnon se nishchit hota hai. kaningham ne sarvapratham is stoop ke madhy khudaee karakar 0.91 mitar (3 phut) niche ek shilapatt prapt kiya tha. is shilapatt par satavin shatabdi ki lipi men ‘ye dharmahetu prabhava’ mnch ankit tha. is stoop men prayukt eenten 14 ½ inch X 8 ½ inch X 2 ¼ inch akar ki hain.[30]

akatha

'akatha' namak purasthal (83°0’ poorvi akshansh aur 25°22’ uttari deshantar ke madhy) saranath se 2 kilomitar dakshin-pashchim men sthit hain. is sthal ka utkhanan prachin bharatiy itihas, snskriti evn puratattv vibhag, kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ke pro. vidula jayasaval evn daau. birendr pratap sinh ke snyukt nirdeshan men unake vibhagiy sahayogi daau. ashok kumar sinh dvara faravari-aprail, 2002 ke madhy kiya gaya.[31]
kagyoo tibbati math, saranath
yah utkhanan kary pun: 2004 faravari-aprail, ke madhy pro. vidula jayasaval evn lekhak ke snyukt nirdeshan men sampann hua. narokhar nala ke dakshini kinare par sthit yah purasthal char varga kilomitar, men phaila hua hai. utkhanan kary mukhy roop se akatha-1 aur akatha-2 men kiya gaya. utkhanan men char sanskritik kalon ki samagri prakash men aee.:
  • pratham kal- poorv uttari krishn parimarjit snskriti (pri en. bi. pi. kal) (lagabhag 1200 ee. poo. se 600 ee. poo. tak)
  • dvitiy kal- uttari krishn parimarjit snskriti (600 ee.poo. se 200 ee. poo. tak)
  • tritiy kal- shung kushan kal (200 ee. poo. se 300 eesavi tak)
  • chaturth kal- guptakalin snskriti (300 eesavi se 600 eesavi tak)
akatha- 1

akatha- 1 se prapt mukhy mridabhand parnparaen krishn lohit, krishn lepit, uttari krishn parimarjit mridabhand, bhoore rng ke mritpatr evn lal rng ke mritpatr hain. krishn lohit (blaik end red veyar) mridabhand ke katore, tasale, ghade, krishn lepit mridabhand (blaik slipd), uttari krishn parimarjit mridabhand (en.bi.pi. veyar) evn bhoore rng (gre veyar) ki thaliyan evn katore mukhy hain. lal mridabhand (red veyar) ke katore, ghade, avath rahit handiyan (karineted) evn gulabapash (sprinkalar) badi snkhya men prapt hue hain. any vastuon men tamr-shalaka, tanbe, mitti aur arddhamoolyavan pattharon ke bane manake, lodhe evn khilaune tatha paki mitti ki manav evn pashu moortiyan hain.

buddh pratima, saranath

akatha-2 ke utkhanan se prapt mridabhand krishn lohit, krishn lepit evn lal prakar ke hain. lal mridabhandon par lep ka prayog bhi milata hai. yahan ke nivasiyon ko mridabhand alnkaran ka bhi vishesh gyan tha. utkhanan se dori chhapit, chataee ki chhap yukt evn chipakava paddhati se alnkrit mridabhangon ke tukade pratham kal ke nichale star se prapt hue hain.

praman

  • gautamabuddh gaya men snbuddhi prapt karane ke anntar yahan ae the aur unhonne kaudiny adi apane poorv sathiyon ko pratham bar pravachan sunakar apane naye mat men dikshit kiya tha. isi pratham pravachan ko unhonne dharmachakrapravartan kaha jo kalantar men, bharatiy moortikala ke kshetr men saranath ka pratik mana gaya. buddh hi ke jivanakal men kashi ke shreshti nndi ne rishipattan men ek bauddh vihar banavaya tha. [32]
  • tisari shati ee.poo. men ashok ne saranath ki yatra ki aur yahan kee stoop aur ek sundar prastarastnbh sthapit kiya jis par maury samrat ki ek dharmalipi ankit hai. isi stnbh ka sinh shirsh tatha dharmachakr bharatiy ganarajy ka rajachihn banaya gaya hai. chauthi shati ee. men chini yatri fahyan is sthan par aya tha. usane saranath men char bade stoop aur panch vihar dekhe the.
  • 6thi shati ee. men hoonon ne is sthan par akraman karake yahan ke prachin smarakon ko ghor kshati pahunchaee. inaka senanayak mihirakul tha.
saranath
  • 7vin shati ee. ke poorvardh men, prasiddh chini yatri yuvanachvang ne varanasi aur saranath ki yatra ki thi. us samay yahan 30 bauddh vihar the jinamen 1500 theravadi bhikshu nivas karate the.
  • yuvanachvang ne saranath men 100 hindoo devalay bhi dekhen the jo bauddh dharm ke dhire-dhire patanonmukh hone tatha prachin dharm ke punarotkarsh ke parichayak the.
  • 11vin shati men mahamood gazanavi ne saranath par akraman kiya aur yahan ke smarakon ko nasht-bhrasht kar diya.
  • tatpashchath 1194 ee. men muhammad gori ke senapati qutubuddin ne to yahan ki bachikhuchi pray: sabhi imaraton tatha kalakritiyon ko lagabhag samapt hi kar diya. keval do vishal stoop hi chh: shatiyon tak apane sthan par khade rahe.
  • 1794 ee. men kashi-naresh chetasinh ke divan jagatasinh ne jagatagnj namak varanasi ke muhalle ko banavane ke lie ek stoop ki samagri kam men le li. yah stoop eeton ka bana tha. isaka vyas 110 phut tha. kuchh vidvanon ka kathan hai ki yah ashok dvara nirmit dharmarajik namak stoop tha. jagatasinh ne is stoop ka jo utkhanan karavaya tha usame is vishal stoop ke andar se baluva patthar aur sngamaramar ke do bartan mile the jinamen buddh ke asthi-avashesh pae ge the. inhen gnga men pravahit kar diya gaya.

