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mathura vishay soochi
mathura
vivaran mathura uttar pradesh rajy ka ek aitihasik evan dharmik nagar hai jo paryatan sthal ke roop mean bhi bahut prasiddh hai.
rajy uttar pradesh
zila mathura zila
bhaugolik sthiti uttar 27.49, poorv 77.67
marg sthiti yah agara se dilli ki or aur dilli se agara ki or kramash: 58 kimi uttar-pashchim evan 145 kimi dakshin-pashchim mean yamuna ke kinare rashtriy rajamarg 2 par sthit hai.
tapaman grishm 22° se 45° se., shit 40° se 32° se.
prasiddhi krishna janmabhoomi, baanke bihari mandir, rifainari, mathura sangrahalay
kab jaean kabhi bhi ja sakate haian
kaise pahuanchean bas, rel, kar adi se asani se mathura pahuancha ja sakata hai.
relave steshan mathura jankshan, mathura kaiant steshan
bas adda naya bas adda, purana bas adda
kahaan thaharean hotal, dharmashala, vishram grah
kya khayean chat, kachau di, jalebi, lassi, mathura ke pede adi
kya kharidean mala, kanthi, bhagavan ki moortiyaan, poshak, shankh adi
es.ti.di. kod 91(565)
e.ti.em lagabhag sabhi
chitr:Map-icon.gif googal manachitr
sanbandhit lekh yamuna, holi, vrindavan, govardhan, barasana, gokul, nandagaanv, mahavan adi
pin kod 281001
vahan panjiyan UP-85
bahari k diyaan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎

mathura (aangrezi: Mathura) uttar pradesh rajy ka ek aitihasik evan dharmik nagar hai jo paryatan sthal ke roop mean bhi bahut prasiddh hai. mathura, bhagavan krishna ki janmasthali aur bharat ki param prachin tatha jagadh-vikhyat nagari hai. shoorasen desh ki yahaan rajadhani thi. pauranik sahity mean mathura ko anek namoan se sanbodhit kiya gaya hai jaise- shoorasen nagari, madhupuri, madhunagari, madhura adi.

bhaugolik sthiti

mathura yamuna nadi ke pashchimi tat par sthit hai. samudr tal se ooanchaee 187 mitar hai. jalavayu-grishm 22° se 45° selsiyas, shit 40° se 32° selsiyas ausat varsha 66 se.mi. joon se sitanbar tak hoti hai. mathura janapad uttar pradesh ki pashchimi sima par sthit hai. isake poorv mean janapad eta, uttar mean janapad aligadh, dakshin - poorv mean janapad agara, dakshin-pashchim mean rajasthan evan pashchim-uttar mean hariyana rajy sthit haian. mathura, agara mandal ka uttar-pashchimi zila hai. yah akshaansh 27° 41' uttar aur deshantar 77° 41' poorv ke madhy sthit hai. mathura janapad mean char tahasilean- maant, chhata, mahavan aur mathura tatha 10 vikas khand haian- nandagaanv, chhata, chaumuhaan, govardhan, mathura, farah, nauhajhil, maant, raya aur baldev haian. janapad ka bhaugolik kshetraphal 3329.4 varg kimi hai. [[chitr:Krishna Birth Place Mathura-13.jpg|krishna janmabhoomi, mathura|left|thumb|250px]]

pramukh nadi 'yamuna'

  1. REDIRECTsaancha:mukhy

janapad ki pramukh nadi yamuna hai, jo uttar se dakshin ki or bahati huee janapad ki kul char tahasiloan maant, mathura, mahavan aur chhata mean se hokar bahati hai. yamuna ka poorvi bhag paryapt upajaoo hai tatha pashchimi bhag apekshakrit kam upajaoo hai. is janapad ki pramukh nadi yamuna hai. isaki do sahayak nadiyaan 'karavan' tatha 'pathavaha' haian. yamuna nadi varsh bhar bahati hai tatha janapad ki pratyek tahasil ko chhooti huee bahati hai. yah pratyek varsh apana marg badalati rahati hai, jisake parinamasvaroop hazaroan haikteyar kshetraphal badh se prabhavit ho jata hai. yamuna nadi ke kinare ki bhoomi khadar hai. janapad ki vayu shuddh evan svasthyavardhak hai. garmiyoan mean adhik garmi aur sardiyoan mean adhik sardi p dana yahaan ki visheshata hai. varsha ke alava varsh bhar shesh samay mausam samanyat: shushk rahata hai. mee v joon ke mahinoan mean tez garm pashchimi havayean (loo) chalati haian. janapad mean adhikaansh varsha julaee v agast mah mean hoti hai. janapad ke pashchimi bhag mean ajakal badh ka ana samany ho gaya hai, jisase kafi kshetr jalamagn ho jata hai.

mathura sandarbh

shoorasen desh ki mukhy nagari mathura ke vishay mean aj tak koee vaidik sanket nahian prapt ho saka hai. kintu ee.poo. paanchavian shatabdi se isaka astitv siddh ho chuka hai. aanguttaranikay[1] evan majjhim.[2] mean aya hai ki buddh ke ek mahanh shishy mahakachyayan ne mathura mean apane guru ke siddhantoan ki shiksha di. maigasthaniz sambhavat: mathura ko janata tha aur isake sath hareklij ke sambandh se bhi parichit tha. 'mathur'[3] shabd jaimini ke poorv mimaansasootr mean bhi aya hai. yadyapi panini ke sootroan mean spasht roop se 'mathura' shabd nahian aya hai, kintu varanadi-gan[4] mean isaka prayog milata hai. kintu panini ko vasudev, arjun[5], yadavoan ke andhak-vrishni log, sambhavat: govind bhi[6] jnat the. [[chitr:Banke-Bihari-Temple.jpg|250px|left|thumb|baanke bihari ji mandir, vrindavan]]

  • patanjali ke mahabhashy mean mathura shabd kee bar aya hai.[7] kee sthanoan par vasudev dvara kans ke nash ka ullekh natakiy sanketoan, chitroan evan gathaoan ke roop mean aya hai. uttaradhyayanasootr mean mathura ko 'sauryapur' kaha gaya hai, kintu mahabhashy mean ullikhit saury nagar mathura hi hai, aisa kahana sandehatmak hai. adiparv[8] mean aya hai ki mathura ati sundar gayoan ke lie un dinoan prasiddh thi. jab jarasandh ke vir senapati hans evan dimbhak yamuna mean doob gaye, aur jab jarasandh du:khit hokar magadh chala gaya to krishna kahate haian, 'ab ham pun: prasann hokar mathura mean rah sakeange.'[9] ant mean jarasandh ke lagatar akramanoan se tang akar krishna ne yadavoan ko dvaraka mean le jakar basaya.[10]

chitr:Blockquote-open.gif varah puran[11] mean aya hai- vishnu kahate haian ki is prithvi ya antariksh ya patal lok mean koee aisa sthan nahian hai jo mathura ke saman mujhe pyara ho- mathura mera prasiddh kshetr hai aur muktidayak hai, isase badhakar mujhe koee any sthal nahian lagata. padm puran mean aya hai- 'mathurak nam vishnu ko atyant priy hai'[12] harivansh puran[13] ne mathura ka sundar varnan kiya hai, ek shlok yoan hai- 'mathura madhy-desh ka 'kakud'[14] hai, yah lakshmi ka nivas-sthal hai, ya prithvi ka shrriang hai. isake saman koee any nahian hai aur yah prabhoot dhan-dhany se poorn hai.'[15] chitr:Blockquote-close.gif

