वेद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Ved-merge.jpg

ved (angrezi: Vedas) prachin bharat ke pavitatratam sahity hain, jo hinduon ke prachinatam aur adharabhoot dharmagranth bhi hain. bharatiy snskriti men ved sanatan varnashram dharm ke mool aur sabase prachin granth hain, jo eeshvar ki vani hai. ye vishv ke un prachinatam dharmik grnthon men se hain, jinake pavitr mantr aj bhi badi astha aur shraddha se padhe aur sune jate hain.

ved parichay

"vidh" ka arth hai: janana, gyan ityadi ved shabd snskrit bhasha ke "vidh" dhatu se bana hai. 'ved' hindoo dharm ke prachin pavitr grnthon ka nam hai, isase vaidik snskriti prachalit huee. aisi manyata hai ki inake mantron ko parameshvar ne prachin rishiyon ko apratyaksh roop se sunaya tha. isalie vedon ko shruti bhi kaha jata hai. ved prachin bharat ke vaidik kal ki vachik parampara ki anupam kriti hai, jo pidhi-dar-pidhi pichhale char-panch hazar varshon se chali a rahi hai. ved hi hindoo dharm ke sarvochch aur sarvopari dharmagranth hain. ved ke asal mantr bhag ko snhita kahate hain.

maharshi vyas ka yogadan

prarambhavastha men ved keval ek hi tha; ek hi ved men anekon richaen thin, jo “ved-sootr” kahalate the; ved men ygy-vidhi ka varnan hai; sam (gane yogy) padavaliyan hai tatha lokopakari anek hi chhand hain. in samast vishayon se sampann ek hi ved satyug aur tretayug tak raha; dvaparayug men maharshi krishnadvaipayan ne ved ko char bhagon men vibhakt kiya. is karan maharshi krishnadvaipayan “vedavyas” kahalane lage. snskrit men vibhag ko “vyas“ kahate hain, atah vedon ka vyas karane ke karan krishnadvaipayan “vedavyas” kahalane lage. maharshi vyas ke pail, vaishampayan, jaimini aur sumantu- yah char shishy the. maharshi vyas ne pail ko rigved, vaishamyapan ko yajurved, jaimini ko samaved aur sumantu ko atharvaved ki shiksha di.[1]

brahman granth

ved men kul milakar ek lakh mantr hain. in ek lakh mantron men 4000 mantr gyanakand vishayak hain, 16000 mantr upasana vidhi ke hain, aur 80000 mantr karmakand vishayak hain. mantron ki vyakhya karane vale bhag ko “brahman” kahate hain. charon vedon ke char hi brahman-granth hain, rigved ka “aitarey”, yajurved ka “shatapath”; samaved ka “pnchavinsh” tatha atharvaved ka “gopath brahman”. in brahman granthon men karmakand vishayak ansh “brahman” kahalata hai; gyan charcha vishayak ansh “aranyak”; upasana vishayak ansh ko upanishad kahate hain. is prakar ved-mantron ka aur brahman-bhagon ka nirupan mantr, brahman, aranyak aur upanishad in char namon se hone laga.

upaved v upang

pratyek ved ke sath ek-ek “upaved” hai. rigved ka upaved ayurved; yajurved ka upaved “dhanurved”; samaved ka upaved “gandharvaved”; aur atharvaved ka upaved “arthashastr” hai. isi prakar ved ke chhah ang aur chhah upang hain. shiksha, kalp, vyakaran, nisakt, chhand, aur jyotish to chhah ang hain. shiksha granth se mantr uchcharan ki vidhi prapt hoti hai; kalpagranthon se ygy karane ki vidhi; vyakaran se shabdon ki vyutpatti ka gyan; nirukt se ved-shabdon ke arth ka gyan; chhand-shastr se chhandon ka gyan; tatha jyotish se grah-nakshatradi ki sthiti ka tatha manav par unake bhalebure prabhav ka gyan hota hai. vedon ke upang “shaddarshan ya shatshastr” kahalate hain.

