मथुरा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mathura vishay soochi
mathura
mathura ke vibhinn drishy
vivaran mathura uttar pradesh rajy ka ek aitihasik evn dharmik nagar hai jo paryatan sthal ke roop men bhi bahut prasiddh hai.
rajy uttar pradesh
zila mathura zila
bhaugolik sthiti uttar 27.49, poorv 77.67
marg sthiti yah agara se dilli ki or aur dilli se agara ki or kramash: 58 kimi uttar-pashchim evn 145 kimi dakshin-pashchim men yamuna ke kinare rashtriy rajamarg 2 par sthit hai.
tapaman grishm 22° se 45° se., shit 40° se 32° se.
prasiddhi krishn janmabhoomi, banke bihari mandir, rifainari, mathura sngrahalay
kab jaen kabhi bhi ja sakate hain
kaise pahunchen bas, rel, kar adi se asani se mathura pahuncha ja sakata hai.
relave steshan mathura jnkshan, mathura kaint steshan
bas adda naya bas adda, purana bas adda
kahan thaharen hotal, dharmashala, vishram grah
kya khayen chat, kachaudi, jalebi, lassi, mathura ke pede adi
kya khariden mala, knthi, bhagavan ki moortiyan, poshak, shnkh adi
es.ti.di. kod 91(565)
e.ti.em lagabhag sabhi
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr
snbndhit lekh yamuna, holi, vrindavan, govardhan, barasana, gokul, nndaganv, mahavan adi
pin kod 281001
vahan pnjiyan UP-85
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎

mathura (angrezi: Mathura) uttar pradesh rajy ka ek aitihasik evn dharmik nagar hai jo paryatan sthal ke roop men bhi bahut prasiddh hai. mathura, bhagavan krishn ki janmasthali aur bharat ki param prachin tatha jagadh-vikhyat nagari hai. shoorasen desh ki yahan rajadhani thi. pauranik sahity men mathura ko anek namon se snbodhit kiya gaya hai jaise- shoorasen nagari, madhupuri, madhunagari, madhura adi.

bhaugolik sthiti

mathura yamuna nadi ke pashchimi tat par sthit hai. samudr tal se oonchaee 187 mitar hai. jalavayu-grishm 22° se 45° selsiyas, shit 40° se 32° selsiyas ausat varsha 66 se.mi. joon se sitnbar tak hoti hai. mathura janapad uttar pradesh ki pashchimi sima par sthit hai. isake poorv men janapad eta, uttar men janapad aligadh, dakshin - poorv men janapad agara, dakshin-pashchim men rajasthan evn pashchim-uttar men hariyana rajy sthit hain. mathura, agara mandal ka uttar-pashchimi zila hai. yah akshansh 27° 41' uttar aur deshantar 77° 41' poorv ke madhy sthit hai. mathura janapad men char tahasilen- mant, chhata, mahavan aur mathura tatha 10 vikas khand hain- nandaganv, chhata, chaumuhan, govardhan, mathura, farah, nauhajhil, mant, raya aur baldev hain. janapad ka bhaugolik kshetraphal 3329.4 varg kimi hai.

pramukh nadi 'yamuna'

janapad ki pramukh nadi yamuna hai, jo uttar se dakshin ki or bahati huee janapad ki kul char tahasilon mant, mathura, mahavan aur chhata men se hokar bahati hai. yamuna ka poorvi bhag paryapt upajaoo hai tatha pashchimi bhag apekshakrit kam upajaoo hai. is janapad ki pramukh nadi yamuna hai. isaki do sahayak nadiyan 'karavan' tatha 'pathavaha' hain. yamuna nadi varsh bhar bahati hai tatha janapad ki pratyek tahasil ko chhooti huee bahati hai. yah pratyek varsh apana marg badalati rahati hai, jisake parinamasvaroop hazaron haikteyar kshetraphal badh se prabhavit ho jata hai. yamuna nadi ke kinare ki bhoomi khadar hai. janapad ki vayu shuddh evn svasthyavardhak hai. garmiyon men adhik garmi aur sardiyon men adhik sardi padana yahan ki visheshata hai. varsha ke alava varsh bhar shesh samay mausam samanyat: shushk rahata hai. mee v joon ke mahinon men tez garm pashchimi havayen (loo) chalati hain. janapad men adhikansh varsha julaee v agast mah men hoti hai. janapad ke pashchimi bhag men ajakal badh ka ana samany ho gaya hai, jisase kafi kshetr jalamagn ho jata hai.

mathura sndarbh

shoorasen desh ki mukhy nagari mathura ke vishay men aj tak koee vaidik snket nahin prapt ho saka hai. kintu ee.poo. panchavin shatabdi se isaka astitv siddh ho chuka hai. anguttaranikay[1] evn majjhim.[2] men aya hai ki buddh ke ek mahanh shishy mahakachyayan ne mathura men apane guru ke siddhanton ki shiksha di. maigasthaniz sambhavat: mathura ko janata tha aur isake sath hareklij ke sambandh se bhi parichit tha. 'mathur'[3] shabd jaimini ke poorv mimansasootr men bhi aya hai. yadyapi panini ke sootron men spasht roop se 'mathura' shabd nahin aya hai, kintu varanadi-gan[4] men isaka prayog milata hai. kintu panini ko vasudev, arjun[5], yadavon ke andhak-vrishni log, sambhavat: govind bhi[6] gyat the.

  • patnjali ke mahabhashy men mathura shabd kee bar aya hai.[7] kee sthanon par vasudev dvara kns ke nash ka ullekh natakiy snketon, chitron evn gathaon ke roop men aya hai. uttaradhyayanasootr men mathura ko 'sauryapur' kaha gaya hai, kintu mahabhashy men ullikhit saury nagar mathura hi hai, aisa kahana sandehatmak hai. adiparv[8] men aya hai ki mathura ati sundar gayon ke lie un dinon prasiddh thi. jab jarasandh ke vir senapati hns evn dimbhak yamuna men doob gaye, aur jab jarasandh du:khit hokar magadh chala gaya to krishn kahate hain, 'ab ham pun: prasann hokar mathura men rah sakenge.'[9] ant men jarasandh ke lagatar akramanon se tng akar krishn ne yadavon ko dvaraka men le jakar basaya.[10]

Blockquote-open.gif varah puran[11] men aya hai- vishnu kahate hain ki is prithvi ya antariksh ya patal lok men koee aisa sthan nahin hai jo mathura ke saman mujhe pyara ho- mathura mera prasiddh kshetr hai aur muktidayak hai, isase badhakar mujhe koee any sthal nahin lagata. padm puran men aya hai- 'mathurak nam vishnu ko atyant priy hai'[12] harivnsh puran[13] ne mathura ka sundar varnan kiya hai, ek shlok yon hai- 'mathura madhy-desh ka 'kakud'[14] hai, yah lakshmi ka nivas-sthal hai, ya prithvi ka shrring hai. isake saman koee any nahin hai aur yah prabhoot dhan-dhany se poorn hai.'[15] Blockquote-close.gif