  • brahm puran [16]mean aya hai ki krishna ki sammati se vrishniyoan evan andhakoan ne kal yavan ke bhay se mathura ka tyag kar diya. vayu puran[17] ka kathan hai ki ram ke bhaee shatrughn ne madhu ke putr lavan ko mar dala aur madhuvan mean samriddhishali nagar banaya. ghat-jatak[18] mean mathura ko uttar mathura kaha gaya hai[19], vahaan kans evan vasudev ki gatha bhi ayi hai jo mahabharat evan puranoan ki gatha se bhinn hai. raghuvansh[20] mean ise 'madhura' nam se shatrughn dvara sthapit kaha gaya hai.
  • hvenasaang ke anusar mathura mean ashokaraj dvara tin stoop banavaye gaye the, paanch devamandir the aur bis sangharam the, jinamean 2000 bauddh rahate the.[21] jems ailan[22] ka kathan hai ki mathura ke hindoo rajaoan ke sikke ee.poo. dvitiy shatabdi ke arambh se pratham shatabdi ke madhy bhag tak ke haian.[23] eph. es. graus ki pustak 'mathura'[24] bhi drishtavy hai. mathura ke itihas evan prachinata ke vishay mean shilalekh bhi prakash dalate haian.[25] kharavel ke prasiddh abhilekh mean kaliangaraj (kharavel) ki us vijay ka varnan haian, jisamean madhura ki or yavanaraj dimit ka bhag jana ullikhit hai.
  • kanishk, huvishk evan any kushan rajaoan ke shilalekh bhi paye jate haian, yatha-maharaj rajadhiraj kanikkh[26] ka nag-pratima ka shilalekh; san. 14 ka stambhatal lekh;[27] huvishk (san. 33) ke rajyakal ka bodhisatv ki pratima ke adhar vala shilalekh[28] vasu[29] ka shilalekh; shodas [30] ke kal ka shilalekh evan mathura tatha usake as-pas ke sat brahmi lekh.[31]

[[chitr:cows-mathura.jpg|200px|thumb|left|braj ki gau (gayean)]]

  • ek any manoranjak shilalekh bhi hai, jisamean nandibal evan mathura ke abhineta (shailalak) ke putroan dvara nagendr dadhikarn ke mandir mean pradatt ek prastar-khand ka ullekh hai.[32] vishnu puran[33] se prakat hota hai ki isake pranayan ke poorv mathura mean hari ki ek pratima pratishthapit huee thi.
  • vayu puran ne bhavishyavani ke roop mean kaha hai ki mathura, prayag, saket evan magadh mean guptoan ke poorv sat nag raja rajy kareange. [34] alabarooni ke bharat[35] mean aya hai ki mahura mean brahmanoan ki bhi d hai.

uparyukt aitihasik vivechan se prakat hota hai ki eesa ke 5 ya 6 shatabdiyoan poorv mathura ek samriddhishali puri thi, jahaan mahakavy-kalin hindoo dharm prachalit tha, jahaan age chalakar bauddh dharm evan jain dharm ka pradhany hua, jahaan pun: nagoan evan guptoan mean hindoo dharm jagarit hua, satavian shatabdi mean (jab hvenasaang yahaan aya tha) jahaan bauddh dharm evan hindoo dharm ek-saman poojit the aur jahaan pun: 11vian shatabdi mean brahmanavad pradhanata ko prapt ho gaya.

  • agni puran[36] mean ek vichitr bat yah likhi hai ki ram ki ajna se bharat ne mathura puri mean shailoosh ke tin koti putroan ko mar dala. [37] lagabhag do sahastrabdiyoan se adhik kal tak mathura krishna-pooja evan bhagavat dharm ka kendr rahi hai. varah puran mean mathura ki mahatta evan isake upatirthoan ke vishay mean lagabhag ek sahastr shlok paye jate haian[38], bhagavat[39] evan vishnu puran[40] mean krishna, radha, mathura, vrindavan, govardhan evan krishnalila ke vishay mean bahut-kuchh likha gaya hai.
  • padm puran[41] ka kathan hai ki yamuna nadi jab mathura se mil jati hai to moksh deti hai; yamuna mathura mean punyaphal utpann karati hai aur jab yah mathura se mil jati hai to vishnu ki bhakti deti hai. varah puran[42] mean aya hai- vishnu kahate haian ki is prithivi ya antariksh ya patal lok mean koee aisa sthan nahian hai jo mathura ke saman mujhe pyara ho- mathura mera prasiddh kshetr hai aur muktidayak hai, isase badhakar mujhe koee any sthal nahian lagata. padm puran mean aya hai- 'mathurak nam vishnu ko atyant priy hai'[43] harivansh puran[44] ne mathura ka sundar varnan kiya hai, ek shlok yoan hai- 'mathura madhy-desh ka kakud (arthath atyant mahattvapoorn sthal) hai, yah lakshmi ka nivas-sthal hai, ya prithivi ka shrriang hai. isake saman koee any nahian hai aur yah prabhoot dhan-dhany se poorn hai.'[45]

mathura ka parichay

[[chitr:Peacock-Mathura-3.jpg|thumb|250px|mor, mathura]] bharatavarsh ka vah bhag jo himalay aur viandhyachal ke bich mean p data hai, prachinakal mean aryavart kahalata tha. yahaan par panapi huee bharatiy sanskriti ko jin dharaoan ne siancha ve ganga aur yamuna ki dharaean thian. inhian donoan nadiyoan ke kinare bharatiy sanskriti ke kee kendr bane aur vikasit hue. varanasi, prayag, kaushambi, hastinapur, kannauj adi kitane hi aise sthan haian, parantu yah talika tab tak poorn nahian ho sakati jab tak isamean mathura ka samavesh n kiya jaye. yah agara se dilli ki or aur dilli se agara ki or kramash: 58 kimi. uttar-pashchim evan 145 kimi. dakshin-pashchim mean yamuna ke kinare rashtriy rajamarg 2 par sthit hai.

'ramayan' mean ullekh

valmiki ramayan mean mathura ko madhupur ya madhudanav ka nagar kaha gaya hai tatha yahaan lavanasur ki rajadhani bataee gee hai-[46] is nagari ko is prasang mean madhudaity dvara basaee, bataya gaya hai. lavanasur, jisako shatrughn ne yuddh mean harakar mara tha isi madhudanav ka putr tha.[47] isase madhupuri ya mathura ka ramayan-kal mean basaya jana soochit hota hai. ramayan mean is nagari ki samriddhi ka varnan hai.[48] is nagari ko lavanasur ne bhi sajaya sanvara tha. [49]danav, daity, rakshas adi jaise sanbodhan vibhinn kal mean anek arthoan mean prayukt hue haian, kabhi jati ya qabile ke lie, kabhi ary anary sandarbh mean to kabhi dusht prakriti ke vyaktiyoan ke lie. prachinakal se ab tak is nagar ka astitv akhandit roop se chala a raha hai.

shoorasen janapad

  1. REDIRECTsaancha:mukhy

shoorasen janapad ka naksha|left|thumb|250px shoorasen janapad ke namakaran ke sanbandh mean vidvanoan ke anek mat haian kintu koee bhi sarvamany nahian hai. shatrughn ke putr ka nam shoorasen tha. jab sitaharan ke bad sugriv ne vanaroan ko sita ki khoj mean uttar disha mean bheja to shatabali aur vanaroan se kaha- 'uttar mean mlechchh' pulind, shoorasen, prasthal, bharat (indraprasth aur hastinapur ke asapas ke prant), kuru (kurudesh) (dakshin kuru- kurukshetr ke asapas ki bhoomi), madr, kamboj, yavan, shakoan ke deshoan evan nagaroan mean bhali-bhaanti anusandhan karake darad desh mean aur himalay parvat par dhooandho.[50] isase spasht hai ki shatrughn ke putr se pahale hi 'shoorasen' janapad nam astitv mean tha. haihayavanshi kartaviry arjun ke sau putroan mean se ek ka nam shoorasen tha aur usake nam par yah shoorasen rajy ka namakaran hone ki sambhavana bhi hai, kintu haihayavanshi kartaviry arjun ka mathura se koee sidha sanbandh hona spasht nahian hai. mahabharat ke samay mean mathura shoorasen desh ki prakhyat nagari thi. lavanasur ke vadhoparaant shatrughn ne is nagari ko pun: basaya tha. unhoanne madhuvan ke jangaloan ko katava kar usake sthan par nee nagari basaee thi. yahian krishna ka janm krishna janmabhoomi,shri krishna janmasthan, yahaan ke adhipati kans ke karagar mean hua tatha unhoanne bachapan hi mean atyachari kans ka vadh karake desh ko usake abhishap se chhutakara dilavaya. kans ki mrityu ke bad shri krishna mathura hi mean bas ge kiantu jarasandh ke akramanoan se bachane ke lie unhoanne mathura chho d kar dvaraka puri basaee [51] dasham sarg, 58 mean mathura par kalayavan ke akraman ka vritaant hai. isane tin karo d mlechchhoan ko lekar mathura ko gher liya tha. [52]