puratattav vibhag dvara yahan jo utkhanan kiya gaya usamen 12vin shati ee. men yahan hone vale vinash ke adhyayan se gyat hota hai ki yahan ke nivasi musalamanon ke akraman ke samay ekaek hi bhag nikale the kyonki viharon ki kee kothariyon men mitti ke bartanon men paki dal aur chaval ke avashesh mile the.

buddh pratima, moolagndh kuti vihar, saranath

1854 ee. men bharat sarakar ne saranath ko ek nil ke vyavasayi fargyusan se kharid liya. lnka ke anagarik dharmapal ke prayatnon se yahan moolagndh kuti vihar namak bauddh mndir bana tha. saranath ke avashisht prachin smarakon men nimn stoop ullekhaniy hain- chaukhndi stoop is par mugal samrat akabar dvara ankit 1588 ee. ka ek farasi abhilekh khuda hai, jisamen humayoon ke is sthan par akar vishram karane ka ullekh hai.[33]; dhamekh athava dharmamukh stoop puratattv vidvanon ke matanusar guptakalin hai aur bhavi buddh maitrey ke sammanarth banavaya gaya tha. kinvadnti hai ki yah vahi sthal hai, jahan maitrey ko gautam buddh ne usake bhavi buddh banane ke vishay men bhavishyavani ki thi.[34] khudaee men isi stoop ke pas anek kharal adi mile the jisase snbhavana hoti hai ki kisi samay yahan aushadhalay raha hoga. is stoop men se anek sundar patthar nikale the.

kalakritiyan tatha pratimaen

saranath ke kshetr ki khudaee se guptakalin anek kalakritiyan tatha buddh pratimaen prapt huee hain jo vartaman sngrahalay men surakshit hain. guptakal men saranath ki moortikala ki ek alag hi shaili prachalit thi, jo buddh ki moortiyon ke atmik saundary tatha sharirik saushthav ki sammishrit bhavayojana ke lie bharatiy moortikala ke itihas men prasiddh hai. saranath men ek prachin shiv mndir tatha ek jain mndir bhi sthit hain. jain mndir 1824 ee. men bana tha; isamen shriyanshadev ki pratima hai. jain kinvadnti hai ki ye tirthnkar saranath se lagabhag do mil door sthit sinh namak gram men tirthnkar bhav ko prapt hue the. saranath se kee mahattvapoorn abhilekh bhi mile hain jinamen pramukh kashiraj prakatadity ka shilalekh hai. isamen baladity naresh ka ullekh hai jo flit ke mat men vahi baladity hai jo mihirakul hoon ke sath viratapoorvak lada tha. yah abhilekh shayad 7vin shati ke poorv ka hai. doosare abhilekh men harigupt namak ek sadhu dvara moortidan ka ullekh hai. yah abhilekh 8vin shati ee. ka jan padata hai.