vedavadmay evn apaurusheyavad

'sanatan dharm' evn 'bharatiy snskriti' ka mool adhar stambh vishv ka ati prachin aur sarvapratham vadmay 'ved' mana gaya hai. manav jati ke laukik (sansarik) tatha paramarthik abhyuday-hetu prakaty hone se ved ko anadi evn nity kaha gaya hai. ati prachinakalin maha tapa, punyapunj rishiyon ke pavitratam ant:karan men ved ke darshan hue the, at: usaka 'ved' nam prapt hua. brahm ka svaroop 'sat-chit-anand' hone se brahm ko ved ka paryayavachi shabd kaha gaya hai. isiliye ved laukik evn alaukik gyan ka sadhan hai. 'tene brahm hrida y adikavaye0'- tatpary yah ki kalp ke prarambh men adi kavi brahma ke hriday men ved ka prakaty hua.

  • suprasiddh vedabhashyakar mahanh pandit sayanachary apane vedabhashy men likhate hain ki 'ishtapraptyanishtapariharayoralaukikamupayn yo grantho vedayati s ved:'[2]
  • nirookt kahata hai ki 'vidanti jananti vidyante bhavanti0' [3]
  • 'aryavidya-sudhakar' namak granth men kaha gaya hai ki— vedo nam vedyante gyapyante dharmarthakamamoksha aneneti vyutpattya chaturvarggyanasadhanabhooto granthavishesh:॥ [4]
  • 'kamandakiy niti' bhi kahati hai- 'atmanamanvichchh0.' 'yastn ved s vedavith॥' [5] kahane ka tatpary yah hai ki atmgyan ka hi paryay ved hai.
  • shruti bhagavati batalati hai ki 'ananta vai veda:॥' ved ka arth hai gyan. gyan anant hai, at: ved bhi anant hain. tathapi mundakopanishad ki manyata hai ki ved char hain- 'rigvedo yajurved: samavedo atharvaved:॥'[6]in vedon ke char upaved is prakar hain—

ayurvedo dhanurvedo gandharvashrcheti te tray:.
sthapatyavedamaparamupavedashrchaturvidh:॥
upavedon ke kartaon men

  1. ayurved ke karta dhanvantari,
  2. dhanurved ke karta vishvamitr,
  3. gandharvaved ke karta narad muni aur
  4. sthapatyaved ke karta vishvakarma hain.

manusmriti men ved hi shruti

manusmriti kahati hai- 'shrutistu vedo vigyey:'[7] 'adisrishtimarabhyadyaparyantn brahmadibhi: sarva: satyavidya: shrooyante sa shruti:॥'[8] vedakalin mahatapa satpurushon ne samadhi men jo mahagyan prapt kiya aur jise jagat ke adhyatmik abhyuday ke liye prakat bhi kiya, us mahagyan ko 'shruti' kahate hain.

  • shruti ke do vibhag hain-
  1. vaidik aur
  2. tantrik- 'shrutishch dvividha vaidiki tantriki ch.'
  • mukhy tantr tin mane gaye hain-
  1. mahanirvan-tantr,
  2. naradapancharatr-tantr aur
  3. kularnav-tantr.
  • ved ke bhi do vibhag hain-
  1. mantr vibhag aur
  2. brahman vibhag- 'vedo hi mantrabrahmanabheden dvividh:.'
    • ved ke mantr vibhag ko snhita bhi kahate hain. snhitaparak vivechan ko 'aranyak' evn snhitaparak bhashy ko 'brahmanagranth' kahate hain. vedon ke brahmanavibhag men' aranyak' aur 'upanishad'- ka bhi samavesh hai. brahmanavibhag men 'aranyak' aur 'upanishad'- ka bhi samavesh hai. brahmanagranthon ki snkhya 13 hai, jaise rigved ke 2, yajurved ke 2, samaved ke 8 aur atharvaved ke 1 .
    • mukhy brahmanagranth panch hain-
rigved ka avaran prishth
  1. aitarey brahman,
  2. taittiriy brahman,
  3. talavakar brahman,
  4. shatapath brahman aur
  5. tanday brahman.
  • upanishadon ki snkhya vaise to 108 hain, parntu mukhy 12 mane gaye hain, jaise-
  1. eesh,
  2. ken,
  3. kath,
  4. prashn,
  5. mundak,
  6. mandooky,
  7. taittiriy,
  8. aitarey,
  9. chhandogy,
  10. brihadaranyak,
  11. kaushitaki aur
  12. shvetashvatar.