shoorasen janapad ki sima

prachin shoorasen janapad ka vistar dakshin mean chanbal nadi se lekar uttar mean vartaman mathura nagar se 75 ki. mi. uttar mean sthit kuru (kurudesh) rajy ki sima tak tha. usaki sima pashchim mean matsy aur poorv mean paanchal janapad se milati thi. mathura nagar ko mahakavyoan evan puranoan mean 'mathura' evan `madhupuri' namoan se sanbodhit kiya gaya hai.[53] vidvanoan ne `madhupuri' ki pahachan mathura ke 6 mil pashchim mean sthit vartaman 'maholi' se ki hai.[54] prachin kal mean yamuna nadi mathura ke pas se gujarati thi, aj bhi isaki sthiti yahi hai. plini [55] ne yamuna ko jomenas kaha hai, jo methora aur klisobora [56] ke madhy bahati thi.

prachin sahity mean mathura

harivansh puran [57] mean bhi mathura ke vilas-vaibhav ka manohar chitr hai.[58]vishnu puran mean bhi mathura ka ullekh hai,[59] vishnu-puran[60] mean shatrughn dvara purani mathura ke sthan par hi nee nagari ke basae jane ka ullekh hai.[61] is samay tak madhura nam ka roopaantar mathura prachalit ho gaya tha. kalidas ne raghuvansh[62] mean iandumati ke svanyavar ke prasang mean shoorasenadhipati sushen ki rajadhani mathura mean varnit ki hai.[63] isake sath hi govardhan ka bhi ullekh hai. mallinath ne 'mathura` ki tika karate hue likha hai`-'kalianditire mathura lavanasuravadhakale shatrughnen nirmasyateti vakshyati`.[[chitr:Govindev-temple-1.jpg|govind dev mandir, vrindavan|thumb|300px]]

shoorasen se mathura

prachin granthoan-hindoo, bauddh, jain evan yoonani sahity mean is janapad ka shoorasen nam anek sthanoan par milata hai. prachin granthoan mean mathura ka methora[64], madura[65], mat-au-lau[66], mo-tu-lo[67] tatha sauripur[68]sauryapur) namoan ka bhi ullekh milata hai. in udaharanoan se aisa pratit hota hai ki shoorasen janapad ki sanjna eesavi sanh ke arambh tak jari rahi [69] aur shak-kushanoan ke prabhutv ke sath hi is janapad ki sanjna rajadhani ke nam par `mathura' ho gee. is parivartan ka mukhy karan tha ki yah nagar shak-kushanakalin samay mean itani prasiddhi ko prapt ho chuka tha ki log janapad ke nam ko bhi mathura nam se pukarane lage aur kalaantar mean janapad ka shoorasen nam janasadharan ke smritipatal se vismrit ho gaya.

puranoan mean mathura

puranoan mean mathura ke gauravamay itihas ka vishad vivaran milata hai. anek dharmoan se sanbandhit hone ke karan mathura mean basane aur rahane ka mahattv kramash: badhata raha. aisi manyata thi ki yahaan rahane se paparahit ho jate haian tatha isamean rahane karane valoan ko moksh ki prapti hoti hai. [70] varah puran mean kaha gaya hai ki is nagari mean jo log shuddh vichar se nivas karate haian, ve manav ke roop mean sakshat devata haian.[71] shraddh karm ka vishesh phal mathura mean prapt hota hai. mathura mean shraddh karane valoan ke poorvajoan ko adhyatmik mukti milati hai.[72] uttanapad ke putr dhruv ne mathura mean tapasya kar ke nakshatroan mean sthan prapt kiya tha.[73] puranoan mean mathura ki mahima ka varnan hai. prithvi ke yah poochhane par ki mathura jaise tirth ki mahima kya hai? mahavarah ne kaha tha- 'mujhe is vasuandhara mean patal athava aantariksh se bhi mathura adhik priy hai.'[74] varah puran mean bhi mathura ke sandarbh mean ullekh milata hai, yahaan ki bhaugolik sthiti ka varnan milata hai.[75] yahaan mathura ki map bis yojan batayi gayi hai.[76] is mandal mean mathura, gokul, vrindavan, govardhan adi nagar, gram evan mandir, t dag, kund, van evan anaganit tirthoan ke hone ka vivaran milata hai. inaka vistrit varnan puranoan mean milata hai. ganga ke saman hi yamuna ke gauravamay mahattv ka bhi vishad vivaran kiya gaya hai. puranoan mean varnit rajaoan ke shasan evan unake vanshoan ka bhi varnan prapt hota hai. [[chitr:gokul-ghat.jpg|yamuna, gokul|left|thumb|250px]]

  • brahm puran mean vrishniyoan evan aandhakoan ke sthan mathura par, rakshasoan ke akraman ka bhi vivaran milata hai.[77] vrishniyoan evan aandhakoan ne dar kar mathura ko chho d diya tha aur unhoanne apani rajadhani dvaravati (dvarika) mean pratishthit ki thi.[78] magadh naresh jarasandh ne 23 akshauhini sena se is nagari ko gher liya tha.[79] apane mahaprasthan ke samay yudhishthar ne mathura ke sianhasan par vajranabh ko asin kiya.[80] sat nag-naresh guptavansh ke utkarsh ke poorv yahaan par rajy kar rahe the.[81]
  • ugrasen aur kans mathura ke shasak the jis par aandhakoan ke uttaradhikari rajy karate the.[82] kalantar mean shatrughn ke putroan ko mathura se bhim satvat ne nikala tatha usane tatha usake putroan ne yahaan par rajy kiya.[83] shoorasen ne jo shatrughn ka putr tha, usane yamuna ke pashchim mean base hue satvat yadavoan par akraman kiya aur vahaan ke shasak madhav[84] lavan ka vadh karake mathura nagari ko apani rajadhani ghoshit kiya.[85]
  • mathura ki sthapana shravan mahine mean hone ke karan hi sanbhavat: is mah mean utsav adi karane ki paranpara hai. puratan kal mean hi yah nagari itani vaibhavashali thi ki mathura nagari ko devanirmita kaha jane laga tha. [86] mathura ke mahabharat kal ke rajavansh ko yadu athava yaduvanshiy kaha jata hai. yadav vansh mean mukhyat: do vansh haian. jinhean-vitihotr evan satvat ke nam se jana jata hai. satvat varg bhi kee shakhaoan mean banta hua tha. jinamean vrishni, aandhak, devavriddh tatha mahabhoj pramukh the.[87]

yadu aur yadu vansh ka praman rrigved mean bhi milata hai. is vansh ka sanbandh turvash, druh, anu evan puru se tha.[88] isase jnat hota hai ki yadu turvash kisi doorasth pradesh se yahaan ae the. vaidik sahity mean satvatoan ka bhi nam ata hai.[89] shatapath brahman mean ata hai ki ek bar bharatavanshi shasakoan ne satvatoan se unake yajn ka gho da chhin liya tha. bharatavanshi shasakoan dvara sarasvati, yamuna aur ganga ke tat par yajn kie jane ke varnan se rajy ki bhaugolik sthiti ka jnan ho jata hai.[90] satvatoan ka rajy bhi samipavarti kshetroan mean hi raha hoga. is prakar mahabharat evan puranoan mean varnit satvatoan ka mathura se sanbandh spashtataya jnat ho jata hai.