  • brahm puran [16]men aya hai ki krishn ki sammati se vrishniyon evn andhakon ne kal yavan ke bhay se mathura ka tyag kar diya. vayu puran[17] ka kathan hai ki ram ke bhaee shatrughn ne madhu ke putr lavan ko mar dala aur madhuvan men samriddhishali nagar banaya. ghat-jatak[18] men mathura ko uttar mathura kaha gaya hai[19], vahan kns evn vasudev ki gatha bhi ayi hai jo mahabharat evn puranon ki gatha se bhinn hai. raghuvnsh[20] men ise 'madhura' nam se shatrughn dvara sthapit kaha gaya hai.
  • hvenasang ke anusar mathura men ashokaraj dvara tin stoop banavaye gaye the, panch devamandir the aur bis sngharam the, jinamen 2000 bauddh rahate the.[21] jems ailan[22] ka kathan hai ki mathura ke hindoo rajaon ke sikke ee.poo. dvitiy shatabdi ke arambh se pratham shatabdi ke madhy bhag tak ke hain.[23] eph. es. graus ki pustak 'mathura'[24] bhi drishtavy hai. mathura ke itihas evn prachinata ke vishay men shilalekh bhi prakash dalate hain.[25] kharavel ke prasiddh abhilekh men kalingaraj (kharavel) ki us vijay ka varnan hain, jisamen madhura ki or yavanaraj dimit ka bhag jana ullikhit hai.
  • kanishk, huvishk evn any kushan rajaon ke shilalekh bhi paye jate hain, yatha-maharaj rajadhiraj kanikkh[26] ka nag-pratima ka shilalekh; sn. 14 ka stambhatal lekh;[27] huvishk (sn. 33) ke rajyakal ka bodhisatv ki pratima ke adhar vala shilalekh[28] vasu[29] ka shilalekh; shodas [30] ke kal ka shilalekh evn mathura tatha usake as-pas ke sat brahmi lekh.[31]
braj ki gau (gayen)
  • ek any manornjak shilalekh bhi hai, jisamen nandibal evn mathura ke abhineta (shailalak) ke putron dvara nagendr dadhikarn ke mandir men pradatt ek prastar-khand ka ullekh hai.[32] vishnu puran[33] se prakat hota hai ki isake pranayan ke poorv mathura men hari ki ek pratima pratishthapit huee thi.
  • vayu puran ne bhavishyavani ke roop men kaha hai ki mathura, prayag, saket evn magadh men gupton ke poorv sat nag raja rajy karenge. [34] alabarooni ke bharat[35] men aya hai ki mahura men brahmanon ki bhid hai.

uparyukt aitihasik vivechan se prakat hota hai ki eesa ke 5 ya 6 shatabdiyon poorv mathura ek samriddhishali puri thi, jahan mahakavy-kalin hindoo dharm prachalit tha, jahan age chalakar bauddh dharm evn jain dharm ka pradhany hua, jahan pun: nagon evn gupton men hindoo dharm jagarit hua, satavin shatabdi men (jab hvenasang yahan aya tha) jahan bauddh dharm evn hindoo dharm ek-saman poojit the aur jahan pun: 11vin shatabdi men brahmanavad pradhanata ko prapt ho gaya.

  • agni puran[36] men ek vichitr bat yah likhi hai ki ram ki agya se bharat ne mathura puri men shailoosh ke tin koti putron ko mar dala. [37] lagabhag do sahastrabdiyon se adhik kal tak mathura krishn-pooja evn bhagavat dharm ka kendr rahi hai. varah puran men mathura ki mahatta evn isake upatirthon ke vishay men lagabhag ek sahastr shlok paye jate hain[38], bhagavat[39] evn vishnu puran[40] men krishn, radha, mathura, vrindavan, govardhan evn krishnalila ke vishay men bahut-kuchh likha gaya hai.
  • padm puran[41] ka kathan hai ki yamuna nadi jab mathura se mil jati hai to moksh deti hai; yamuna mathura men punyaphal utpann karati hai aur jab yah mathura se mil jati hai to vishnu ki bhakti deti hai. varah puran[42] men aya hai- vishnu kahate hain ki is prithivi ya antariksh ya patal lok men koee aisa sthan nahin hai jo mathura ke saman mujhe pyara ho- mathura mera prasiddh kshetr hai aur muktidayak hai, isase badhakar mujhe koee any sthal nahin lagata. padm puran men aya hai- 'mathurak nam vishnu ko atyant priy hai'[43] harivnsh puran[44] ne mathura ka sundar varnan kiya hai, ek shlok yon hai- 'mathura madhy-desh ka kakud (arthath atyant mahattvapoorn sthal) hai, yah lakshmi ka nivas-sthal hai, ya prithivi ka shrring hai. isake saman koee any nahin hai aur yah prabhoot dhan-dhany se poorn hai.'[45]

mathura ka parichay

mor, mathura

bharatavarsh ka vah bhag jo himalay aur vindhyachal ke bich men padata hai, prachinakal men aryavart kahalata tha. yahan par panapi huee bharatiy snskriti ko jin dharaon ne sincha ve gnga aur yamuna ki dharaen thin. inhin donon nadiyon ke kinare bharatiy snskriti ke kee kendr bane aur vikasit hue. varanasi, prayag, kaushambi, hastinapur, kannauj adi kitane hi aise sthan hain, parantu yah talika tab tak poorn nahin ho sakati jab tak isamen mathura ka samavesh n kiya jaye. yah agara se dilli ki or aur dilli se agara ki or kramash: 58 kimi. uttar-pashchim evn 145 kimi. dakshin-pashchim men yamuna ke kinare rashtriy rajamarg 2 par sthit hai.

'ramayan' men ullekh

valmiki ramayan men mathura ko madhupur ya madhudanav ka nagar kaha gaya hai tatha yahan lavanasur ki rajadhani bataee gee hai-[46] is nagari ko is prasng men madhudaity dvara basaee, bataya gaya hai. lavanasur, jisako shatrughn ne yuddh men harakar mara tha isi madhudanav ka putr tha.[47] isase madhupuri ya mathura ka ramayan-kal men basaya jana soochit hota hai. ramayan men is nagari ki samriddhi ka varnan hai.[48] is nagari ko lavanasur ne bhi sajaya snvara tha. [49]danav, daity, rakshas adi jaise snbodhan vibhinn kal men anek arthon men prayukt hue hain, kabhi jati ya qabile ke lie, kabhi ary anary sndarbh men to kabhi dusht prakriti ke vyaktiyon ke lie. prachinakal se ab tak is nagar ka astitv akhandit roop se chala a raha hai.

shoorasen janapad

shoorasen janapad ka naksha

shoorasen janapad ke namakaran ke snbndh men vidvanon ke anek mat hain kintu koee bhi sarvamany nahin hai. shatrughn ke putr ka nam shoorasen tha. jab sitaharan ke bad sugriv ne vanaron ko sita ki khoj men uttar disha men bheja to shatabali aur vanaron se kaha- 'uttar men mlechchh' pulind, shoorasen, prasthal, bharat (indraprasth aur hastinapur ke asapas ke prant), kuru (kurudesh) (dakshin kuru- kurukshetr ke asapas ki bhoomi), madr, kamboj, yavan, shakon ke deshon evn nagaron men bhali-bhanti anusandhan karake darad desh men aur himalay parvat par dhoondho.[50] isase spasht hai ki shatrughn ke putr se pahale hi 'shoorasen' janapad nam astitv men tha. haihayavnshi kartaviry arjun ke sau putron men se ek ka nam shoorasen tha aur usake nam par yah shoorasen rajy ka namakaran hone ki sambhavana bhi hai, kintu haihayavnshi kartaviry arjun ka mathura se koee sidha snbndh hona spasht nahin hai. mahabharat ke samay men mathura shoorasen desh ki prakhyat nagari thi. lavanasur ke vadhoparant shatrughn ne is nagari ko pun: basaya tha. unhonne madhuvan ke jngalon ko katava kar usake sthan par nee nagari basaee thi. yahin krishn ka janm krishn janmabhoomi,shri krishn janmasthan, yahan ke adhipati kns ke karagar men hua tatha unhonne bachapan hi men atyachari kns ka vadh karake desh ko usake abhishap se chhutakara dilavaya. kns ki mrityu ke bad shri krishn mathura hi men bas ge kintu jarasndh ke akramanon se bachane ke lie unhonne mathura chhod kar dvaraka puri basaee [51] dasham sarg, 58 men mathura par kalayavan ke akraman ka vritant hai. isane tin karod mlechchhon ko lekar mathura ko gher liya tha. [52]