bich men log ise bhool ge the. yahan ke eent-pattharon ko nikalakar varanasi ka ek muhalla hi bas gaya. 1905 ee. men jab puratattv vibhag ne khudaee arnbh ki tab saranath ka jirnoddhar hua. ab yahan sngrahalay hai, 'moolagndh kuti vihar' namak naya mndir ban chuka hai, bodhivriksh ki shakha lagaee gee hai aur prachin kal ke mrigaday ka smaran dilane ke lie hare-bhare udyanon men kuchh hiran bhi chhod die ge hain. snsar bhar ke bauddh tatha any paryatak yahan ate rahate hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bi.si. bhattachary, di histri af saranath, (banaras, 1924), pri. 47
  2. nigrodh mrig jatak, snkhya 12 (phausabol snskaran
  3. choonki khudaee us samay huee thi jab starikaran ke siddhant shodhakartaon dvara prayukt nahin kie jate the tatha tatkalin vidvanh kachchi eenton, phoos ki jhopadiyon adi avasheshon par dhyan nahin dete the, sath hi bharatiy mritikapatron ka vishesh adhyayan, jo ab ho raha hai, usaka prachalan nahin tha. aisi sthiti men snbhav hai usake mahattv ka uchit moolyankan n kar sake hon.
  4. ipigrafiya indika, bhag 9, pri. 325
  5. arkiyolajikalh sarve aauf indiya, varshik riport 1907-8, pri. 78
  6. tatraiv, 1904-5, pri. 212
  7. kaningham, arkiyolajikalh sarve riports bhag 1, pri. 111
  8. dayaram sahani ne abhilekhik adhar par ise satavin ya athavin shatabdi ka mana hai. kaitalag aauf di myoojiyam aauf arkiyolaji et saranath, (kalakatta 1914), pri. 11
  9. bngal eshiyatik sosaiti jarnal, 1854, pri. 469
  10. eshiyatik sosaiti risarchejh, 1856, pri. 369
  11. arkiyolajikalh sarve aauf indiya (varshik riport), 1904-5, pri. 59 aur age.
  12. bi. majoomadar, e gaid too saranath, (dilli, 1937), pri. 25
  13. arkiyolajikalh sarve aphh indiya (varshik riport), 1914-15 (1920) pri. 97 aur age.
  14. tatraiv, 1919-20 (1922), pri. 26 aur age: tatraiv, 1921-22, pri.82 aur age: tatraiv 1927 (1931), pri. 92
  15. vidvanon ka pahale aisa mat tha ki yah mndir se pani nikalane ke lie ek nali thi. utkhanan se yah nishchit ho gaya ki yah ek surng thi jo ek kamare men jati thi, jahan bauddh bhikshu ekant sadhana karate the.
  16. semual bil, chainij ekauntsh aphh indiya, bhag 3, pri. 297
  17. arkiyolajikalh sarve aphh indiya, (varshik riport), 1904-05, pri. 74 jarnal yoo.pi.hi.so., bhag 15, pri. 55-64
  18. eshiyatik risarchej, 5, pri. 131-132 dekhen- motichndr, kashi ka itihas, pri. 54
  19. arkiyolajikalh sarve aphh indiya, varshik riport, 1903-04, pri. 221
  20. thamas vatars, anh yuvanh chvangsh trevelsh in indiya, bhag do, pri. 47
  21. arkiyolajikal sarve aphh indiya (varshik riport), 1905-06, pri. 68
  22. arkiyolajikal sarve aauf indiya (varshik riport), 1904-5, pri. 69
  23. tatraiv, pri. 70
  24. tatraiv, 1907-08, pri. 45
  25. arkiyolajikal sarve aauf indiya (varshik riport), 1907-08, pri. 46
  26. jaisa ki pahale ullekh kiya ja chuka hai ki in kamaron men bauddh bhikshu ekant sadhana karate the.
  27. arkiyolajikal sarve aauf indiya (varshik riport), 1907-08, pri. 54
  28. arkiyolajikal sarve aauf indiya (varshik riport), 1907-08, pri. 56
  29. tatrev, pri. 59. rachana men ye tinon sngharam saranath ke any viharon se milate-julate hain. snbhavat: ye vihar kushan kal men nirmit hue aur inaka vartaman svaroop guptakal men prapt hua. at: yah nishchit hai ki ye sngharam pahale 5vin shatabdi men hoonon ke akraman se nasht hua. taduparant chhathi shatabdi men pun: inaka jirnoddhar hua jo pun: 11 vin shatabdi men musalamanon ke akraman se nasht ho gaya.
  30. arkiyolajikal sarve aauf indiya (varshik riport), 1904-05, pri. 74
  31. vi. jayasaval, akatha : e saitelaia setilament aauf saranath, varanasi (riport aauf eksakaiveshans kandakted in d iyar 2002), bharati, ank 26, 2000-2002, pri. 61-180.
  32. piyavagg, bagg: 16, buddhaghosh-rachit tika
  33. chaukhndi stoop ke nirmata ka thik-thik pata nahin hai. kaningham ne is stoop ka utkhanan dvara anusndhan kiya bhi tha, kintu koee avashesh n mile
  34. arkiyalojikal riport 1904-05

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