ved eeshvariy ya manavanirmit

  • ved paurushey (manavanirmit) hai ya apaurushey (eeshvarapranit). ved ka svaroop kya hai? is mahattvapoorn prashn ka spasht uttar rigved men is prakar hai-'ved' parameshvar ke mukh se nikala hua 'paravak' hai, vah 'anadi' evn 'nity' kaha gaya hai. vah apaurushey hi hai. [9]
  • is vishay men manusmriti kahati hai ki ati prachin kal ke rishiyon ne utkat tapasya dvara apane tap:poot hriday men 'paravak' vedavadmay ka sakshatkar kiya tha, at: ve mantradrashta rishi kahalaye-'rishayo mantradrashtar:.'
  • brihadaranyakopanishad men ullekh hai- 'asy mahato bhootasy nishvasitametadyadrigvedo yajurved: samavedoatharvagdiras.' arthat un mahanh parameshvar ke dvara (srishti- prakaty hone ke sath hi)–rigved, yajurved, samaved aur atharvaved ni:shvas ki tarah sahaj hi bahar prakat hue. [10]tatpary yah hai ki paramatma ka ni:shvas hi ved hai. isake vishay men ved ke mahapandit sayanachary apane ved bhashy men likhate hain-

yasy ni:shvasitn veda yo vedebhyoakhiln jagath.
nirmame tamahn vande vidyatirthn maheshvaramh॥

vaidik parnpara

saransh yah ki ved parameshvar ka ni:shvas hai, at: parameshvar dvara hi nirmit hai. ved se hi samast jagat ka nirman hua hai. isiliye ved ko apaurushey kaha gaya hai. sayanachary ke in vicharon ka samarthan pashchaty ved vidvan pro0 vilsan, pro. maiksamoolar adi ne apane pustakon men kiya hai.

  • pro0 vilsan likhate hain ki 'sayanachary ka ved vishayak gyan ati vishal aur ati gahan hai, jisaki samakakshata ka dava koee bhi yooropiy vidvan nahin kar sakata.'
  • pro0 maiksamoolar likhate hain ki 'yadi mujhe sayanacharyarahit brihad vedabhashy padhane ko nahin milata to main vedarthon ke durbhedy qila men pravesh hi nahin pa saka hota.' isi prakar pashchatty ved vidvan vebar, benaphi, rath, gramsan, ludavig, griphith, kith tatha vintaranitj adi ne sayanachary ke ved vicharon ka hi pratipadan kiya hai.
  • nirooktakar 'yaskachary' bhashashastr ke adyapandit mane gaye hain. unhonne apane mahagranth vedabhashy men spasht likha hai ki 'ved anadi, nity evn apaurushey (eeshvarapranit)hi hai.' unaka kahana hai ki 'ved ka arth samajhe bina keval vedapath karana pashu ki tarah pith par bojha dhona hi hai; kyonki arthgyanarahit shabd (mantr) prakash (gyan) nahin de sakata. jise ved-mantron ka arth-gyan hua hai, usi ka laukik evn paralaukik kalyan hota hai.' aise vedarth gyan ka marg darshak nirookt hai.
  • jarmani ke ved vidvan pro0 maiksamoolar kahate hain ki 'vishv ka prachinatam vadmay ved hi hai, jo daivik evn adhyatmik vicharon ko kavyamay bhasha men adbhut riti se prakat karane vala kalyanapradayak hai. ved paravak hai.' ni:sndeh parameshvar ne hi paravak (vedavani) ka nirman kiya hai- aisa mahabharat men spasht kaha gaya hai-'anadinidhana vidya vagutsrashta svayambhuva॥' [11]arthat jisamen se sarvajagat utpann hua, aisi anadi ved-vidyaroop divy vani ka nirman jagannirmata ne sarvapratham kiya.