shoorasen janapad ki sima

prachin shoorasen janapad ka vistar dakshin men chnbal nadi se lekar uttar men vartaman mathura nagar se 75 ki. mi. uttar men sthit kuru (kurudesh) rajy ki sima tak tha. usaki sima pashchim men matsy aur poorv men panchal janapad se milati thi. mathura nagar ko mahakavyon evn puranon men 'mathura' evn `madhupuri' namon se snbodhit kiya gaya hai.[53] vidvanon ne `madhupuri' ki pahachan mathura ke 6 mil pashchim men sthit vartaman 'maholi' se ki hai.[54] prachin kal men yamuna nadi mathura ke pas se gujarati thi, aj bhi isaki sthiti yahi hai. plini [55] ne yamuna ko jomenas kaha hai, jo methora aur klisobora [56] ke madhy bahati thi.

prachin sahity men mathura

harivnsh puran [57] men bhi mathura ke vilas-vaibhav ka manohar chitr hai.[58]vishnu puran men bhi mathura ka ullekh hai,[59] vishnu-puran[60] men shatrughn dvara purani mathura ke sthan par hi nee nagari ke basae jane ka ullekh hai.[61] is samay tak madhura nam ka roopantar mathura prachalit ho gaya tha. kalidas ne raghuvnsh[62] men indumati ke svnyavar ke prasng men shoorasenadhipati sushen ki rajadhani mathura men varnit ki hai.[63] isake sath hi govardhan ka bhi ullekh hai. mallinath ne 'mathura` ki tika karate hue likha hai`-'kalinditire mathura lavanasuravadhakale shatrughnen nirmasyateti vakshyati`.

shoorasen se mathura

prachin grnthon-hindoo, bauddh, jain evn yoonani sahity men is janapad ka shoorasen nam anek sthanon par milata hai. prachin grnthon men mathura ka methora[64], madura[65], mat-au-lau[66], mo-tu-lo[67] tatha sauripur[68]sauryapur) namon ka bhi ullekh milata hai. in udaharanon se aisa pratit hota hai ki shoorasen janapad ki sngya eesavi sanh ke arambh tak jari rahi [69] aur shak-kushanon ke prabhutv ke sath hi is janapad ki sngya rajadhani ke nam par `mathura' ho gee. is parivartan ka mukhy karan tha ki yah nagar shak-kushanakalin samay men itani prasiddhi ko prapt ho chuka tha ki log janapad ke nam ko bhi mathura nam se pukarane lage aur kalantar men janapad ka shoorasen nam janasadharan ke smritipatal se vismrit ho gaya.

puranon men mathura

puranon men mathura ke gauravamay itihas ka vishad vivaran milata hai. anek dharmon se snbndhit hone ke karan mathura men basane aur rahane ka mahattv kramash: badhata raha. aisi manyata thi ki yahan rahane se paparahit ho jate hain tatha isamen rahane karane valon ko moksh ki prapti hoti hai. [70] varah puran men kaha gaya hai ki is nagari men jo log shuddh vichar se nivas karate hain, ve manav ke roop men sakshat devata hain.[71] shraddh karm ka vishesh phal mathura men prapt hota hai. mathura men shraddh karane valon ke poorvajon ko adhyatmik mukti milati hai.[72] uttanapad ke putr dhruv ne mathura men tapasya kar ke nakshatron men sthan prapt kiya tha.[73] puranon men mathura ki mahima ka varnan hai. prithvi ke yah poochhane par ki mathura jaise tirth ki mahima kya hai? mahavarah ne kaha tha- 'mujhe is vasundhara men patal athava antariksh se bhi mathura adhik priy hai.'[74] varah puran men bhi mathura ke sndarbh men ullekh milata hai, yahan ki bhaugolik sthiti ka varnan milata hai.[75] yahan mathura ki map bis yojan batayi gayi hai.[76] is mndal men mathura, gokul, vrindavan, govardhan adi nagar, gram evn mndir, tadag, kund, van evn anaganit tirthon ke hone ka vivaran milata hai. inaka vistrit varnan puranon men milata hai. gnga ke saman hi yamuna ke gauravamay mahattv ka bhi vishad vivaran kiya gaya hai. puranon men varnit rajaon ke shasan evn unake vnshon ka bhi varnan prapt hota hai.

  • brahm puran men vrishniyon evn andhakon ke sthan mathura par, rakshason ke akraman ka bhi vivaran milata hai.[77] vrishniyon evn andhakon ne dar kar mathura ko chhod diya tha aur unhonne apani rajadhani dvaravati (dvarika) men pratishthit ki thi.[78] magadh naresh jarasndh ne 23 akshauhini sena se is nagari ko gher liya tha.[79] apane mahaprasthan ke samay yudhishthar ne mathura ke sinhasan par vajranabh ko asin kiya.[80] sat nag-naresh guptavnsh ke utkarsh ke poorv yahan par rajy kar rahe the.[81]
  • ugrasen aur kns mathura ke shasak the jis par andhakon ke uttaradhikari rajy karate the.[82] kalantar men shatrughn ke putron ko mathura se bhim satvat ne nikala tatha usane tatha usake putron ne yahan par rajy kiya.[83] shoorasen ne jo shatrughn ka putr tha, usane yamuna ke pashchim men base hue satvat yadavon par akraman kiya aur vahan ke shasak madhav[84] lavan ka vadh karake mathura nagari ko apani rajadhani ghoshit kiya.[85]
  • mathura ki sthapana shravan mahine men hone ke karan hi snbhavat: is mah men utsav adi karane ki parnpara hai. puratan kal men hi yah nagari itani vaibhavashali thi ki mathura nagari ko devanirmita kaha jane laga tha. [86] mathura ke mahabharat kal ke rajavnsh ko yadu athava yaduvnshiy kaha jata hai. yadav vnsh men mukhyat: do vnsh hain. jinhen-vitihotr evn satvat ke nam se jana jata hai. satvat varg bhi kee shakhaon men bnta hua tha. jinamen vrishni, andhak, devavriddh tatha mahabhoj pramukh the.[87]

yadu aur yadu vnsh ka praman rigved men bhi milata hai. is vnsh ka snbndh turvash, druh, anu evn puru se tha.[88] isase gyat hota hai ki yadu turvash kisi doorasth pradesh se yahan ae the. vaidik sahity men satvaton ka bhi nam ata hai.[89] shatapath brahman men ata hai ki ek bar bharatavnshi shasakon ne satvaton se unake ygy ka ghoda chhin liya tha. bharatavnshi shasakon dvara sarasvati, yamuna aur gnga ke tat par ygy kie jane ke varnan se rajy ki bhaugolik sthiti ka gyan ho jata hai.[90] satvaton ka rajy bhi samipavarti kshetron men hi raha hoga. is prakar mahabharat evn puranon men varnit satvaton ka mathura se snbndh spashtataya gyat ho jata hai.

