वाराणसी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(बनारस se punarnirdeshit)
varanasi vishay soochi

parichay    itihas    bhoogol    arthavyavastha    shiksha    snskriti    dharmik sthal    paryatan    chitravali    vistrit alekh

varanasi
varanasi ka drishy
vivaran varanasi, banaras ya kashi bhi kahalata hai. varanasi dakshin-poorvi uttar pradesh rajy, uttari-madhy bharat men gnga nadi ke baen tat par sthit hai aur hinduon ke sat pavitr nagaron men se ek hai.
rajy uttar pradesh
zila varanasi zila
bhaugolik sthiti uttar- 25.282°, poorv- 82.9563°
marg sthiti varanasi, ilahabad se 125 kilomitar pashchim, lakhanoo se 281 kilomitar dakshin-poorv tatha dilli se lagabhag 780 kilomitar dakshin-poorv men hai.
kab jaen aktoobar se march
kaise pahunchen havaee jahaz, rel, bas, taiksi
havaee adda lal bahadur shastri havaee adda
relave steshan varanasi jnkshan, mugalasaray jnkshan
bas adda antarrajyiy bas adda ananh‍d vihar
yatayat aauto riksha, riksha, bas, mini bas, nav, stimar
kya dekhen vishvanath mndir, kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay, varanasi ki nadiyan, varanasi ke ghat
kahan thaharen hotal, dharmashala, atithi-grah
kya khayen pan, kachaudi-sabzi, chat, thndaee
kya khariden banarasi sadi
es.ti.di. kod 0542
e.ti.em lagabhag sabhi
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr, varanasi havaee adda
snbndhit lekh gnga nadi, sampoornanand snskrit vishvavidyalay, mahatma gandhi kashi vidyapith
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎

varanasi, banaras ya kashi bhi kahalata hai. varanasi dakshin-poorvi uttar pradesh rajy, uttari-madhy bharat men gnga nadi ke baen tat par sthit hai aur hinduon ke sat pavitr nagaron men se ek hai. ise mandiron evn ghaton ka nagar bhi kaha jata hai. varanasi ka purana nam kashi hai. varanasi vishv ka prachinatam basa hua shahar hai. yah gnga nadi ke kinare basa hai aur hazaron sal se uttar bharat ka dharmik evn sanskritik kendr raha hai. do nadiyon varuna aur asi ke madhy basa hone ke karan isaka nam varanasi pada. banaras ya varanasi ka nam puranon, ramayan, mahabharat jaise anekanek granthon men milata hai. vedon men bhi kashi ka ullekh hai. snskrit padhane prachin kal se hi log varanasi aya karate the. varanasi ke gharanon ki hindustani sngit men apani hi shaili hai.

sthiti

varanasi bharatavarsh ki sanskritik evn dharmik nagari ke roop men vikhyat hai. isaki prachinata ki tulana vishv ke any prachinatam nagaron jerusalem, ethens tatha peiking (bijing) se ki jati hai.[1] varanasi gnga ke baen tat par arddhachndrakar men 250 18’ uttari akshansh evn 830 1’ poorvi deshantar par sthit hai. prachin varanasi ki mool sthiti vidvanon ke madhy vivad ka vishay rahi hai.

vidvanon ke matanusar

shering,[2] maradak,[3] gribj,[4] aur parakar[5] jaise vidvanon ke matanusar prachin varanasi vartaman nagar ke uttar men saranath ke samip sthit thi. kisi samay varanasi ki sthiti dakshin bhag men bhi rahi hogi. lekin vartaman nagar ki sthiti varanasi se poornataya bhinn hai, jisase yah pray: nishchit hai ki varanasi nagar ki prakriti yathasamay ek sthan se doosare sthan par visthapit hone ki rahi hai. yah visthapan mukhyataya dakshin ki or hua hai, par kisi pusht praman ke abhav men vidvanon ka ukt mat samichin nahin pratit hota hai.

gnga nadi ke tat par base is shahar ko hi bhagavan shiv ne prithvi par apana sh‍thayi nivas banaya tha. yah bhi mana jata hai ki varanasi ka nirman srishti rachana ke prarambhik charan men hi hua tha. yah shahar pratham jh‍yortiling ka bhi shahar hai. puranon men varanasi ko brahmand ka kendr bataya gaya hai tatha yah bhi kaha gaya hai yahan ke kan-kan men shiv nivas karate hain. varanasi ke logon ke anusar, kashi ke kan-kan men shivashnkar hain. inake kahane ka arth yah hai ki yahan ke prath‍yek path‍thar men shiv ka nivas hai. kahate hain ki kashi shnkar bhagavan ke trishool par tiki hai.