rishi ved mantron ke karta nahin apitu drashta hi the- 'rishayo mantradrashtar:.' nirooktakar ne bhi kaha hai- ved mantron ke sakshatkar hone par sakshatkari ko rishi kaha jata hai- 'rishirdarshanath.' isase spasht hota hai ki ved ka kartritv any kisi ke pas nahin hone se ved eeshvarapranit hi hai, apaurushey hi hai.

  • bharatiy darshan shastr ke matanusar shabd ko nity kaha gaya hai. ved ne shabd ko nity mana hai, at: ved apaurushey hai yah nishchit hota hai. nirooktakar kahate hain ki 'niyatanupoorvya niyatavacho yuktay:.' arthat shabd nity hai, usaka anukram nity hai aur usaki uchcharan-paddhati bhi nity hai, isiliye ved ke arth nity hain. aisi vedavani ka nirman svayn parameshvar ne hi kiya hai.

shabd ki char avasthaen mani gayi hain-

yajurved ka avaran prishth
  1. para,
  2. pashyanti,
  3. madhyama aur
  4. vaikhari. rigved- men inake vishay men is prakar kaha gaya hai-

chatvari vakh parimita padani tani vidurbrahmana ye manishin:.
guha trini nihita negdayanti turiyn vacho manushy vadanti॥
arthat vani ke char roop hone se unhen brahmgyani hi janate hain. vani ke tin roop gupt hain, chautha roop shabdamay ved ke roop men logon men pracharit hota hai. [12]

  • sookshmatisookshm-gyan ko paravak kahate hain. use hi ved kaha gaya hai. is vedavani ka sakshatkar maha tapasvi rishiyon ko hone se ise 'pashyantivak' kahate hain. gyanasvaroop ved ka avishkar shabdamay hai. is vani ka sthool svaroop hi 'madhyamavak' hai. vedavani ke ye tinon svaroop atyant rahasyamay hain. chauthi 'vaikharivak' hi samany logon ki bolachal ki hai. shatapath brahman tatha mandookyopanishad men kaha gaya hai ki ved mantr ke pratyek pad men, shabd ke pratyek akshar men ek prakar ka adbhut samarthy bhara hua hai. is prakar ki ved vani svayn parameshvar dvara hi nirmit hai, yah ni:shnk hai.
  • shiv puran men aya hai ki Om ke 'a' kar, 'u' kar, 'm' kar aur sookshmanad; inamen se
  1. rigved,
  2. yajurved,
  3. samaved tatha
  4. atharvaved ni:srit hue. samast vadmay onkar (Om)- se hi nirmit hua. 'onkarn bindusnyuktamh' to eeshvararoop hi hai.
  • shrimadh bhagavadgita men bhi aisa hi ullekh hai- mayi sarvamidn protn sootre manigana iv॥ [13]
  • shrimadbhagavat men to spasht kaha gaya hai- vedapranihito dharmo hyadharmastadviparyay:. vedo narayan: sakshath svayambhooriti shushrum॥[14]arthat ved bhagavan ne jin karyon ko karane ki agya di hai vah dharm hai aur usase viparit karana adharm hai. ved narayan roop men svayn prakat hua hai, aisa shruti men kaha gaya hai.
  • shrimadbhagavat men aisa bhi varnit hai- vipra gavashch vedashch tap: satyn dam: sham:. shraddha daya titiksha ch kratavashch harestanoo:॥ [15]arthat vedgy (sadachari bhi) brahman, dudharoo gay, ved, tap, saty, dam, sham, shraddha, daya, sahanashilata aur ygy- ye shrihari (parameshvar) ke svaroop hain.
  • manusmriti ved ko dharm ka mool batate hue kahati hai- vedoakhilo dharmamooln smritishile ch tadvidamh. acharashchaiv sadhoonamatmanastushtirev ch ॥[16]arthat samagr ved evn vedgy manu, parashar, yagyvalky adi- ki smriti, shil, achar, sadhu (dharmik)- ke atma ka sntosh-ye sabhi dharmon ke mool hain.
  • yagyvalkyasmriti men bhi kaha gaya hai- shruti: smriti: sadachar: svasy ch priyamatman:. smyaksnkalpaj: kamo dharmamoolamidn smritamh॥[17]arthat shruti, smriti, satpurushon ka achar, apane atma ki priti aur uttam snkalp se hua (dharmaviruddh) kam- ye panch dharm ke mool hain. isiliye bharatiy snskriti men ved sarvashreshth sthan par hai. ved ka pramany trikalabadhit hai.
ved path