mathura mandal

mathura ka mandal 20 yojanoan tak vistrit tha aur mathurapuri isake bich mean sthit thi.[91] varah puran evan naradiy puran (uttarardh, adhyay 79-80) ne mathura evan isake asapas ke tirthoan ka ullekh kiya hai. varah puran[92] evan naradiy puran[93] ne mathura ke pas ke 12 vanoan ki charcha ki hai, yatha- madhuvan, talavan, kumudavan, kamyavan, bahulavan, bhadravan, khadiravan, mahavan, lauhajanghavan, bilvavan, bhaandiravan evan vrindavan. 24 upavan bhi[94] the jinhean puranoan ne nahian, pratyut pashchatkalin granthoan ne varnit kiya hai. [[chitr:Gokul-Chandrama-Temple-Kama-1.jpg|thumb|250px|chandrama ji mandir, kamyavan]]

  • vrindavan yamuna ke kinare mathura ke uttar-pashchim mean tha aur vistar mean paanch yojan tha.[95] padmapuran[96] ne krishna, gopiyoan evan kalindi ki goodh vyakhya upasthit ki hai. gop-patniyaan yogini haian, kalindi sushumna hai, krishna sarvavyapak haian, adi. yahi krishna ki lila-bhoomi thi. padmapuran[97] ne ise prithvi par vaikunth mana hai. matsyapuran[98] ne radha ko vrindavan mean devi dakshayani mana hai. kalidas ke kal mean yah prasiddh tha. raghuvansh (6) mean nip kul ke evan shoorasen ke raja sushen ka varnan karate hue kaha gaya hai ki vrindavan kuber ki vatika chitrarath se kisi prakar sundarata mean kam nahian hai. isake uparant govardhan ki mahatta hai, jise krishna ne apani kanishtha aanguli par indr dvara bheji gayi varsha se gop-gopiyoan evan unake pashuoan ko bachane ke lie uthaya tha.[99]
  • varahapuran[100] mean aya hai ki govardhan mathura se pashchim lagabhag do yojan haian. yah kuchh sima tak thik hai, kyoanki ajakal vrindavan se yah 18 mil hai. koormapuran[101] ka kathan hai ki prachin raja prithu ne yahaan tap kiya tha. harivansh evan puranoan ki charchaean kabhi-kabhi ootapataang evan ek-doosare ke virodh mean p d jati haian. udaharanarth, harivanshapuran[102] mean talavan govardhan se uttar yamuna par kaha gaya hai, kintu vastav mean yah govardhan se dakshin-poorv mean hai. kalidas[103] ne govardhan ki gufaoan ka ullekh kiya hai. gokul, braj ya mahavan hai jahaan krishna bachapan mean nand-gop dvara palit-poshit hue the. kans ke bhay se nand-gop gokul se vrindavan chale aye the. chaitany mahaprabhu vrindavan aye the.[104] 16vian shatabdi mean vrindavan ke gosvamiyoan, visheshat: sanatan, roop evan jiv ke granthoan ke karan vrindavan chaitany-bhakti-sampraday ka kendr tha.[105] chaitany ke samakalin vallabhachary ek doosare se vrindavan mean mile the.[106] mathura ke prachin mandiroan ko aurangajeb ne banaras ke mandiroan ki bhaanti nasht-bhrasht kar diya tha. [107]
  • sabhaparv[108] mean aisa aya hai ki, jarasandh ne girivraj[109] se apani gada pheanki aur vah 99 yojan ki doori par krishna ke samaksh mathura mean giri, jahaan vah giri vah sthan 'gadavasan' ke nam se vishrut hua. vah nam kahian aur nahian milata.
  • graus ne mathura namak pustak mean[110] vrindavan ke mandiroan evan[111] govardhan, barasana, radha ke janm-sthan evan nandagaanv ka ullekh kiya hai. mathura evan usake asapas ke tirth-sthaloan ka dabloo. es. kaine krit 'chitramay bharat'[112] mean bhi varnan hai.
[[chitr:Mathura-Yamuna.jpg|x200px|alt=yamuna|mathura nagar ka yamuna nadi par se vihangam drishy]]
mathura nagar ka yamuna nadi par se vihangam drishy

braj sanskriti

  1. REDIRECTsaancha:mukhy

yahaan ke van–upavan, kunj–nikunj, shri yamuna v giriraj atyant mohak haian. pakshiyoan ka madhur svar ekaki sthal ko madak evan manohar banata hai. moroan ki bahutayat tatha unaki pioo–pioo ki avaz se vatavaran gunjayaman rahata hai. balyakal se hi bhagavan shrikrishna ki sundar mor ke prati vishesh kripa tatha usake pankhoan ko shish mukut ke roop mean dharan karane se skand vahan svaroop mor ko bhakti sahity mean mahattvapoorn sthan mila hai. bharat ki sarakar ne mor ko 'rashtriy pakshi' ghoshit kar ise sanrakshan diya hai.

chitr:Blockquote-open.gif varah puran[113] evan naradiy puran[114] ne mathura ke pas ke 12 vanoan ki charcha ki hai, yatha- madhuvan, talavan, kumudavan, kamyavan, bahulavan, bhadravan, khadiravan, mahavan, lauhajanghavan, bilvavan, bhaandiravan evan vrindavan. 24 upavan bhi[115] the jinhean puranoan ne nahian, pratyut pashchatkalin granthoan ne varnit kiya hai. chitr:Blockquote-close.gif

[[chitr:Holi Barsana Mathura 1.jpg|latthamar holi, barasana|thumb|250px|left]] braj ki mahatta preranatmak, bhavanatmak v rachanatmak hai tatha sahity aur kalaoan ke vikas ke lie yah upayukt sthali hai. sangit, nrity evan abhinay braj sanskriti ke pran bane haian. brajabhoomi anekanek mathoan, moortiyoan, mandiroan, mahanto, mahatmaoan aur mahamanishiyoan ki mahima se vandaniy hai. yahaan sabhi sampradayoan ki aradhana sthali hai. braj ki raj ka mahatmy bhaktoan ke lie sarvopari hai. isilie braj chaurasi kos mean 21 kilomitar ki govardhanradhakund, 27 kilomitar ki garu d govind–vrindavan, 5–5 kos ki mathura–vrindavan, 15–15 kilomitar ki mathura-vrindavan, 6–6 kilomitar nandagaanv, barasana, bahulavan, bhaandiravan, 9 kilomitar ki gokul, 7.5 kilomitar ki baldev, 4.5–4.5 kilomitar ki madhuvan, lohavan, 2 kilomitar ki talavan, 1.5 kilomitar ki kumudavan ki nange paanv tatha dandoti parikrama lagakar shrriddhalu dhany hote haian. pratyek tyohar, utsav, rritu mah evan din par parikrama dene ka braj mean vishesh prachalan hai. desh ke kone–kone se akar shrriddhalu braj parikramaoan ko dharmik krity aur anushthan manakar ati shraddha bhakti ke sath karate haian. inase naisargik chetana, dharmik parikalpana, sanskriti ke anushilan unnayan, maulik v mangalamayi prerana prapt hoti hai. ashadh tatha adhik mas mean govardhan parvat parikrama hetu lakhoan shraddhalu ate haian. aisi apar bhi d mean bhi rashtriy ekata aur sadbhavana ke darshan hote haian. bhagavan shrikrishna, baladaoo ki lila sthali ka darshan to shraddhaluoan ke lie pramukh hai hi yahaan akroor ji, uddhav ji, narad ji, dhruv ji aur vajranath ji ki yatrayean bhi ullekhaniy haian.