hevel ki drishti men

hevel ki drishti men varanasi nagar ki sthiti visthapan pradhan thi, apitu prachin kal men bhi varanasi ka vartaman svaroop surakshit tha.[6] hevel ke matanusar buddh poorv yug men adhunik saranath ek ghana jngal tha aur yah vibhinn dharmavalnbiyon ka ashray sthal bhi tha. bhaugolik dashaon ke pariprekshy men hevel ka mat yuktisngat pratit hota hai. vastav men varanasi nagar ka astitv buddh se bhi prachin hai tatha unake avirbhav ke sadiyon poorv se hi yah ek dharmik nagari ke roop men khyati prapt tha. saranath ka udbhav mahatma buddh ke pratham dharmachakr pravartan ke uparant hua. ramalochan sinh ne bhi kuchh snshodhanon ke sath hevel ke mat ka samarthan kiya hai. unake anusar nagar ki mool sthiti pray: uttari bhag men svikar karani chahie.[7] hal men akatha ke utkhanan se is bat ki pushti hoti hai ki varanasi ki prachin sthiti uttar men thi jahan se 1300 eesa poorv ke avashesh prakash men aye hain.

namakaran

‘varanasi’ shabd ‘varuna’ aur ‘asi’ do nadivachak shabdon ke yog se bana hai. pauranik anushrutiyon ke anusar 'varuna' aur 'asi' nam ki nadiyon ke bich men basane ke karan hi is nagar ka nam varanasi pada.

  • 'padmapuran' ke ek ullekh ke anusar dakshinottar men ‘varana’ aur poorv men ‘asi’ ki sima se ghire hone ke karan is nagar ka nam varanasi pada.[8]
  • 'atharvaved'[9] men varanavati nadi ka ullekh hai. snbhavat: yah adhunik varuna ka hi samanarthak hai.
  • 'agnipuran' men nasi nadi ka ullekh milata hai.

pauranik ullekh

'mahabharat' men 'kashi' ka nam 'varanasi' bhi milata hai-

'sametn parthivnkshatrn varanasyan nadisutah, kanyarthamahvayadh viro rathanaiken snyuge.'[10]
'tato varanasin gatva archayitva vrishabhadhvajamh, kapilahnade narah snatva rajasooyamavapnuyath.'[11]

jain grnth 'prgyapana sootr' men bhi varanasi ka ullekh hai. 'vividhitirthakalp' ke anusar asi gnga aur varuna ke tat par sthit hone ke karan yah nagari 'varanasi' kahalati thi. varanasi ke snbndh men maharaja harishchandr ki katha, roopantaran ke sath is jain grnth men varnit hai. varanasi ke is grnth men panch mukhy vibhag batalae ge hain[12]-

  1. 'dev varanasi', jahan vishvanath ka mandir tha tatha chaibis jinapatt sthit hain,
  2. rajadhani varanasi
  3. yavanon ka nivas sthan
  4. madan varanasi
  5. vijay varanasi

'dntakhat sarovar' ke nikat tirthnkar parshvanath ka chaity sthit tha aur usase 6 mil ki doori par bodhisatv ka mndir tha.

varanasi

itihas

aitihasik alekhon se pramanit hota hai ki eesa poorv ki chhathi shatabdi men varanasi bharat ka bada hi samriddhashali aur mahattvapoorn rajy tha. madhy yug men yah kannauj rajy ka ang tha aur bad men bngal ke pal nareshon ka is par adhikar ho gaya tha. sanh 1194 men shahabuddin gori ne is nagar ko loota aur kshati pahunchayi. mugal kal men isaka nam badal kar muhammadabad rakha gaya. bad men ise avadh darabar ke pratyaksh niyntran men rakha gaya. balavnt sinh ne baksar ki ladaee men angrezon ka sath diya aur isake upalakshy men varanasi ko avadh darabar se svatntr karaya. sanh 1911 men angrezon ne maharaj prabhunarayan sinh ko varanasi ka raja bana diya. sanh 1950 men yah rajy svechchha se bharatiy ganarajy men shamil ho gaya. varanasi vibhinn mat-matantaron ki sngam sthali rahi hai. vidya ke is puratan aur shashvat nagar ne sadiyon se dharmik guruon, sudharakon aur pracharakon ko apani or akrisht kiya hai. bhagavan buddh aur shnkarachary ke alava ramanuj, vallabhachary, snt kabir, guru nanak, tulasidas, chaitany mahaprabhu, raidas adi anek snt is nagari men aye.