mathura mandal

mathura ka mandal 20 yojanon tak vistrit tha aur mathurapuri isake bich men sthit thi.[91] varah puran evn naradiy puran (uttarardh, adhyay 79-80) ne mathura evn isake asapas ke tirthon ka ullekh kiya hai. varah puran[92] evn naradiy puran[93] ne mathura ke pas ke 12 vanon ki charcha ki hai, yatha- madhuvan, talavan, kumudavan, kamyavan, bahulavan, bhadravan, khadiravan, mahavan, lauhajnghavan, bilvavan, bhandiravan evn vrindavan. 24 upavan bhi[94] the jinhen puranon ne nahin, pratyut pashchatkalin granthon ne varnit kiya hai.

chandrama ji mandir, kamyavan
  • vrindavan yamuna ke kinare mathura ke uttar-pashchim men tha aur vistar men panch yojan tha.[95] padmapuran[96] ne krishn, gopiyon evn kalindi ki goodh vyakhya upasthit ki hai. gop-patniyan yogini hain, kalindi sushumna hai, krishn sarvavyapak hain, adi. yahi krishn ki lila-bhoomi thi. padmapuran[97] ne ise prithvi par vaikunth mana hai. matsyapuran[98] ne radha ko vrindavan men devi dakshayani mana hai. kalidas ke kal men yah prasiddh tha. raghuvnsh (6) men nip kul ke evn shoorasen ke raja sushen ka varnan karate hue kaha gaya hai ki vrindavan kuber ki vatika chitrarath se kisi prakar sundarata men kam nahin hai. isake uparant govardhan ki mahatta hai, jise krishn ne apani kanishtha anguli par indr dvara bheji gayi varsha se gop-gopiyon evn unake pashuon ko bachane ke lie uthaya tha.[99]
  • varahapuran[100] men aya hai ki govardhan mathura se pashchim lagabhag do yojan hain. yah kuchh sima tak thik hai, kyonki ajakal vrindavan se yah 18 mil hai. koormapuran[101] ka kathan hai ki prachin raja prithu ne yahan tap kiya tha. harivnsh evn puranon ki charchaen kabhi-kabhi ootapatang evn ek-doosare ke virodh men pad jati hain. udaharanarth, harivnshapuran[102] men talavan govardhan se uttar yamuna par kaha gaya hai, kintu vastav men yah govardhan se dakshin-poorv men hai. kalidas[103] ne govardhan ki gufaon ka ullekh kiya hai. gokul, braj ya mahavan hai jahan krishn bachapan men nand-gop dvara palit-poshit hue the. kns ke bhay se nand-gop gokul se vrindavan chale aye the. chaitany mahaprabhu vrindavan aye the.[104] 16vin shatabdi men vrindavan ke gosvamiyon, visheshat: sanatan, roop evn jiv ke granthon ke karan vrindavan chaitany-bhakti-sampraday ka kendr tha.[105] chaitany ke samakalin vallabhachary ek doosare se vrindavan men mile the.[106] mathura ke prachin mandiron ko aurngajeb ne banaras ke mandiron ki bhanti nasht-bhrasht kar diya tha. [107]
  • sabhaparv[108] men aisa aya hai ki, jarasndh ne girivraj[109] se apani gada phenki aur vah 99 yojan ki doori par krishn ke samaksh mathura men giri, jahan vah giri vah sthan 'gadavasan' ke nam se vishrut hua. vah nam kahin aur nahin milata.
  • graus ne mathura namak pustak men[110] vrindavan ke mandiron evn[111] govardhan, barasana, radha ke janm-sthan evn nandaganv ka ullekh kiya hai. mathura evn usake asapas ke tirth-sthalon ka dabloo. es. kaine krit 'chitramay bharat'[112] men bhi varnan hai.
yamuna
mathura nagar ka yamuna nadi par se vihngam drishy

braj snskriti

yahan ke van–upavan, kunj–nikunj, shri yamuna v giriraj atyant mohak hain. pakshiyon ka madhur svar ekaki sthal ko madak evn manohar banata hai. moron ki bahutayat tatha unaki pioo–pioo ki avaz se vatavaran gunjayaman rahata hai. balyakal se hi bhagavan shrikrishn ki sundar mor ke prati vishesh kripa tatha usake pnkhon ko shish mukut ke roop men dharan karane se skand vahan svaroop mor ko bhakti sahity men mahattvapoorn sthan mila hai. bharat ki sarakar ne mor ko 'rashtriy pakshi' ghoshit kar ise snrakshan diya hai.

Blockquote-open.gif varah puran[113] evn naradiy puran[114] ne mathura ke pas ke 12 vanon ki charcha ki hai, yatha- madhuvan, talavan, kumudavan, kamyavan, bahulavan, bhadravan, khadiravan, mahavan, lauhajnghavan, bilvavan, bhandiravan evn vrindavan. 24 upavan bhi[115] the jinhen puranon ne nahin, pratyut pashchatkalin granthon ne varnit kiya hai. Blockquote-close.gif

braj ki mahatta preranatmak, bhavanatmak v rachanatmak hai tatha sahity aur kalaon ke vikas ke lie yah upayukt sthali hai. sngit, nrity evn abhinay braj snskriti ke pran bane hain. brajabhoomi anekanek mathon, moortiyon, mandiron, mahnto, mahatmaon aur mahamanishiyon ki mahima se vandaniy hai. yahan sabhi sampradayon ki aradhana sthali hai. braj ki raj ka mahatmy bhakton ke lie sarvopari hai. isilie braj chaurasi kos men 21 kilomitar ki govardhan–radhakund, 27 kilomitar ki garud govind–vrindavan, 5–5 kos ki mathura–vrindavan, 15–15 kilomitar ki mathura-vrindavan, 6–6 kilomitar nandaganv, barasana, bahulavan, bhandiravan, 9 kilomitar ki gokul, 7.5 kilomitar ki baldev, 4.5–4.5 kilomitar ki madhuvan, lohavan, 2 kilomitar ki talavan, 1.5 kilomitar ki kumudavan ki nnge panv tatha dandoti parikrama lagakar shrriddhalu dhany hote hain. pratyek tyohar, utsav, ritu mah evn din par parikrama dene ka braj men vishesh prachalan hai. desh ke kone–kone se akar shrriddhalu braj parikramaon ko dharmik krity aur anushthan manakar ati shraddha bhakti ke sath karate hain. inase naisargik chetana, dharmik parikalpana, snskriti ke anushilan unnayan, maulik v mngalamayi prerana prapt hoti hai. ashadh tatha adhik mas men govardhan parvat parikrama hetu lakhon shraddhalu ate hain. aisi apar bhid men bhi rashtriy ekata aur sadbhavana ke darshan hote hain. bhagavan shrikrishn, baladaoo ki lila sthali ka darshan to shraddhaluon ke lie pramukh hai hi yahan akroor ji, uddhav ji, narad ji, dhruv ji aur vajranath ji ki yatrayen bhi ullekhaniy hain.

braj ki jivan shaili

paramparagat roop se brajavasi sanand jivan vyatit karate hain. nity snan, bhajan, mandir gaman, darshan–jhanki karana, din–dukhiyon ki sahayata karana, atithi satkar, lokopakar ke kary, pashu–pakshiyon ke prati prem, nariyon ka samman v suraksha, bachchon ke prati sneh, unhen achchhi shiksha dena tatha laukik vyavahar kushalata unaki jivan shaili ke ang ban chuke hain. yahan kanya ko devi ke saman poojy mana jata hai. braj vanitayen pati ke sath din–rat kary karate hue kul ki maryada rakhakar pati ke sath rahane men apana jivan sarthak manati hai. snyukt parivar pranali sath rahane, kary karane, ek–doosare ka dhyan rakhane, chhote–bade ke prati yathochit samman, yahan ki samajik vyavastha men parilakshit hota hai. saty aur snyam braj lok jivan ke pramukh ang hain. yahan kary ke siddhant ki mahatta hai aur jivon men paramatma ka ansh manana hi divy drishti hai.