darshanashastr ke anusar

  • bharatiy astik darshanashastr ke mat men shabd ke nity hone se usaka arth ke sath svayambhoo-jaisa sambandh hota hai. ved men shabd ko nity samajhane par ved ko apaurushey (eeshvarapranit) mana gaya hai. nirooktakar bhi isaka pratipadan karate hain. astik darshan ne shabd ko sarvashreshth praman many kiya hai. is vishay men mimansa- darshan tatha nyay-darshan ke mat bhinn-bhinn hain. jaiminiy mimansak, kumaril adi mimansak, adhunik mimansak tatha sankhyavadiyon ke mat men ved apaurushey, nity evn svat:praman hain. mimansak ved ko svayambhoo manate hain. unaka kahana hai ki ved ki nirmiti ka prayatn kisi vyakti-vishesh ka athava eeshvar ka nahin hai. naiyayik aisa samajhate hain ki ved to eeshvaraprokt hai. mimansak kahate hain ki bhram, pramad, duragrah ityadi doshayukt hone ke karan manushy ke dvara ved-jaise nirdosh mahanh grantharatn ki rachana shaky hi nahin hai. at: ved apaurushey hi hai. isase age jakar naiyayik aisa pratipadan karate hain ki eeshvar ne jaise srishti ki, vaise hi ved ka nirman kiya; aisa manana uchit hi hai.
  • shruti ke matanusar ved to mahabhooton ka ni:shvas (yasy ni:shvatisn veda...) hai. shvas-prashvas svat: avirbhoot hote hain, at: unake liye manushy ke prayatn ki athava buddhi ki apeksha nahin hoti. us mahabhoot ka ni:shvasaroop ved to adrishtavashat abuddhipoorvak svayn avirbhoot hota hai.
  • ved nity-shabd ki snhriti hone se nity hai aur kisi bhi prakar se utpady nahin hai; at: svat: avirbhoot ved kisi bhi purush se racha hua n hone ke karan apaurushey (eeshvarapranit) siddh hota hai. in sabhi vicharon ko darshan shastr men apaurusheyavad kaha gaya hai.
  • avaidik darshan ko nastik darshan bhi kahate hain, kyonki vah ved ko praman nahin manata, apaurushey svikar nahin karata. usaka kahana hai ki ihalok (jagat) hi atma ka kridasthal hai, paralok (svarg) nam ki koee vastu nahin hai, 'kam evaik: purusharth:'- kam hi manav-jivan ka ekamatr purusharth hota hai, 'maranamevapavarg:'- maran (mrityu) mane hi moksh (mukti) hai, 'pratyakshamev pramanamh'- jo pratyaksh hai vahi praman hai (anuman praman nahin hai). dharm hi nahin hai, at: adharm nahin hai; svarg-narak nahin hain. 'n parameshvaroapi kashchith'- parameshvar –jaisa bhi koee nahin hai, 'n dharm: n moksh:'- n to dharm hai n moksh hai. at: jab tak sharir men pran hai, tab tak sukh prapt karate hain- is vishay men nastik charvak-darshan spasht kahata hai-

yavajjivn sukhn jivedrinn kritva ghritn pibeth.
bhasmibhootasy dehasy punaragamann kut:॥[18]