bhaugolik sthiti

varanasi nagar ki rachana gnga ke kinare hai, jisaka vistar lagabhag 5 mil men hai. oonchaee par base hone ke karan adhikatar varanasi badh ki vibhishika se surakshit rahata hai, parntu varanasi ke madhy tatha dakshini bhag ke nichale ilaqe prabhavit hote hain. nagar ke akar ki dharmik manyataon ke adhar par vyakhya karane ke anek prayas kie gaye hain. in manyataon ki bhaugolik vyakhya ko kamovesh svikara gaya hai. aise samanyat: prachalit vishvason ki soochi is prakar banaee hai.

prachalit vishvason ki soochi

krit trishool

is trishool ke tin shool hain- uttar men onkareshvar, madhy men vishveshvar tatha dakshin men kedareshvar. yah tinon gnga tat par sthit hain. mannyata hai ki yah nagari bhagavan shiv ko samarpit hai aur unake trishool par sthit hai.

tretayug chakr

chaurasi kos yatra ke tadanuroop hai aur madhyameshvar isaka kendr hai jo gnga ke nikat avasthit hai.

dvapar rath

sat prakar ke shiv mndir, rath ka samaroop banate hain. ye hain- gokarneshvar, sulatanakeshvar, manikarneshvar, bharabhooteshvar, vishveshvar, madhyameshvar tatha onkareshvar. is akar men bhi gnga nadi ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika hai.

shnkhakar

yahan bhi mndiron ki sthiti ke samaroop akar mana gaya hai aur gnga nadi yah akar nirdharit karati hai. is akar ko banane vale mndir hain- uttar pashchim men vidhnaraj aur vinayak, uttar men shaileshvar, dakshin poorv men kedareshvar aur dakshin men lolark.

varanasi ghat

varanasi ki nadiyan

varanasi ka vistar gnga nadi ke do sngamon varuna aur asi nadi se sngam ke bich bataya jata hai. in sngamon ke bich ki doori lagabhag 2.5 mil hai. is doori ki parikrama hinduon men pnchakosi yatra ya pnchakosi parikrama kahalati hai. varanasi zile ki nadiyon ke vistar se adhyayan karane par yah gyat hota hai ki varanasi men to prasravak nadiyan hai lekin chndauli men nahin hai jisase us zile men jhilen aur daladal hain, adhik barasat hone par ganv pani se bhar jate hain tatha fasal ko kafi nuqasan pahunchata hai.

gnga

gnga ka varanasi ki prakritik rachana men mukhy sthan hai. gnga varanasi men gngapur ke betavar ganv se pahale ghusati hai. yahan par isase subaha nala a mila hai. varanasi ko vahan se pray: sat mil tak gnga mirzapur zile se alag karati hai aur isake bad varanasi zile men varanasi aur chandauli ko vibhajit karati hai. gnga ki dhara ardh-vrittakar roop men varsh bhar bahati hai. isake bahari bhag ke oopar karare padate hain aur bhitari bhag men baloo athava badh ki mitti milati hai. gnga ka rukh pahale uttar ki taraf hota hua ramanagar ke kuchh age tak dehat amanat ko ralhoopur se alag karata hai. yahan par kinara knkarila hai aur nadi usake thik niche bahati hai. yahan toofan men navon ko kafi khatara rahata hai. dehat amanat men gnga ka banya kinara mundadev tak chala gaya hai. isake niche ki or vah ret men parinat ho jata hai aur badh men pani se bhar jata hai. ramanagar chhodane ke bad gnga ki uttar-poorv ki or jhukati doosari kehuni (kaman, taraf) shuroo hoti hai. dhara yahan bayen kinare se lagakar bahati hai.

arthavyavastha

udyog aur vyapar

varanasi kala, hastashilp, sngit aur nrity ka bhi kendr hai. yah shahar resham, sone v chandi ke taron vale zari ke kam, lakadi ke khilaunon, kanch ki choodiyon, hathi dant aur pital ke kam ke lie prasiddh hai. yahan ke pramukh udyogon men rel injan nirman ikaee shamil hai.