vrat aur tyohar

mahilaon ki mang men sindoor, mathe par bindi, nak men laung ya bali, kanon men kundal ya jhumaki–jhali, gale men mngal sootr, hathon men choodi, pairon men bichhua–chutaki, mahavar aur payal ya todiya unaki suhag ki nishani mani jati hain. vivahit mahilayen apane pati parivar aur grih ki mngal kamana hetu karava chauth ka vrat karati hain, putravati nariyan sntan ke mngalamay jivan hetu ahoee ashtami ka vrat rakhati hain. svastik, satiya chihn yahan sabhi mangalik avasaron par banaya jata hai aur shubh avasaron par nariyal ka prayog kiya jata hai. desh ke kone–kone se log yahan parvon par ekatr hote hain. jahan vividhata men ekata ke sakshat darshan hote hain. braj men pray: sabhi mandiron men rathayatra ka utsav hota hai. chaitr mas men vrindavan men rnganath ji ki savari vibhinn vahanon par nikalati hai. jisamen desh ke kone–kone se akar bhakt sammilit hote hain. jyeshth mas men gnga dashahara ke din prat: kal se hi vibhinn anchalon se shraddhalu akar yamuna men snan karate hain. is avasar par bhi vibhinn prakar ki veshabhoosha aur shilp ke sath rashtriy ekata ke darshan hote hain, is din chhote–bade sabhi kalatmak dhng ki rngin patng udate hain.

parikrama

ashadh mas men govardhan parvat ki parikrama hetu pray: sabhi kshetron se yatri govardhan ate hain, jisamen abhooshanon, paridhanon adi se kshetr ki shilp kala udbhashit hoti hai. shravan mas men hindolon ke utsav men vibhinn prakar se kalatmak dhng se sajja ki jati hai. bhadrapad men mandiron men vishesh kalatmak jhankiyan tatha sajavat hoti hai. ashvin mah men sampoorn braj kshetr men kanyaen ghar ki divaron par gobar se vibhinn prakar ki kritiyan banati hain, jinamen kaudiyon tatha rngin chamakadar kagazon ke abhooshanon se apani sanjhi ko kalatmak dhng se sajakar arati karati hain. isi mah se mandiron men kagaz ke sanchon se sookhe rngon ki vedi ka nirman kar us par alpana banate hain. isako bhi 'sanjhi' kahate hain. kartik mas to shrikrishn ki bal lilaon se paripoorn rahata hai. akshay tritiya tatha devotthan ekadashi ko mathura tatha vrindavan ki parikrama lagaee jati hai. basnt pnchami ko sampoorn braj kshetr basanti hota hai. phalgun mas men to jidhar dekho udhar nagadon, jhanjh par chaupaee tatha holi ke rasiya ki dhvaniyan sunaee deti hain. nandaganv tatha barasana ki latthamar holi, daooji ka hurnga jagath prasiddh hai.

braj ka prachin sngit

braj ke prachin sngitgyon ki pramanik janakari 16vin shatabdi ke bhaktikal se milati hai. is kal men anekon sngitgy vaishnav snt hue. sngit shiromani svami haridas ji, inake guru ashudhir ji tatha unake shishy tanasen adi ka nam sarvavidit hai. baijoobavara ke guru bhi shri haridas ji kahe jate hain, kintu baijoo bavara ne ashtachhap ke kavi sngitgy govind svami ji se hi sngit ka abhyas kiya tha. nimbark sampraday ke shribhatt ji isi kal men bhakt, kavi aur sngitgy hue. ashtachhap ke mahasngitgy kavi sooradas, nandadas, paramanandadas ji adi bhi isi kal men prasiddh kirtanakar, kavi aur gayak hue, jinake kirtan ballabh kul ke mandiron men gaye jate hain. svami haridas ji ne hi vastut: braj–sngit ke dhrupad–dhamar ki gayaki aur ras nrity ki parampara chalaee.

gayan-vadan

mathura men sngit ka prachalan bahut purana hai. bansuri braj ka pramukh vady yntr hai. bhagavan shrikrishn ki bansuri ko jan–jan janata hai, aur isi ko lekar unhen 'muralidhar' aur 'vnshidhar' adi namon se pukara jata hai. vartaman men bhi braj ke lok sngit men dhol mridng, jhanjh, mnjira, dhap, nagada, pakhavaj, ekatara adi vady yntron ka prachalan hai. 16vin shati se mathura men ras ke vartaman roop ka prarambh hua. yahan sabase pahale ballabhachary ji ne svami haradev ke sahayog se vishrant ghat par ras kiya. ras braj ki anokhi den hai, jisamen sngit ke git gady tatha nrity ka samishran hai. braj ke sahity ke sanskritik evn kalatmak jivan ko ras badi sundarata se abhivyakt karata hai. ashtachhap ke kaviyon ke samay braj men sngit ki madhuradhara pravahit huee. sooradas, nandadas, krishnadas adi svayn gayak the. in kaviyon ne apani rachanaon men vividh prakar ke giton ka apar bhandar bhar diya.

svami haridas sngit shastr ke prakand achary evn gayak the. tanasen jaise prasiddh sngitgy bhi unake shishy the. samrat akabar bhi svami ji ke madhur sngit-giton ko sunane ka lobh snvaran n kar saka aur isake lie bhesh badalakar unhen sunane vrindavan aya karata tha. mathura, vrindavan, gokul, govardhan lambe samay tak sngit ke kendr bane rahe aur yahan door se sngit kala sikhane ate rahe.

lok git

braj men anekanek gayan shailiyan prachalit hain aur rasiya braj ki prachinatam gayaki kala hai. bhagavan shrikrishn ki bal lilaon se sambandhit pad, rasiya adi gayaki ke sath rasalila ka ayojan hota hai. shravan mas men mahilaon dvara jhoola jhoolate samay gayi jane vali malhar gayaki ka pradurbhav braj se hi hai. lokasngit men rasiya, dhola, alha, lavani, chaubola, bahal–tabil, bhagat adi sngit bhi samay–samay par sunane ko milata hai. isake atirikt ritu git, ghareloo git, sanskritik git samay–samay par vibhinn vargon men gaye jate hain.

moorti kala

yahan sthapaty tatha moorti kala ke vikas ka sabase mahattvapoorn yug kushan kal ke prarambh se gupt kal ke ant tak raha. yadyapi isake bad bhi ye kalayen 12vin shati ke ant tak jari rahin. isake bad lagabhag 350 varshon tak mathura kala ka pravah avaruddh raha, par 16vin shati se kala ka punarootthan sahity, sngit tatha chitrakala ke roop men dikhaee padane lagata hai.