  • charvak-darshan shabd men 'charv' ka arth hai-khana. is 'charv' pad se hi 'khane-pine aur mauj' karane ka sndesh dene vale is darshan ka nam 'charvak-darshan' pada hai. 'gunaratn' ne isaki vyakhya is prakar se ki hai- parameshvar, ved, puny-pap, svarg-narak, atma, mukti ityadi ka jisane 'charvan' (namashesh) kar diya hai, vah 'charvak-darshan' hai. is mat ke logon ka lakshy svamatasthapan ki apeksha paramatakhandan ke prati adhik rahane se unako 'vaitndik' kaha gaya hai. ve log vedapramany manate hi nahin.
  1. jagat,
  2. jiv,
  3. eeshvar aur
  4. moksh- ye hi char pramukh pratipady vishay sabhi darshanon ke hote hain.
  • achary shriharibhadr ne 'shaddarshan-samuchchay' nam ka apane granth men
  1. nyay,
  2. vaisheshik,
  3. sankhy,
  4. yog,
  5. mimansa aur
  6. vedant- in chh: ko vaidik darshan (astik-darshan) tatha
  7. charvak,
  8. bauddh aur
  9. jain-in tin ko 'avaidik darshan' (nastik-darshan) kaha hai aur un sab par vistrit vichar prastut kiya hai. ved ko praman manane vale astik aur n manane vale nastik hain, is drishti se uparyukt nyay-vaisheshikadi shaddarshan ko astik aur charvakadi darshan ko nastik kaha gaya hai.
atharvaved ka avaran prishth

darshanashastr ka mool mantr

darshanashastr ka mool mantr hai- 'atmann viddhi.' arthat atma ko jano. pind-brahmand men otaprot hua ekamev atm-tattv ka darshan (sakshatkar) kar lena hi manav jivan ka antim sadhy hai, aisa ved kahata hai. isake liye tin upay hain- vedamantron ka shravan, manan aur nididhyasan- shrotavy: shrutivakyebhyo mantavyashchopapattibhi:. matya tu satatn dhyey ete darshanahetave॥ isiliye to manishi log kahate hain- 'yastn ved s vedavith.' arthat aise atmatattv ko jo sadachari vyakti janata hai, vah vedgy (ved ko janane vala) hai.