Blockquote-open.gif kashi ko 'mahashh‍mashan' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. ise prithvi ki sabase badi shamashan bhoomi mana jata tha. yahan ke manikarnika ghat tatha harishh‍chndr ghat ko sabase pavitr ghat mana jata hai. Blockquote-close.gif

varanasi ke karigaron ke kala- kaushal ki khyati sudoor pradeshon tak men rahi hai. varanasi ane vala koee bhi yatri yahan ke reshami kimakhab tatha zari ke vastron se prabhavit hue bina nahin rah sakata. yahan ke bunakaron ki parnparagat kushalata aur kalatmakata ne in vastuon ko snsar bhar men prasiddhi aur manyata dilayi hai . videsh vyapar men isaki vishisht bhoomika hai . isake utpadan men badhottari aur vishishtata se videshi mudra arjit karane men badi saphalata mili hai . resham tatha zari ke udyog ke atirikt, yahan pital ke bartan tatha un par manohari kam aur snjarat (jhanjh majhira) udyog bhi apani kala aur saundary ke lie vikhyat hain . isake alava yahan ke lakadi ke khilaune bhi door- door tak prasiddh hain, jinhen kutir udyogon men mahattvapoorn sthan prapt hain .

vanijy aur vyapar ka pramukh kendr

varanasi nagar vanijy aur vyapar ka ek pramukh kendr tha. sthal tatha jal margon dvara yah nagar bharat ke any nagaron se juda hua tha. kashi se ek marg rajagrih ko jata tha.[13] kashi se vernja jane ke lie do raste the-

  1. soreyy hokar
  2. prayag men gnga par karake.

doosara marg banaras se vaishali ko chala jata tha.[14] varanasi ka ek sarthavah panch sau gadiyon ke sath pratynt desh gaya tha aur vahan se chndan laya tha.[15]

kala aur snskriti

varanasi ki kala aur snskriti advitiy hai. yah varanasi ki samriddh sanskritik parnpara hai jisaki vajah se yah bharat ki sanskritik rajadhani kahalati hai. puratattv, pauranik kathaon, bhoogol, kala aur itihas ka ek snyojan varanasi bharatiy snskriti ko ek mahanh kendr banata hai. halanki varanasi mukhy roop se hindoo dharm aur bauddh dharm ke sath juda hua hai, lekin varanasi men pooja aur dharmik snsthaon ke kee dharmik vishvason ki jhalak pa sakate hain.

varanasi, bharatiy kala aur snskriti ka poora ek sngrahalay prastut karata hai. varanasi men itihas ke pathyakram men badalate paitarn aur andolanon ko mahasoos kar sakate hain. sadiyon se varanasi ne mastar karigaron ka utpadan kiya hai aur aur apani sundar sadi, hastashilp, vastr, khilaune, gahane, dhatu ka kam, mitti aur lakadi aur any shilp ke lie nam aur prasiddhi arjit ki hai.

varanasi ne kee prasiddh vidvanon aur buddhijiviyon, jo gatividhi ke snbndhit kshetron men apani chhap chhod gaye hai, ko janm diya hai. varanasi, ek advitiy samajik aur sanskritik kapade prastut karata hai. sngit, natak, aur manornjan varanasi ke sath paryay rahe hai. banaras lnbe samay se apane sngit, mukhar aur vady donon ke lie prasiddh raha hai aur apane khud ke nrity parnparaon, varanasi lok sngit aur natak, melon aur tyoharon, akhade, khel adi ka ek bahut hi purana kendr raha hai.

sngit

  • varanasi gayan evn vady donon hi vidyaon ka kendr raha hai.
  • sumadhur thumari bharatiy knth sngit ko varanasi ki vishesh den hai.
  • isamen dhirendr baboo, badi moti, chhoti moti, siddheshvar devi, rasoolan baee, kashi baee, anavari begam, shanta devi tatha is samay girija devi adi ka nam samast bharat men bade gaurav evn samman ke sath liya jata hai.

banarasi sadi

  • banarasi sadiyon duniyabhar men prasiddh hain. lal, hari aur any gahare rngon ki ye sadiyan hindoo parivaron men kisi bhi shubh avasar ke lie avashyak mani jati hain.
  • uttar bharat men adhikansh betiyan banarasi sadi men hi vida ki jati hain.
  • banarasi sadiyon ki karigari sadiyon purani hai.