holi

shrikrishn radha aur gopiyon–gvalon ke bich ki holi ke roop men gulal, rng kesar ki pichakari se khoob khelate hain. holi ka arambh phalgun shukl navami barasana se hota hai. vahan ki lathamar holi jag prasiddh hai. dashami ko aisi hi holi nandaganv men hoti hai. isi ke sath poore braj men holi ki dhoom machati hai. dhulendi ko pray: holi poorn ho jati hai, isake bad hurnge chalate hain, jinamen mahilayen rngon ke sath lathiyon, kodon adi se purushon ko gherati hain. barasana aur nndaganv ki lathamar holi to jagaprasiddh hai. 'nndaganv ke kunvar kanhaiya, barasane ki gori re rasiya' aur ‘barasane men aee jiyo bulae gee radha pyari’ giton ke sath hi braj ki holi ki masti shuroo hoti hai. vaise to holi poore bharat men manaee jati hai lekin braj ki holi khas masti bhari hoti hai. vajah ye ki ise krishn aur radha ke prem se jod kar dekha jata hai. uttar bharat ke braj kshetr men basnt pnchami se hi holi ka chalis divasiy utsav arnbh ho jata hai. nndaganv evn barasane se hi holi ki vishesh umng jagrat hoti hai. jab nndaganv ke gop-gopiyon par rng dalate, to nndaganv ki gopiyan unhen aisa karane se rokati thin aur n manane par lathi marana shuroo karati thin. holi ki toliyon men nndaganv ke purush hote hain, kyonki krishn yahin ke the, aur barasane ki mahilaen, kyonki radha barasane ki thin. dilachasp bat ye hoti hai ki ye holi baki bharat men kheli jane vali holi se pahale kheli jati hai. din shuroo hote hi nndaganv ke huriyaron ki toliyan barasane pahunchane lagati hain. sath hi pahunchane lagati hain kirtan mndaliyan. is dauran bhang-thndhee ka khoob intazam hota hai. brajavasi logon ki chiraunta jaisi akhon ko dekhakar bhang thndhee ki vyavastha ka andaz laga lete hain. barasane men tesoo ke phoolon ke bhagone taiyar rahate hain. dopahar tak ghamasan lathamar holi ka saman bndh chuka hota hai. nndaganv ke logon ke hath men pichakariyan hoti hain aur barasane ki mahilaon ke hath men lathiyan, aur shuroo ho jati hai holi.

inhen bhi dekhen: mathura holi chitr vithika, barasana holi chitr vithika evn baladev holi chitr vithika

mathura zile ke pramukh mandir

bhagavan shrikrishn ke janm sthan par mahamana pndit madan mohan malaviy ji ki prerana se ek vishal mandir bana hai. yah deshi–vidashi paryatakon ke akarshan ka kendr hai. mandir men bhagavan shrikrishn ka sundar vigrah hai. samip hi suvidha yukt atithi grah tatha dharmarth ayurvedik chikitsalay hai. atithi grah ke nikat vishal bhagavat bhavan hai. yahan shodh pith evn bal mandir bhi hai. isake pichhe keshavadev ji ka prachin mandir bhi sthit hai.

nam snkshipt vivaran manachitr link
krishn janmabhoomi, mathura

krishn janmabhoomi

bhagavan shri krishn ki janmabhoomi ka na keval rashtriy star par mahattv hai balki vaishvik star par mathura janapad bhagavan shrikrishn ke janmasthan se hi jana jata hai. aj vartaman men mahamana pndit madanamohan malaviy ji ki prerana se yah ek bhavy akarshan mandir ke roop men sthapit hai. paryatan ki drishti se videshon se bhi bhagavan shrikrishn ke darshan ke lie yahan pratidin ate hain .... aur padhen googal manachitr

dvarikadhish mandir
dvarikadhish mandir

mathura nagar ke rajadhiraj bazar men sthit yah mandir apane sanskritik vaibhav kala evn saundary ke lie anupam hai. gvaliyar raj ke koshadhyaksh seth gokul das parikh ne isaka nirman 1814–15 men prarambh karaya, jinaki mrityu pashchath inaki sampatti ke uttaradhikari seth lakshmichandr ne mandir ka nirman kary poorn karaya .... aur padhen googal manachitr
rajakiy sngrahalay

rajakiy sngrahalay

mathura ka yah vishal sngrahalay dempiyar nagar, mathura men sthit hai. bharatiy kala ko mathura ki yah vishesh den hai. bharatiy kala ke itihas men yahin par sarvapratham hamen shasakon ki lekhon se ankit manaviy akaron men bani pratimaen dikhalaee padati hain .... aur padhen googal manachitr
banke bihari mandir


banke bihari mandir

banke bihari mndir mathura zile ke vrindavan dham men raman reti par sthit hai. yah bharat ke prachin aur prasiddh mndiron men se ek hai. banke bihari krishn ka hi ek roop hai jo isamen pradarshit kiya gaya hai. kaha jata hai ki is mandir ka nirman svami haridas ji ke vnshajon ke samoohik prayas se snvat 1921 ke lagabhag kiya gaya .... aur padhen googal manachitr
rng nath ji mandir


rng nath ji mandir

shri sampraday ke snsthapak ramanujachary ke vishnu-svaroop bhagavan rnganath ya rngaji ke nam se rng ji ka mandir seth lakhamichand ke bhaee seth govindadas aur radhakrishn das dvara nirman karaya gaya tha. unake mahanh guru snskrit ke achary svami rngachary dvara diye gaye madras ke rng nath mandir ki shaili ke manachitr ke adhar par yah bana tha. isaki bahari divar ki lambaee 773 phit aur chaudaee 440 phit hai .... aur padhen googal manachitr

govind dev mandir
govind dev mandir

govind dev ji ka mndir vrindavan men sthit vaishnav snpraday ka mndir hai. mndir ka nirman ee. 1590 men tatha ise banane men 5 se 10 varsh lage. mndir ki bhavyata ka anuman is uddharan se lagaya ja sakata hai aurngazeb ne sham ko tahalate hue, dakshin-poorv men door se dikhane vali raushani ke bare jab poochha to pata chala ki yah chamak vrindavan ke vaibhavashali mndiron ki hai .... aur padhen googal manachitr
iskaaun mandir vrindavan


iskaaun mandir

vrindavan ke adhunik mandiron men yah ek bhavy mandir hai. ise angrezon ka mandir bhi kahate hain. kesariya vastron men hare rama–hare krishna ki dhun men tamam videshi mahila–purush yahan dekhe jate hain. mandir men radha krishn ki bhavy pratimayen hain aur atyadhunik sabhi suvidhayen hain .... aur padhen googal manachitr
madan mohan mandir vrindavan


madan mohan mandir

shrikrishn bhagavan ke anek namon men se ek priy nam madanamohan bhi hai. isi nam se ek mndir mathura zile ke vrindavan dham men vidyaman hai. vishalakayik nag ke phan par bhagavan charanaghat kar rahe hain. puratanata men yah mndir govind dev ji ke mndir ke bad ata hai .... aur padhen
danaghati


danaghati mndir

mathura–dig marg par govardhan men yah mandir sthit hai. girraj ji ki parikrama hetu ane vale lakhon shrriddhalu is mandir men poojan karake apani parikrama prarambh kar poorn labh kamate hain. braj men is mandir ki bahut mahatta hai. yahan abhi bhi is par se us par ya us par se is par karane men tol taiks dena padata hai. krishnalila ke samay krishn ne dani banakar gopiyon se premakalah kar nok–jhonk ke sath danalila ki hai .... aur padhen googal manachitr
manasi gnga


manasi gnga

govardhan ganv ke bich men manasi gnga hai. parikrama karane men dayin aur padati hai aur poonchhari se lautane par bhi dayin aur isake darshan hote hain. manasi gnga ke poorv disha men- shri mukharavind, shri lakshminarayan mandir, shri kishorishyam mandir, shri giriraj mandir, shri manmahaprabhu ji ki baithak, shri radhakrishn mandir sthit hain .... aur padhen
kusum sarovar


kusum sarovar

mathura men govardhan se lagabhag 2 kilomitar door radhakund ke nikat sthapaty kala ke namoone ka ek samooh javahar sinh dvara apane pita soorajamal ( ee.1707-1763) ki smriti men banavaya gaya. kusum sarovar govardhan ke parikrama marg men sthit ek ramanik sthal hai jo ab sarakar ke snrakshan men hai .... aur padhen googal manachitr
jayagurudev mandir