braj ki jivan shaili

paramparagat roop se brajavasi sanand jivan vyatit karate haian. nity snan, bhajan, mandir gaman, darshan–jhaanki karana, din–dukhiyoan ki sahayata karana, atithi satkar, lokopakar ke kary, pashu–pakshiyoan ke prati prem, nariyoan ka samman v suraksha, bachchoan ke prati sneh, unhean achchhi shiksha dena tatha laukik vyavahar kushalata unaki jivan shaili ke aang ban chuke haian. yahaan kanya ko devi ke saman poojy mana jata hai. braj vanitayean pati ke sath din–rat kary karate hue kul ki maryada rakhakar pati ke sath rahane mean apana jivan sarthak manati hai. sanyukt parivar pranali sath rahane, kary karane, ek–doosare ka dhyan rakhane, chhote–b de ke prati yathochit samman, yahaan ki samajik vyavastha mean parilakshit hota hai. saty aur sanyam braj lok jivan ke pramukh aang haian. yahaan kary ke siddhant ki mahatta hai aur jivoan mean paramatma ka aansh manana hi divy drishti hai. [[chitr:Rath-Yatra-Rang-Ji-Temple-Vrindavan-Mathura-5.jpg|thumb|rath ka mela, vrindavan]]

vrat aur tyohar

mahilaoan ki maang mean sindoor, mathe par bindi, nak mean lauang ya bali, kanoan mean kundal ya jhumaki–jhali, gale mean mangal sootr, hathoan mean choo di, pairoan mean bichhua–chutaki, mahavar aur payal ya to diya unaki suhag ki nishani mani jati haian. vivahit mahilayean apane pati parivar aur grih ki mangal kamana hetu karava chauth ka vrat karati haian, putravati nariyaan santan ke mangalamay jivan hetu ahoee ashtami ka vrat rakhati haian. svastik, satiya chihn yahaan sabhi maangalik avasaroan par banaya jata hai aur shubh avasaroan par nariyal ka prayog kiya jata hai. desh ke kone–kone se log yahaan parvoan par ekatr hote haian. jahaan vividhata mean ekata ke sakshat darshan hote haian. braj mean pray: sabhi mandiroan mean rathayatra ka utsav hota hai. chaitr mas mean vrindavan mean ranganath ji ki savari vibhinn vahanoan par nikalati hai. jisamean desh ke kone–kone se akar bhakt sammilit hote haian. jyeshth mas mean ganga dashahara ke din prat: kal se hi vibhinn aanchaloan se shraddhalu akar yamuna mean snan karate haian. is avasar par bhi vibhinn prakar ki veshabhoosha aur shilp ke sath rashtriy ekata ke darshan hote haian, is din chhote–b de sabhi kalatmak dhang ki rangin patang u date haian.

parikrama

ashadh mas mean govardhan parvat ki parikrama hetu pray: sabhi kshetroan se yatri govardhan ate haian, jisamean abhooshanoan, paridhanoan adi se kshetr ki shilp kala udbhashit hoti hai. shravan mas mean hindoloan ke utsav mean vibhinn prakar se kalatmak dhang se sajja ki jati hai. bhadrapad mean mandiroan mean vishesh kalatmak jhaankiyaan tatha sajavat hoti hai. ashvin mah mean sampoorn braj kshetr mean kanyaean ghar ki divaroan par gobar se vibhinn prakar ki kritiyaan banati haian, jinamean kau diyoan tatha rangin chamakadar kagazoan ke abhooshanoan se apani saanjhi ko kalatmak dhang se sajakar arati karati haian. isi mah se mandiroan mean kagaz ke saanchoan se sookhe rangoan ki vedi ka nirman kar us par alpana banate haian. isako bhi 'saanjhi' kahate haian. kartik mas to shrikrishna ki bal lilaoan se paripoorn rahata hai. akshay tritiya tatha devotthan ekadashi ko mathura tatha vrindavan ki parikrama lagaee jati hai. basant panchami ko sampoorn braj kshetr basanti hota hai. phalgun mas mean to jidhar dekho udhar naga doan, jhaanjh par chaupaee tatha holi ke rasiya ki dhvaniyaan sunaee deti haian. nandagaanv tatha barasana ki latthamar holi, daooji ka huranga jagath prasiddh hai.

braj ka prachin sangit

braj ke prachin sangitajnoan ki pramanik janakari 16vian shatabdi ke bhaktikal se milati hai. is kal mean anekoan sangitajn vaishnav sant hue. sangit shiromani svami haridas ji, inake guru ashudhir ji tatha unake shishy tanasen adi ka nam sarvavidit hai. baijoobavara ke guru bhi shri haridas ji kahe jate haian, kintu baijoo bavara ne ashtachhap ke kavi sangitajn govind svami ji se hi sangit ka abhyas kiya tha. nimbark sampraday ke shribhatt ji isi kal mean bhakt, kavi aur sangitajn hue. ashtachhap ke mahasangitajn kavi sooradas, nandadas, paramanandadas ji adi bhi isi kal mean prasiddh kirtanakar, kavi aur gayak hue, jinake kirtan ballabh kul ke mandiroan mean gaye jate haian. svami haridas ji ne hi vastut: braj–sangit ke dhrupaddhamar ki gayaki aur ras nrity ki parampara chalaee.

gayan-vadan

mathura mean sangit ka prachalan bahut purana hai. baansuri braj ka pramukh vady yantr hai. bhagavan shrikrishna ki baansuri ko jan–jan janata hai, aur isi ko lekar unhean 'muralidhar' aur 'vanshidhar' adi namoan se pukara jata hai. vartaman mean bhi braj ke lok sangit mean dhol mridang, jhaanjh, manjira, dhap, naga da, pakhavaj, ekatara adi vady yantroan ka prachalan hai. 16vian shati se mathura mean ras ke vartaman roop ka prarambh hua. yahaan sabase pahale ballabhachary ji ne svami haradev ke sahayog se vishraant ghat par ras kiya. ras braj ki anokhi den hai, jisamean sangit ke git gady tatha nrity ka samishran hai. braj ke sahity ke saanskritik evan kalatmak jivan ko ras b di sundarata se abhivyakt karata hai. ashtachhap ke kaviyoan ke samay braj mean sangit ki madhuradhara pravahit huee. sooradas, nandadas, krishnadas adi svayan gayak the. in kaviyoan ne apani rachanaoan mean vividh prakar ke gitoan ka apar bhandar bhar diya. [[chitr:Kambojika-1.jpg|thumb|200px|kambojika
rajakiy sangrahalay, mathura]] svami haridas sangit shastr ke prakand achary evan gayak the. tanasen jaise prasiddh sangitajn bhi unake shishy the. samrat akabar bhi svami ji ke madhur sangit-gitoan ko sunane ka lobh sanvaran n kar saka aur isake lie bhesh badalakar unhean sunane vrindavan aya karata tha. mathura, vrindavan, gokul, govardhan lambe samay tak sangit ke kendr bane rahe aur yahaan door se sangit kala sikhane ate rahe.

lok git

braj mean anekanek gayan shailiyaan prachalit haian aur rasiya braj ki prachinatam gayaki kala hai. bhagavan shrikrishna ki bal lilaoan se sambandhit pad, rasiya adi gayaki ke sath rasalila ka ayojan hota hai. shravan mas mean mahilaoan dvara jhoola jhoolate samay gayi jane vali malhar gayaki ka pradurbhav braj se hi hai. lokasangit mean rasiya, dhola, alha, lavani, chaubola, bahal–tabil, bhagat adi sangit bhi samay–samay par sunane ko milata hai. isake atirikt rritu git, ghareloo git, saanskritik git samay–samay par vibhinn vargoan mean gaye jate haian.

moorti kala

yahaan sthapaty tatha moorti kala ke vikas ka sabase mahattvapoorn yug kushan kal ke prarambh se gupt kal ke ant tak raha. yadyapi isake bad bhi ye kalayean 12vian shati ke ant tak jari rahian. isake bad lagabhag 350 varshoan tak mathura kala ka pravah avaruddh raha, par 16vian shati se kala ka punarootthan sahity, sangit tatha chitrakala ke roop mean dikhaee p dane lagata hai.

