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kaningham
kaningham
poora nam alekzandar kaningham
janm 23 janavari, 1814
mrityu 18 navambar, 1893
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr puratattv anveshak
prasiddhi 'bharat ke puratattv anveshan ke pita'
any janakari kaningham ne anek puratattv-sthalon ki khoj ki tatha is vishay par kee grnth bhi likhe, jinaka mahattv aj bhi hai.

alekzandar kaningham (angrezi: Alexander Cunningham, janm- 23 janavari, 1814; mrityu- 18 navambar, 1893) ko "bharat ke puratattv anveshan ka pita" kaha jata hai. kaningham ek british puratatvashastri tatha sena men abhiyantrik pad par niyukt the. inake donon bhaee frainsis kaningham evn josaf kaningham bhi apane yogadanon ke lie british bharat men prasiddh hue the.

bharat agaman

1833 ee. men ek sainik shiksharthi ke roop men vah briten se bharat aye the, sainik injiniyar banakar yuddhon men bhag liya tatha bad men barma (vartaman myanmar) aur pashchimottar prant ke mukhy abhiynta rahe. varsh 1861 ee. men sevanivritt hone par vah puratattv ke kam men lag gaye tatha apane adhyayan ke adhar par mridashastr ke adhikari vidvanh mane jane lage.

khudaee ka kary

kaningham ne mathura, uttar pradesh men varsh 1871 aur 1882-1883 men khudaee ka kary karaya. sar alekjndar kaningham ne bharat ke puratattv vibhag ke nideshak ke roop men 1870 se 1885 ee. tak kam kiya. unaki ruchi vividh vishayon men thi.

lekhan

kaningham ne anek puratattv-sthalon ki khoj ki tatha is vishay par kee grnth bhi likhe, jinaka mahattv aj bhi hai. janaral elekjendar kaningham ne bharatiy bhoogol likhate samay yah mana ki klisibora nam vrindavan ke lie hai. isake vishay men unhonne likha hai ki kaliy nag ke vrindavan nivas ke karan yah nagar `kalikavart' nam se jana gaya. yoonani lekhakon ke klisobora ka path ve `kalisobork' ya `kalikobort' manate hain. unhen 'indika' ki ek prachin prati men `kairisobork' path mila, jisase unake is anuman ko bal mila.[1] parntu sambhavatah kaningham ka yah anuman sahi nahin hai.

kaningham ne apani 1882-1883 ki khoj-riport men klisobora ke vishay men apana mat badal kar is shabd ka moolaroop `keshavapura'[2] mana hai aur usaki pahachan unhonne keshavapura ya katara keshavadev se ki hai. keshav ya shrikrishn ka janm sthan hone ke karan yah sthan 'keshavapura' kahalata hai.

puraskar v samman

kaningham ko inake yogadanon ke lie 20 mee, 1870 ko 'aaurdar aauf star aauf indiya' (si.es.aee) se sammanit kiya gaya tha. bad men 1878 men inhen 'aaurdar aauf indiyan empayar' se bhi sammanit kiya gaya. 1887 men inhen 'nait kamandar aauf indiyan enpayar' ghoshit kiya gaya.

kaningham ka mat

kaningham ka mat hai ki us samay men yamuna ki pradhan dhara vartaman katara keshavadev ki poorvi divar ke niche se bahati rahi hogi aur doosari or mathura shahar raha hoga. katara ke kuchh age se dakshin-poorv ki or mud kar yamuna ki vartaman badi dhara men milati rahi hogi.[3] janaral kaningham ka yah mat vicharaniy hai. yah kaha ja sakata hai ki kisi kal men yamuna ki pradhan dhara ya usaki ek badi shakha vartaman katara ke niche se bahati rahi ho aur is dhara ke donon taraph nagar raha ho, mathura se bhinn `keshavapur' ya `krishnapur' nam ka nagar vartaman katara keshavadev aur usake as-pas hota to usaka ullekh puranon ya any sahity men avashy hota.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. dekhie kaninghams ऎnshynt jiographi aph indiya (kalakatta 1924) pri0 429.
  2. laisan ne bhasha-vigyan ke adhar par klisobora ka mool snskrit roop `krishnapur' mana hai. unaka anuman hai ki yah sthan agara men raha hoga. (indishche altaratumsakunde, vaaun 1869, jild 1, prishth 127, not 3.
  3. kaningham-arkenolajikal sarve aauph indiya, ainual riport, jild 20 (1882-83), pri0 31-32.

snbndhit lekh

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