ved ke prakar

  • rigved :vedon men sarvapratham rigved ka nirman hua . yah padyatmak hai . yajurved gadyamay hai aur samaved gitatmak hai. rigved men mandal 10 hain,1028 sookt hain aur 11 hazar mantr hain . isamen 5 shakhayen hain - shakalp, vaskal, ashvalayan, shankhayan, mndookayan . rigved ke dasham mandal men aushadhi sookt hain. isake praneta arthashastr rishi hai. isamen aushadhiyon ki snkhya 125 ke lagabhag nirdisht ki gee hai jo ki 107 sthanon par payi jati hai. aushadhi men som ka vishesh varnan hai. rigved men chyavanrishi ko punah yuva karane ka kathanak bhi uddhrit hai aur aushadhiyon se rogon ka nash karana bhi samavisht hai . isamen jal chikitsa, vayu chikitsa, saur chikitsa, manas chikitsa evn havan dvara chikitsa ka samavesh hai
  • samaved : char vedon men samaved ka nam tisare kram men ata hai. par rigved ke ek mantr men rigved se bhi pahale samaved ka nam ane se kuchh vidvan vedon ko ek ke bad ek rachana n manakar pratyek ka svatntr rachana manate hain. samaved men gey chhndon ki adhikata hai jinaka gan ygyon ke samay hota tha. 1824 mantron ken is ved men 75 mantron ko chhodakar shesh sab mantr rigved se hi snkalit hain. is ved ko sngit shastr ka mool mana jata hai. isamen savita, agni aur indr devataon ka pradhany hai. isamen ygy men gane ke liye sngitamay mantr hain, yah ved mukhyatah gandharv logo ke liye hota hai . isamen mukhy 3 shakhayen hain, 75 richayen hain aur visheshakar sngitashastr ka samavesh kiya gaya hai .
  • yajurved : isamen ygy ki asal prakriya ke liye gady mantr hain, yah ved mukhyatah kshatriyo ke liye hota hai . yajurved ke do bhag hain -
  1. krishn : vaishampayan rishi ka sambandh krishn se hai . krishn ki char shakhayen hai.
  2. shukl : yagyvalky rishi ka sambandh shukl se hai . shukl ki do shakhayen hain . isamen 40 adhyay hain . yajurved ke ek mantr men ‘brihidhanyon’ ka varnan prapt hota hai . isake alava, divy vaidy evn krishi vigyan ka bhi vishay samahit hai .
  • atharvaved : isamen jadoo, chamatkar, arogy, ygy ke liye mantr hain, yah ved mukhyatah vyapariyon ke liye hota hai . isamen 20 kand hain . atharvaved men ath khand ate hain jinamen bheshaj ved evn dhatu ved ye do nam spasht prapt hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. gita amrit -joshi gulabanarayan (hindi) hi.krishnakosh.org. abhigaman tithi: 04 navambar, 2017.
  2. arthat isht (ichchhit) phal ki prapti ke liye aur anisht vastu ke tyag ke liye alaukik upay (manav-buddhi ko agamy upay) jo gyanapoorn granth sikhalata hai, samajhata hai, usako ved kahate hain.
  3. arthath jisaki kripa se adhikari manushy (dvij) sadvidya prapt karate hain, jisase ve vidvan ho sakate hain, jisake karan ve sadvidya ke vishay men vichar karane ke liye samarth ho jate hain, use ved kahate hain.
  4. arthat purusharthachatushtay (dharm, arth, kam au moksh)- vishayak samyak-gyan hone ke liye sadhan bhoot granth vishesh ko ved kahate hain.
  5. arthath jis (narapungdav) ko atmasakshatkar kinva atmapratyabhigya ho gaya, usako hi ved ka vastavik gyan hota hai.
  6. 1) rigved, (2) yajurved, (3) samaved aur (4) atharvaved.
  7. arthat vedon ko hi shruti kahate hain.
  8. arthat srishti ke prarambh se lekar aj tak jisaki sahayata se bade-bade rishi-muniyon ko satyavidya gyat huee, use 'shruti' kahate hain. 'shru' ka arth hai 'sunana', at: 'shruti' mane hua 'suna hua gyan.'
  9. rigved (1.164.45
  10. brihadaranyakopanishad (2.4.10
  11. mahabharat, shantiparv (232. 24
  12. rigved (1.164.45
  13. shrimad bhagavadgita (7.7
  14. shrimadbhagavat (6.1.40
  15. shrimadbhagavat (10.4.41
  16. manusmriti (2.5
  17. yagyvalkyasmriti (1.7
  18. arthat jab tak deh men jiv hai tab tak sukh poorvak jiyen, kisi se rin le karake bhi ghi piyen; kyonki ek bar deh (sharir) mrityu ke bad jab bhasmibhoot hua, tab phir usaka punaragaman kahan? at: 'khao, pio aur mauj karo'- yahi hai 'nastik-darshan' ya 'avaidik-darshan' ka sndesh. isako lokayat-darshan, barhaspaty-darshan tatha charvak-darshan bhi kahate hain.

sabhar: da. shriyugalakishoraji mishr

snbndhit lekh

shrutiyan

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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