shikshan snsthan

varanasi poorv se hi vidya aur shiksha ke kshetr men ek aham pracharak aur kendriy snstha ke roop men sthapit tha. madhyakal ke dauran uttar pradesh men udar parampara ka snchalan tha. varanasi 'hindoo shiksha kendr' ke roop men vishvavyapak hua. varanasi ke uchchatar madhyamik vidyalay 'indiyan sartiphiket aauf saikendari ejukeshan' [16], 'kendriy madhyamik shiksha bord' [17] ya 'uttar pradesh madhyamik shiksha parishad' [18] se sahabaddh hain. prachin kal se hi log yahan darshan shastr, snskrit, khagol shastr, samajik gyan evn dharmik shiksha adi ke gyan ke liye ate rahe hain. bharatiy parnpara men prayah varanasi ko sarvavidya ki rajadhani kaha gaya hai. varanasi men ek jamiya salafiya bhi hai, jo salafi islami shiksha ka kendr hai.

kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay

kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ya banaras hindoo vishvavidyalay varanasi men sthit ek kendriy vishvavidyalay hai. is vishvavidyalay ki sthapana [19] ke antargat huee thi. pandit madanamohan malaviy ne kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ki sthapana ka prarambh 1904 ee. men kiya, jab kashi naresh 'maharaj prabhunarayan sinh' ki adhyakshata men snsthapakon ki pratham baithak huee. 1905 ee. men vishvavidyalay ka pratham pathyakram prakashit hua.

sahity

varanasi snskrit sahity ka kendr to rahi hi hai, lekin isake sath hi is nagar ne hindi tatha urdoo men anek sahityakaron ko bhi janm diya hai, jinhonne sahity seva ki tatha desh men gaurav poorn sthan prapt kiya. inamen bharatendu harishchndr, ayodhyasinh upadhyay 'hariaudh', jayashnkar prasad, premachnd, shyamasundar das, ray krishnadas, achary ramachandr shukl, ramachndr varma, pandey bechan sharma 'ugr', vinodashnkar vyas, krishnadev prasad gaud tatha daau. sampoornannd ullekhaniy hain. inake atirikt urdoo sahity men bhi yahan anek jane- mane lekhak evn shayar hue hain. jinamen mukhyatah shri vishvanath prasad shad, maulavi mahesh prasad, maharaj chetasinh, shekhali haji, aga hashr kashmiri, hukum chndr naiyar, pro. haphij banarasi, shri haq banarasi tatha nazir banarasi ka nam ata hai.

utsavapriyata

varanasi ke nivasiyon ki utsavapriyata ka ullekh jatakon men savistar milata hai. mahajanapad yug men dipavali ka ullekh mukhy tyoharon men hua hai. ek jatak men ullekhit hai ki kashi ki dipamalika kartik mas men manayi jati thi. is avasar par striyan kesariya rng ke vastr pahanakar nikalati thin.[20]

hastimngalotsav

hastimngalotsav bhi varanasi ka ek pramukh utsav tha,[21] jisaka ullekh jatakon evn bauddh sahity men milata hai. isake atirikt mndirotsav bhi manaya jata tha, jisamen surapan kiya jata tha.[22] ek jatak men ullekh aya hai ki kashiraj ne ek bar is avasar par tapasviyon ko khoob surapan karaya tha.[23]

varanasi ke mandir

varanasi men kee pramukh mndir sthit hain. varanasi kee pramukh mndiron ka nagar hai. varanasi men lagabhag har ek chaurahe par ek mndir sthit hai. dainik sthaniy archana ke liye aise chhote mndir sahayak hote hain. in chhote mndiron ke sath hi varanasi men dheron bade mndir bhi hain, jo samay-samay par varanasi ke itihas men banavaye gaye the. varanasi men sthit in mndiron men kashi vishvanath mndir, annapoorna mndir, dhundhiraj ganesh, kal bhairav, durga ji ka mndir, snkatamochan, tulasi manas mndir, naya vishvanath mndir, bharatamata mndir, snkatha devi mndir v vishalakshi mndir pramukh hain.