holi

  1. REDIRECTsaancha:mukhy

shrikrishna radha aur gopiyoan–gvaloan ke bich ki holi ke roop mean gulal, rang kesar ki pichakari se khoob khelate haian. holi ka arambh phalgun shukl navami barasana se hota hai. vahaan ki lathamar holi jag prasiddh hai. dashami ko aisi hi holi nandagaanv mean hoti hai. isi ke sath poore braj mean holi ki dhoom machati hai. dhuleandi ko pray: holi poorn ho jati hai, isake bad hurange chalate haian, jinamean mahilayean rangoan ke sath lathiyoan, ko doan adi se purushoan ko gherati haian. barasana aur nandagaanv ki lathamar holi to jagaprasiddh hai. [[chitr:Krishna Janm Bhumi Holi Mathura 11.jpg|holi, krishna janmabhoomi, mathura|left|thumb|250px]] 'nandagaanv ke kuanvar kanhaiya, barasane ki gori re rasiya' aur ‘barasane mean aee jiyo bulae gee radha pyari’ gitoan ke sath hi braj ki holi ki masti shuroo hoti hai. vaise to holi poore bharat mean manaee jati hai lekin braj ki holi khas masti bhari hoti hai. vajah ye ki ise krishna aur radha ke prem se jo d kar dekha jata hai. uttar bharat ke braj kshetr mean basant panchami se hi holi ka chalis divasiy utsav aranbh ho jata hai. nandagaanv evan barasane se hi holi ki vishesh umang jagrat hoti hai. jab nandagaanv ke gop-gopiyoan par rang dalate, to nandagaanv ki gopiyaan unhean aisa karane se rokati thian aur n manane par lathi marana shuroo karati thian. holi ki toliyoan mean nandagaanv ke purush hote haian, kyoanki krishna yahian ke the, aur barasane ki mahilaean, kyoanki radha barasane ki thian. dilachasp bat ye hoti hai ki ye holi baki bharat mean kheli jane vali holi se pahale kheli jati hai. din shuroo hote hi nandagaanv ke huriyaroan ki toliyaan barasane pahuanchane lagati haian. sath hi pahuanchane lagati haian kirtan mandaliyaan. is dauran bhaang-thandhee ka khoob iantazam hota hai. brajavasi logoan ki chirauanta jaisi akhoan ko dekhakar bhaang thandhee ki vyavastha ka aandaz laga lete haian. barasane mean tesoo ke phooloan ke bhagone taiyar rahate haian. dopahar tak ghamasan lathamar holi ka samaan bandh chuka hota hai. nandagaanv ke logoan ke hath mean pichakariyaan hoti haian aur barasane ki mahilaoan ke hath mean lathiyaan, aur shuroo ho jati hai holi.

  1. REDIRECTsaancha:inhean bhi dekhean

mathura zile ke pramukh mandir

bhagavan shrikrishna ke janm sthan par mahamana pandit madan mohan malaviy ji ki prerana se ek vishal mandir bana hai. yah deshi–vidashi paryatakoan ke akarshan ka kendr hai. mandir mean bhagavan shrikrishna ka sundar vigrah hai. samip hi suvidha yukt atithi grah tatha dharmarth ayurvedik chikitsalay hai. atithi grah ke nikat vishal bhagavat bhavan hai. yahaan shodh pith evan bal mandir bhi hai. isake pichhe keshavadev ji ka prachin mandir bhi sthit hai.

nam sankshipt vivaran manachitr liank
krishna janmabhoomi, mathura|100px|border

krishna janmabhoomi

bhagavan shri krishna ki janmabhoomi ka na keval rashtriy star par mahattv hai balki vaishvik star par mathura janapad bhagavan shrikrishna ke janmasthan se hi jana jata hai. aj vartaman mean mahamana pandit madanamohan malaviy ji ki prerana se yah ek bhavy akarshan mandir ke roop mean sthapit hai. paryatan ki drishti se videshoan se bhi bhagavan shrikrishna ke darshan ke lie yahaan pratidin ate haian .... aur padhean googal manachitr

dvarikadhish mandir|100px|border
dvarikadhish mandir

mathura nagar ke rajadhiraj bazar mean sthit yah mandir apane saanskritik vaibhav kala evan saundary ke lie anupam hai. gvaliyar raj ke koshadhyaksh seth gokul das parikh ne isaka nirman 1814–15 mean prarambh karaya, jinaki mrityu pashchath inaki sampatti ke uttaradhikari seth lakshmichandr ne mandir ka nirman kary poorn karaya .... aur padhean googal manachitr
rajakiy sangrahalay|100px|border

rajakiy sangrahalay

mathura ka yah vishal sangrahalay dempiyar nagar, mathura mean sthit hai. bharatiy kala ko mathura ki yah vishesh den hai. bharatiy kala ke itihas mean yahian par sarvapratham hamean shasakoan ki lekhoan se aankit manaviy akaroan mean bani pratimaean dikhalaee p dati haian .... aur padhean googal manachitr
100px|border|baanke bihari mandir


baanke bihari mandir

baanke bihari mandir mathura zile ke vriandavan dham mean raman reti par sthit hai. yah bharat ke prachin aur prasiddh mandiroan mean se ek hai. baanke bihari krishna ka hi ek roop hai jo isamean pradarshit kiya gaya hai. kaha jata hai ki is mandir ka nirman svami haridas ji ke vanshajoan ke samoohik prayas se sanvat 1921 ke lagabhag kiya gaya .... aur padhean googal manachitr
100px|border|rang nath ji mandir


rang nath ji mandir

shri sampraday ke sansthapak ramanujachary ke vishnu-svaroop bhagavan ranganath ya rangaji ke nam se rang ji ka mandir seth lakhamichand ke bhaee seth govindadas aur radhakrishna das dvara nirman karaya gaya tha. unake mahanh guru sanskrit ke achary svami rangachary dvara diye gaye madras ke rang nath mandir ki shaili ke manachitr ke adhar par yah bana tha. isaki bahari divar ki lambaee 773 phit aur chau daee 440 phit hai .... aur padhean googal manachitr

100px|border|govind dev mandir
govind dev mandir

govind dev ji ka mandir vriandavan mean sthit vaishnav sanpraday ka mandir hai. mandir ka nirman ee. 1590 mean tatha ise banane mean 5 se 10 varsh lage. mandir ki bhavyata ka anuman is uddharan se lagaya ja sakata hai aurangazeb ne sham ko tahalate hue, dakshin-poorv mean door se dikhane vali raushani ke bare jab poochha to pata chala ki yah chamak vrindavan ke vaibhavashali mandiroan ki hai .... aur padhean googal manachitr
isk aaun mandir vrindavan|100px|border


isk aaun mandir

vrindavan ke adhunik mandiroan mean yah ek bhavy mandir hai. ise aangrezoan ka mandir bhi kahate haian. kesariya vastroan mean hare rama–hare krishnaa ki dhun mean tamam videshi mahila–purush yahaan dekhe jate haian. mandir mean radha krishna ki bhavy pratimayean haian aur atyadhunik sabhi suvidhayean haian .... aur padhean googal manachitr
100px|border|madan mohan mandir vrindavan


madan mohan mandir

shrikrishna bhagavan ke anek namoan mean se ek priy nam madanamohan bhi hai. isi nam se ek mandir mathura zile ke vriandavan dham mean vidyaman hai. vishalakayik nag ke phan par bhagavan charanaghat kar rahe haian. puratanata mean yah mandir govind dev ji ke mandir ke bad ata hai .... aur padhean
100px|border|danaghati


danaghati mandir

mathura–dig marg par govardhan mean yah mandir sthit hai. girraj ji ki parikrama hetu ane vale lakhoan shrriddhalu is mandir mean poojan karake apani parikrama prarambh kar poorn labh kamate haian. braj mean is mandir ki bahut mahatta hai. yahaan abhi bhi is par se us par ya us par se is par karane mean tol taiks dena p data hai. krishnalila ke samay krishna ne dani banakar gopiyoan se premakalah kar nok–jhoank ke sath danalila ki hai .... aur padhean googal manachitr
100px|border|manasi ganga


manasi ganga

govardhan gaanv ke bich mean manasi ganga hai. parikrama karane mean dayian aur p dati hai aur pooanchhari se lautane par bhi dayian aur isake darshan hote haian. manasi ganga ke poorv disha mean- shri mukharavind, shri lakshminarayan mandir, shri kishorishyam mandir, shri giriraj mandir, shri manmahaprabhu ji ki baithak, shri radhakrishna mandir sthit haian .... aur padhean
100px|border|kusum sarovar