jayagurudev mandir

mathura men agara-dilli rajamarg par sthit jay gurudev ashram ki lagabhag dedh sau ekad bhoomi par snt baba jay gurudev ki ek alag hi duniya basi huee hai. unake desh videsh men 20 karod se bhi adhik anuyayi hain. unake anuyayiyon men anapadh kisan se lekar prabuddh varg tak ke log hain .... aur padhen
radha rani mndir


radha rani mndir

is mndir ko barasane ki ladali ji ka mndir bhi kaha jata hai. radha ka yah prachin mndir madhyakalin hai jo lal aur pile patthar ka bana hai. radha-krishn ko samarpit is bhavy aur sundar mndir ka nirman raja vir sinh ne 1675 men karavaya tha. bad men sthaniy logon dvara pattharon ko is mndir men lagavaya. .... aur padhen googal manachitr
nand ji mndir


nand ji mndir

nand ji ka mndir, nandaganv men sthit hai. nandaganv brajamndal ka prasiddh tirth hai. govardhan se 16 mil pashchim uttar kon men, kosi se 8 mil dakshin men tatha vrindavan se 28 mil pashchim men nandaganv sthit hai. nandaganv ki pradakshina (parikrama) char mil ki hai. yahan par krishn lilaon se sambandhit 56 kund hain. jinake darshan men 3-4 din lag jate hain .... aur padhen googal manachitr
gokarneshvar mahadev mathura


gokarneshvar mahadev

gokarneshvar mndir ek tile par bana hai. jise gokarneshvar ya kailash mndir kaha jata hai. is mahadev ko uttariy sima ka rakshak mana jata hai. is mndir ko bhagavan gokarneshvar ko samarpit kiya gaya tha. jisake bare men kaha gaya hai ki inhonne gay ke kan se janm liya tha. is mndir men shivabhakton ka tanta laga rahata hai. .... aur padhen