kashi vishh‍vanath mndir

mool kashi vishh‍vanath mndir bahut chhota tha. 18vin shatabh‍di men indaur ki rani ahilh‍yabaee holh‍kar ne ise bhavh‍y roop pradan kiya. pnjab ke shasak raja rnjit sinh ne 1835 ee. men is mndir ke shikhar ko sone se madhavaya tha. is karan is mndir ka ek anh‍y nam golh‍den temh‍pal bhi pada. yah mndir kee bar dhh‍vash‍t kiya gaya. vartaman men jo mndir hai usaka nirman chauthi bar men hua hai. qutubuddin aibak ne sarvapratham ise 1194 ee. men dhh‍vash‍t kiya tha. raziya sultan (1236-1240) ne isake dhh‍vnsavashesh par raziya masjid ka nirman karavaya tha. isake bad is mndir ka nirman abhimukh‍teshh‍var mndir ke nazadik banavaya gaya. bad men is mndir ko jaunapur ke sharki rajaon ne tudava diya. 1490 ee. men is mndir ko sikandar lodi ne dhh‍vns karavaya tha. 1585 ee. men banaras ke ek prasiddh vh‍yapari todaramal ne is mndir ka nirman karavaya. 1669 ee. men is mndir ko aurngazeb ne pun: tudava diya. aurngazeb ne bhi is mndir ke dhh‍vnsavashesh par ek masjid ka nirman karavaya tha.

varanasi ke ghat

varanasi (kashi) men gnga tat par anek sundar ghat bane hain, ye sabhi ghat kisi n kisi pauranik ya dharmik katha se snbndhit hain. varanasi ke ghat gnga nadi ke dhanush ki akriti hone ke karan manohari lagate hain. sabhi ghaton ke poorvarbhimukh hone se sooryoday ke samay ghaton par pahali kiran dastak deti hai. uttar disha men rajaghat se prarambh hokar dakshin men assi ghat tak sau se adhik ghat hain.

paryatan

varanasi, paryatakon ke lie akarshan ka kendr hai. yahan anek dharmik, aitihasik evn sundar darshaniy sthal hain, jinhen dekhane ke lie desh ke hi nahin, snsar bhar se paryatak ate hain aur is nagari tatha yahan ki snskriti ki bhoori-bhoori prashnsa karate hain. kala, snskriti,sahity aur rajaniti ke vividh kshetron men apani alag pahachan banaye rakhane ke karan varanasi any nagaron ki apeksha apana vishisht sthan rakhati hai. desh ki rashtrabhasha hindi ki janani snskrit ki udbhav sthali kashi sanskritik ekata ka pratik hai.

janasnkhya

2001 ki janaganana ke anusar nagar nigam kshetr ki janasnkhya 11,22,748 hai, chhavani kshetr ki janasnkhya 17,246 aur zile ki janasnkhya 31,3867 hai.[24]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. dayana el ik, banaras siti aauf lait (nyooyark, 1982), pratham snskaran, prishth 4
  2. em. e. shering, di sekred sitij aauf di hindooj, (lndan, 1968) prishth 19-34
  3. je. maradak, kashi aur banaras (1894) prishth 5
  4. ee. gribj, kashi, ilahabad, 1909, prishth 3-4
  5. e. parakar, e haindabuk aauf banaras, prishth 2
  6. ee.vi. haivel, banaras di sekred siti prishth 41-50
  7. ramalochan sinh, banaras, ek siti in arban jyographi, prishth 31
  8. varanasiti yath khyatn tammann nigadamiv. dakshinatarayau nayau paranasishchapoornat:॥- padmapuran, kashi mahatmy 5/58
  9. atharvaved, 4/7/1
  10. mahabharat, shantiparv 37, 9
  11. mahabharat, vanaparv 84, 78
  12. aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 844 |
  13. vinayapitak, jild 1, prishth 262
  14. motichndr, kashi ka itihas, prishth 49
  15. suttanipat, adhyay 2, prishth 523
  16. aee.si.es.ee
  17. si.bi.es.ee
  18. yoo.pi.bord
  19. banaras hindoo vishvavidyalay ekt, ekt kramank 16, sanh 1915
  20. jatak, bhag 2, prishth 145 (snkhya 147) motichndr, kashi ka itihas, prishth 45
  21. jatak, bhag 2, snkhya 163, prishth 215
  22. jatak, bhag 2, snkhya 163, prishth 132
  23. 139- jatak, bhag 1, prishth 208
  24. varanasi (angrezi) (ech.ti.em.el) varanasi ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 23 faravari, 2011.

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