kusum sarovar

mathura mean govardhan se lagabhag 2 kilomitar door radhakund ke nikat sthapaty kala ke namoone ka ek samooh javahar sianh dvara apane pita soorajamal ( ee.1707-1763) ki smriti mean banavaya gaya. kusum sarovar govardhan ke parikrama marg mean sthit ek ramanik sthal hai jo ab sarakar ke sanrakshan mean hai .... aur padhean googal manachitr
100px|border|jayagurudev mandir


jayagurudev mandir

mathura mean agara-dilli rajamarg par sthit jay gurudev ashram ki lagabhag dedh sau ek d bhoomi par sant baba jay gurudev ki ek alag hi duniya basi huee hai. unake desh videsh mean 20 karo d se bhi adhik anuyayi haian. unake anuyayiyoan mean anapadh kisan se lekar prabuddh varg tak ke log haian .... aur padhean
100px|border|radha rani mandir


radha rani mandir

is mandir ko barasane ki la dali ji ka mandir bhi kaha jata hai. radha ka yah prachin mandir madhyakalin hai jo lal aur pile patthar ka bana hai. radha-krishna ko samarpit is bhavy aur sundar mandir ka nirman raja vir sianh ne 1675 mean karavaya tha. bad mean sthaniy logoan dvara pattharoan ko is mandir mean lagavaya. .... aur padhean googal manachitr
100px|border|nand ji mandir


nand ji mandir

nand ji ka mandir, nandagaanv mean sthit hai. nandagaanv brajamandal ka prasiddh tirth hai. govardhan se 16 mil pashchim uttar kon mean, kosi se 8 mil dakshin mean tatha vrindavan se 28 mil pashchim mean nandagaanv sthit hai. nandagaanv ki pradakshina (parikrama) char mil ki hai. yahaan par krishna lilaoan se sambandhit 56 kund haian. jinake darshan mean 3-4 din lag jate haian .... aur padhean googal manachitr
100px|border|gokarneshvar mahadev mathura


gokarneshvar mahadev

gokarneshvar mandir ek tile par bana hai. jise gokarneshvar ya kailash mandir kaha jata hai. is mahadev ko uttariy sima ka rakshak mana jata hai. is mandir ko bhagavan gokarneshvar ko samarpit kiya gaya tha. jisake bare mean kaha gaya hai ki inhoanne gay ke kan se janm liya tha. is mandir mean shivabhaktoan ka taanta laga rahata hai. .... aur padhean