vithika


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. anguttaranikay, 1.167, ekn samayn ayasma mahakachchhano madhurayn viharati gundavane
  2. majjhim.(2.84
  3. mathura ka nivasi, ya vahan utpann hua ya mathura se aya hua
  4. panini, 4.2.82
  5. panini(4.3.98
  6. 3.1.138 evn vartik 'gavich vinde: sngyayamh'
  7. patnjali mahabhashy, jild 1,pri. 18, 19 evn 192, 244, jild 3, pri. 299 adi
  8. mahabharat adiparv (221.46
  9. mahabharat, sabhaparv 14.41-45
  10. mahabharat, sabhaparv 14.49-50 evn 67.
  11. varah puran (152.8 evn 11
  12. padm puran(4.69.12).
  13. harivnsh puran (vishnuparv, 57.2-3
  14. arthath atyant mahattvapoorn sthal
  15. tasmanmathurak nam vishnorekantavallabhamh. padm puran (4.69.12); madhyadeshasy kakudn dham lakshmyashch kevalamh. shrringn prithivya: svalakshyn prabhootadhanadhanyavath॥ harivnsh puran (vishnuparv, 57. 2-3).
  16. brahm puran, 14.54-56
  17. vayu puran(88.185
  18. phansbol, jild 4, pri. 79-89, snkhya 454
  19. dakshin ke pandavon ki nagari bhi madhura ke nam se prasiddh thi
  20. raghuvnsh(15.28
  21. buddhist rikardas av vestarn varld, vil, jild 1,pri. 179
  22. kaitalog av kvaens av ainshyent indiya, 1936
  23. aur dekhie kaimbrij histri av indiya, jild 1,pri. 538
  24. mathura(sanh 1880 dvitiy snskaran
  25. mathurada. bi. si. lo ka lekh 'mathura in aishyent indiya',je. e. es. av bngal (jild 13, 1947, pri. 21-30).
  26. pnvath 8, epigraiphiya indika, jild 17, pri. 10
  27. samany roop se kanishk ki tithi 78 ee. mani gayi hai. dekhie je. bi. o. ar. es. (jild 23,1937, pri. 113-117, da. e. banarji-shastri).
  28. epigrai. indi., jild 8, pri. 181-182);
  29. sn. 74, vahi, jild 9, pri. 241
  30. vahi, pri. 246
  31. vahi, jild 24, pri. 184-210).
  32. vahi, jild 1,pri. 390).
  33. vishnu puran(6.8.31
  34. nav nakastu (nagastu?) bhokshyanti purin champavati nripa:. mathuran ch purin ramyan naga bhokshyanti sapt vai.. anugngn prayagn ch sakent magadhanstatha. etanh janapadansarvanh bhokshyante guptavnshaja:॥ vayu puran (99.382-83); brahm puran (3.74.194). da. jayasaval krit 'histri aauph indiya (150-350 ee.),' pri. 3-15, jahan nag-vnsh ke vishay men charcha hai.
  35. alabarooni, bharat(jild 2, pri0 147
  36. agni puran(11.8-9
  37. abhootpoormathura kachidramokto bharatovadhith. kotitrayn ch shailooshaputranan nishitai: sharai:॥ shailooshn driptagandharv sindhutiranivasinamh. agni puran (2.8-9). vishnudharmottar. (1, adhyay 201-202)men aya hai ki shailoosh ke putr gandharvo ne sindhu ke donon taton ki bhoomi ko tahas-nahas kiya aur ram ne apane bhaee bharat ko unhen nasht karane ko bheja- 'jahi shailooshatanayanh gandharvanh, papanishchayanh' (1.202-10). shailoosh ka arth abhineta bhi hota hai. kya yah bharatanatyashastr ke rachayita bharat ke anuyayiyon evn any abhinetaon ke jhagade ki or snket karata hai? natyashastr (17.47) ne natak ke lie shoorasen ki bhasha ko apekshakrit adhik upayukt mana hai. kanekrit 'histri av snskrit poitiks' (pri0 40, sanh 1951).
  38. varah puran(adhyay 152-178). brihannaradiy. (adhyay 79-80
  39. bhagavat. (10
  40. vishnu puran(5-6
  41. padm puran(adikhand, 21.46-47
  42. varah puran (152.8 evn 11
  43. padm puran(4.69.12).
  44. harivnsh puran(vishnuparv, 57.2-3
  45. tasmanmathurak nam vishnorekantavallabhamh. padm puran (4.69.12); madhyadeshasy kakudn dham lakshmyashch kevalamh. shrringn prithivya: svalakshyn prabhootadhanadhanyavath॥ harivnsh puran (vishnuparv, 57. 2-3).
  46. `evn bhavatu kakutsth kriyatan mam shasanamh, rajye tvamabhishekshyami madhostu nagare shubhe. nagarn yamunajushtn tatha janapadanshubhanh yo hi vnsh samutpady parthivasy niveshane` uttar. 62,16-18.
  47. `tn putrn durvinitn tu drishtva kodhasamanvit:, madhu: s shokamapede n chainn kinchidabravith`-uttar. 61,18.
  48. `ardh chndrapratikasha yamunatirashobhita, shobhita grih-mukhyaishch chatvarapanavithikai:, chaturvarny samayukta nanavanijyashobhita` uttar. 70,11.
  49. yachchatenapura shubhrn lavanen kritn mahath, tachchhobhayati shutradhno nanavarnopashobhitamh. aramaishv viharaishch shobhamann samantat: shobhitan shobhaniyaishch tathanyairdaivamanushai:` uttar. 70-12-13. uttar0 70,5 (`iyn madhupuri ramya madhura dev-nirmita) men is nagari ko mathura nam se abhihit kiya gaya hai.
  50. balmiki ramayan,kishkindhakand,trichatvarinshah sargah. tatr mlechchhanh pulindanshrch shoorasenan stathaiv ch. prasthalanh bharatanshrchaiv kurunshrch sah madrakaiah॥ 11 kambojayavananshrchaiv shakanan pattanani ch. anvikshy daradanshchaiv himavantn vichinvath ॥ 12
  51. `vayn chaiv maharaj, jarasndhabhayath tada, mathuran snparityajy yata dvaravatin purimh` maha. sabha. 14,67. shrimadbhagavat 10,41,20-21-22-23 men kns ke samay ki mathura ka sundar varnan hai.
  52. `roorodh mathuramety tis bhimrlechchhakotibhi:
  53. ramayan, uttarakand, sarg 62, pnkti 17
  54. krishnadatt vajapeyi, mathura, pri 2
  55. plini, nechural histri, bhag 6, pri 19; tulaniy e, kaningham, di ainshh‍yentajyographi aph indiya, (indolajikal buk haus, varanasi, 1963), pri 315
  56. `kaningham ne 'klisobera' ki pahachan 'keshavur' ya katara keshavadev ke muhalle se ki hai. yoonani lekhakon ke samay men yamuna ki mukhy dhara ya usaki badi shakha vartaman katara ya keshav dev ke poorvi divar ke samip se bahati rahi hogi or usake doosari taraph mathura nagar raha hoga. e, kaningham, di ainshh‍yentajyographi aauph indiya, indolajikal buk haus, varanasi, 1963 ee , pri 315.
  57. harivnsh puran, 1,54
  58. `sa puri paramodara sattaprakaratorana sphita rashh‍trasamakirna samriddhabalavahana. udyanavan snpanna susimasupratishthita, pranshuprakaravasana parikhakul mekhala`.
  59. `snpraptashrchapi sayahne soakrooro mathuran purim` 5,19,9
  60. vishnu-puran, 4,5,101
  61. `shatrughnenapyamitabalaparakramo madhuputro lavano nam rakshasobhihato mathura ch niveshita`
  62. raghuvnsh, 6,48
  63. 'yasyavarodhastanachndananan prakshalanadvariviharakale, kalindakanya mathuran gatapi gngormisnsaktajalev bhati`
  64. vishnu puran, 1/12/43 mekrindil, ainshh‍yentindiya ej diskraibd baee talemi (kalakatta, 1927), pri 98
  65. `madura y soorasena' dekhen-indiyan entikveri, snkhya 20, pri 375
  66. jems legge, di tehravels aph fahyan , dvitiy snskaran, 1972), pri 42
  67. thamas vatrs, an yuvaaunh chvags tehravels in indiya, dilli, pratham snskaran, 1961 ee) bhag 1, pri 301
  68. haraman jaikobi, sekred buks aauph di eest, bhag 45, pri 112
  69. manusmriti, bhag 2, shlok 18 aur 20
  70. ye vasnti mahabhage mathurayamitare jana:. teapi yanti paraman siddhin matprasadann snshay: varah puran, pri 852, shlok 20
  71. mathurayan mahapurya ye vasnti shuchivrata:. balibhikshapradataro devaste naravigraha:.. tatraiv, shlok 22
  72. mathuramamndamamh prapy shraddhn kritva yathavidhi. tripti prayanti pitaro yavasthityagrajanman:.. tatraiv, shlok 19
  73. padmapuran, pri 600, shlok 53
  74. varah puran, adhyay 152
  75. govarddhano girivaro yamuna ch mahanadi. tayormadhye puroramya mathura lokavishruta.. varahapuran, adhyay 165, shlok 23
  76. `shitiryojananatn mathuran matr mndalamh.' tatraiv, adhyay 158, shlok1
  77. brahm puran, adhyay 14 shlok 54
  78. harivnsh puran, adhyay 37
  79. harivnsh puran, adhyay 195, shlok 3
  80. skand puran, vishnu khnd, bhagavat mahatmy, adhyay 1
  81. vayupuran, adhyay 99; vimalacharan laha, indolajikal stadij, bhag 2, pri 32
  82. eph i parjitar, ainshh‍yent indiyan histarikal tehradishan pri 171
  83. eph i parjitar, ainshh‍yent indiyan histarikal tehradishan, pri2.11
  84. madhav arthath madhu ka vnshaj jo krishn ko bhi kaha jata hai, krishn madhusoodan bhi hain kintu vah madhukaitav rakshas se arth hai.
  85. vimalacharan laha, prachin bharat ka aitihasik bhoogol, (uttar pradesh hindi grnth akadami, lakhanoo, pratham snskaran, 1972 ee.) pri 183
  86. iyamh madhupuri ramya madhura devanirmita (devataon dvara banaee gee) niveshn prapnayachchhidhramesh me stu var: par:.. valmiki ramayan, uttarakand, sarg 70, pnkti 5-6
  87. eph ee parjitar, ainshh‍yentindiyan histarikal tredishan, tulaniy, hemachndr ray chaudhari, prachin bharat ka rajanitik itihas , pri 107
  88. rigved, 1/108/8). rigved (tatraiv, 1/36; 18;5/45/1
  89. shatanik: samntasu medhyamh satrajita hayamh ,adatt ygynkashinamh bharat: satvatamiv.. -shatapath brahman, 13/5/4/21
  90. shatapath brahman, adhyay 13/5/4/11; tul hemachndr ray chaudhari, prachin bharat ka rajanitik itihas, pri 108
  91. vinshatiryojananan tu mathurn parimandalamh. tanmadhye mathura nam puri sarvottamottama॥ naradiy puran uttar, 79. 20-21
  92. varah puran(adhyay 153 evn 161. 6-10
  93. naradiy puran (uttarardh, 79.10-18
  94. grausakrit mathura, pri. 76
  95. vishnupuran 5.6.28-40, naradiy puran, uttarardh 80.6,8 evn 77)
  96. padmapuran patal, 75.8-14
  97. padmapuran (4.69.9)
  98. matsyapuran (13.38)
  99. vishnupuran (5.11.15-24
  100. varahapuran (164.1)
  101. koormapuran (1.14.18)
  102. harivnshapuran (vishnuparv 13.3)
  103. kalidas (raghuvnsh 6.51)
  104. dekhie chaitanyacharitamrit, sarg 19 evn kavi karnapoor ya paramanand das krit natak chaitanyachandroday, ank 9
  105. dekhie pro. es. ke. de krit 'vaishnav pheth end moovament in bengal, 1942, pri. 83-122
  106. dekhie manilal si. parikh ka vallabhachary par granth,pri. 161
  107. dekhie iliet evn dausan krit 'histri av indiya aij told baee its on historien', jild 7, pri0 184, jahan 'm-asir-e-alamagiri' ki ek ukti is vishay men is prakar anoodit huee hai,-"aurngajeb ne mathura ke 'dehara kesu ray' namak mandir (jo, jaisa ki us granth men aya hai, 33 lakh rupayon se nirmit hua tha) ko nasht karane ki agya di, aur shighr hi vah asatyata ka shaktishali gadh prithivi men mila diya gaya aur usi sthan par ek brihath masajid ki ninv dal di gayi."
  108. sabhaparv (319.23-24)
  109. magadh ki prachin rajadhani, rajagir
  110. adhyay 9
  111. adhyay 11
  112. chitramay bharat (pri. 253
  113. varah puran(adhyay 153 evn 161. 6-10
  114. naradiy puran(uttarardh, 79.10-18
  115. grausakrit mathura, pri. 76

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