vithika


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sandarbh

  1. aanguttaranikay, 1.167, ekan samayan ayasma mahakachchhano madhurayan viharati gundavane
  2. majjhim.(2.84
  3. mathura ka nivasi, ya vahaan utpann hua ya mathura se aya hua
  4. panini, 4.2.82
  5. panini(4.3.98
  6. 3.1.138 evan vartik 'gavich vinde: sanjnayamh'
  7. patanjali mahabhashy, jild 1,pri. 18, 19 evan 192, 244, jild 3, pri. 299 adi
  8. mahabharat adiparv (221.46
  9. mahabharat, sabhaparv 14.41-45
  10. mahabharat, sabhaparv 14.49-50 evan 67.
  11. varah puran (152.8 evan 11
  12. padm puran(4.69.12).
  13. harivansh puran (vishnuparv, 57.2-3
  14. arthath atyant mahattvapoorn sthal
  15. tasmanmathurak nam vishnorekantavallabhamh. padm puran (4.69.12); madhyadeshasy kakudan dham lakshmyashch kevalamh. shrriangan prithivya: svalakshyan prabhootadhanadhanyavath॥ harivansh puran (vishnuparv, 57. 2-3).
  16. brahm puran, 14.54-56
  17. vayu puran(88.185
  18. phaansbol, jild 4, pri. 79-89, sankhya 454
  19. dakshin ke pandavoan ki nagari bhi madhura ke nam se prasiddh thi
  20. raghuvansh(15.28
  21. buddhist rikardas av vestarn varld, vil, jild 1,pri. 179
  22. kaitalog av kvaeans av aianshyent indiya, 1936
  23. aur dekhie kaimbrij histri av indiya, jild 1,pri. 538
  24. mathura(sanh 1880 dvitiy sanskaran
  25. mathurada. bi. si. lo ka lekh 'mathura in aishyent indiya',je. e. es. av bangal (jild 13, 1947, pri. 21-30).
  26. panvath 8, epigraiphiya indika, jild 17, pri. 10
  27. samany roop se kanishk ki tithi 78 ee. mani gayi hai. dekhie je. bi. o. ar. es. (jild 23,1937, pri. 113-117, da. e. banarji-shastri).
  28. epigrai. indi., jild 8, pri. 181-182);
  29. san. 74, vahi, jild 9, pri. 241
  30. vahi, pri. 246
  31. vahi, jild 24, pri. 184-210).
  32. vahi, jild 1,pri. 390).
  33. vishnu puran(6.8.31
  34. nav nakastu (nagastu?) bhokshyanti purian champavati nripa:. mathuraan ch purian ramyaan naga bhokshyanti sapt vai.. anugangan prayagan ch sakeant magadhaanstatha. etanh janapadansarvanh bhokshyante guptavanshaja:॥ vayu puran (99.382-83); brahm puran (3.74.194). da. jayasaval krit 'histri aauph indiya (150-350 ee.),' pri. 3-15, jahaan nag-vansh ke vishay mean charcha hai.
  35. alabarooni, bharat(jild 2, pri0 147
  36. agni puran(11.8-9
  37. abhootpoormathura kachidramokto bharatovadhith. kotitrayan ch shailooshaputranaan nishitai: sharai:॥ shailooshan driptagandharv sindhutiranivasinamh. agni puran (2.8-9). vishnudharmottar. (1, adhyay 201-202)mean aya hai ki shailoosh ke putr gandharvo ne sindhu ke donoan tatoan ki bhoomi ko tahas-nahas kiya aur ram ne apane bhaee bharat ko unhean nasht karane ko bheja- 'jahi shailooshatanayanh gandharvanh, papanishchayanh' (1.202-10). shailoosh ka arth abhineta bhi hota hai. kya yah bharatanatyashastr ke rachayita bharat ke anuyayiyoan evan any abhinetaoan ke jhag de ki or sanket karata hai? natyashastr (17.47) ne natak ke lie shoorasen ki bhasha ko apekshakrit adhik upayukt mana hai. kanekrit 'histri av sanskrit poitiks' (pri0 40, sanh 1951).
  38. varah puran(adhyay 152-178). brihannaradiy. (adhyay 79-80
  39. bhagavat. (10
  40. vishnu puran(5-6
  41. padm puran(adikhand, 21.46-47
  42. varah puran (152.8 evan 11
  43. padm puran(4.69.12).
  44. harivansh puran(vishnuparv, 57.2-3
  45. tasmanmathurak nam vishnorekantavallabhamh. padm puran (4.69.12); madhyadeshasy kakudan dham lakshmyashch kevalamh. shrriangan prithivya: svalakshyan prabhootadhanadhanyavath॥ harivansh puran (vishnuparv, 57. 2-3).
  46. `evan bhavatu kakutsth kriyataan mam shasanamh, rajye tvamabhishekshyami madhostu nagare shubhe. nagaran yamunajushtan tatha janapadanshubhanh yo hi vansh samutpady parthivasy niveshane` uttar. 62,16-18.
  47. `tan putran durvinitan tu drishtva kodhasamanvit:, madhu: s shokamapede n chainan kianchidabravith`-uttar. 61,18.
  48. `ardh chandrapratikasha yamunatirashobhita, shobhita grih-mukhyaishch chatvarapanavithikai:, chaturvarny samayukta nanavanijyashobhita` uttar. 70,11.
  49. yachchatenapura shubhran lavanen kritan mahath, tachchhobhayati shutradhno nanavarnopashobhitamh. aramaishv viharaishch shobhamanan samantat: shobhitaan shobhaniyaishch tathanyairdaivamanushai:` uttar. 70-12-13. uttar0 70,5 (`iyan madhupuri ramya madhura dev-nirmita) mean is nagari ko mathura nam se abhihit kiya gaya hai.
  50. balmiki ramayan,kishkindhakanh d,trichatvarianshah sargah. tatr mlechchhanh pulindaanshrch shoorasenaan stathaiv ch. prasthalanh bharataanshrchaiv kuruanshrch sah madrakaiah॥ 11 kambojayavanaanshrchaiv shakanaan pattanani ch. anvikshy daradaanshchaiv himavantan vichinvath ॥ 12
  51. `vayan chaiv maharaj, jarasandhabhayath tada, mathuraan sanparityajy yata dvaravatian purimh` maha. sabha. 14,67. shrimadbhagavat 10,41,20-21-22-23 mean kans ke samay ki mathura ka suandar varnan hai.
  52. `roorodh mathuramety tis bhimrlechchhakotibhi:
  53. ramayan, uttarakaand, sarg 62, pankti 17
  54. krishnadatt vajapeyi, mathura, pri 2
  55. plini, nechural histri, bhag 6, pri 19; tulaniy e, kaniangham, di aianshh‍yeantajyographi aph iandiya, (iandolajikal buk haus, varanasi, 1963), pri 315
  56. `kaniangham ne 'klisobera' ki pahachan 'keshavur' ya katara keshavadev ke muhalle se ki hai. yoonani lekhakoan ke samay mean yamuna ki mukhy dhara ya usaki b di shakha vartaman katara ya keshav dev ke poorvi divar ke samip se bahati rahi hogi or usake doosari taraph mathura nagar raha hoga. e, kaniangham, di aianshh‍yeantajyographi aauph iandiya, iandolajikal buk haus, varanasi, 1963 ee , pri 315.
  57. harivansh puran, 1,54
  58. `sa puri paramodara sattaprakaratorana sphita rashh‍trasamakirna samriddhabalavahana. udyanavan sanpanna susimasupratishthita, praanshuprakaravasana parikhakul mekhala`.
  59. `sanpraptashrchapi sayahne soakrooro mathuraan purim` 5,19,9
  60. vishnu-puran, 4,5,101
  61. `shatrughnenapyamitabalaparakramo madhuputro lavano nam rakshasobhihato mathura ch niveshita`
  62. raghuvansh, 6,48
  63. 'yasyavarodhastanachandananaan prakshalanadvariviharakale, kaliandakanya mathuraan gatapi gangormisansaktajalev bhati`
  64. vishnu puran, 1/12/43 mekrindil, aianshh‍yeantiandiya ej diskraibd baee talemi (kalakatta, 1927), pri 98
  65. `madura y soorasena' dekhean-iandiyan entikveri, sankhya 20, pri 375
  66. jems legge, di tehravels aph fahyan , dvitiy sanskaran, 1972), pri 42
  67. thamas vatrs, an yuv aaunh chvags tehravels in iandiya, dilli, pratham sanskaran, 1961 ee) bhag 1, pri 301
  68. haraman jaikobi, sekred buks aauph di eest, bhag 45, pri 112
  69. manusmriti, bhag 2, shlok 18 aur 20
  70. ye vasanti mahabhage mathurayamitare jana:. teapi yaanti paramaan siddhian matprasadann sanshay: varah puran, pri 852, shlok 20
  71. mathurayaan mahapurya ye vasanti shuchivrata:. balibhikshapradataro devaste naravigraha:.. tatraiv, shlok 22
  72. mathuramamandamamh prapy shraddhan kritva yathavidhi. tripti prayaanti pitaro yavasthityagrajanman:.. tatraiv, shlok 19
  73. padmapuran, pri 600, shlok 53
  74. varah puran, adhyay 152
  75. govarddhano girivaro yamuna ch mahanadi. tayormadhye puroramya mathura lokavishruta.. varahapuran, adhyay 165, shlok 23
  76. `shitiryojananatan mathuraan matr mandalamh.' tatraiv, adhyay 158, shlok1
  77. brahm puran, adhyay 14 shlok 54
  78. harivansh puran, adhyay 37
  79. harivansh puran, adhyay 195, shlok 3
  80. skand puran, vishnu khand, bhagavat mahatmy, adhyay 1
  81. vayupuran, adhyay 99; vimalacharan laha, iandolajikal stadij, bhag 2, pri 32
  82. eph i parjitar, aianshh‍yeant iandiyan histarikal tehradishan pri 171
  83. eph i parjitar, aianshh‍yeant iandiyan histarikal tehradishan, pri2.11
  84. madhav arthath madhu ka vanshaj jo krishna ko bhi kaha jata hai, krishna madhusoodan bhi haian kintu vah madhukaitav rakshas se arth hai.
  85. vimalacharan laha, prachin bharat ka aitihasik bhoogol, (uttar pradesh hindi granth akadami, lakhanoo, pratham sanskaran, 1972 ee.) pri 183
  86. iyamh madhupuri ramya madhura devanirmita (devataoan dvara banaee gee) niveshan prapnayachchhidhramesh me stu var: par:.. valmiki ramayan, uttarakaand, sarg 70, pankti 5-6
  87. eph ee parjitar, aianshh‍yeantiandiyan histarikal tredishan, tulaniy, hemachandr ray chaudhari, prachin bharat ka rajanitik itihas , pri 107
  88. rrigved, 1/108/8). rrigved (tatraiv, 1/36; 18;5/45/1
  89. shatanik: samantasu medhyamh satrajita hayamh ,adatt yajnankashinamh bharat: satvatamiv.. -shatapath brahman, 13/5/4/21
  90. shatapath brahman, adhyay 13/5/4/11; tul hemachandr ray chaudhari, prachin bharat ka rajanitik itihas, pri 108
  91. vianshatiryojananaan tu mathuran parimandalamh. tanmadhye mathura nam puri sarvottamottama॥ naradiy puran uttar, 79. 20-21
  92. varah puran(adhyay 153 evan 161. 6-10
  93. naradiy puran (uttarardh, 79.10-18
  94. grausakrit mathura, pri. 76
  95. vishnupuran 5.6.28-40, naradiy puran, uttarardh 80.6,8 evan 77)
  96. padmapuran patal, 75.8-14
  97. padmapuran (4.69.9)
  98. matsyapuran (13.38)
  99. vishnupuran (5.11.15-24
  100. varahapuran (164.1)
  101. koormapuran (1.14.18)
  102. harivanshapuran (vishnuparv 13.3)
  103. kalidas (raghuvansh 6.51)
  104. dekhie chaitanyacharitamrit, sarg 19 evan kavi karnapoor ya paramanand das krit natak chaitanyachandroday, aank 9
  105. dekhie pro. es. ke. de krit 'vaishnav pheth end moovameant in beangal, 1942, pri. 83-122
  106. dekhie manilal si. parikh ka vallabhachary par granth,pri. 161
  107. dekhie iliet evan dausan krit 'histri av indiya aij told baee its on historien', jild 7, pri0 184, jahaan 'm-asir-e-alamagiri' ki ek ukti is vishay mean is prakar anoodit huee hai,-"aurangajeb ne mathura ke 'dehara kesu ray' namak mandir (jo, jaisa ki us granth mean aya hai, 33 lakh rupayoan se nirmit hua tha) ko nasht karane ki ajna di, aur shighr hi vah asatyata ka shaktishali gadh prithivi mean mila diya gaya aur usi sthan par ek brihath masajid ki nianv dal di gayi."
  108. sabhaparv (319.23-24)
  109. magadh ki prachin rajadhani, rajagir
  110. adhyay 9
  111. adhyay 11
  112. chitramay bharat (pri. 253
  113. varah puran(adhyay 153 evan 161. 6-10
  114. naradiy puran(uttarardh, 79.10-18
  115. grausakrit mathura, pri. 76

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